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Garbage: The Never Ending Problem

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The researcher would like to acknowledge the valuable help extended by the following individuals: 1. Ruben G. Torralba This person has gladly and willingly helped the researcher revise, edit, and grade the paper of the researcher. Without his valued words of wisdom the researcher would not have been able to present such a comprehensive output. 2. Ferdinand G. Inacay The father of the researcher was generous enough to lend his research to his son for the betterment of the researcher’s paper. Without the said information the output of the researcher would have no concrete basis for all its arguments and conclusions.

Chapter 1: Introduction
Garbage: The Never Ending Problem
Background
A. The World of Garbage
Everywhere in the world, government organizations have tried to eradicate the problem of garbage. Garbage, according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, is food waste and discarded or useless material. This problem has been hounding the earth since time immemorial. There is nothing pleasant in seeing a place full of garbage. Where there is man there is garbage. Following this train of thought, people have been producing garbage ever since. As seen in the definition, garbage is food waste; food waste has been the very first form of garbage because man consumes food with a specific reason. Man eats to live, but does not live to eat. And through this reason garbage is produced from man. As time constantly moves garbage has been moving as well. From food wastes it becomes paper, then plastic, then any other useless material. There have been even news reports wherein a man found garbage underneath his house. This example shows the inefficient way of segregating garbage. Garbage is found everywhere, from above land, on land and under land. B. Waste Management

Waste management is all about managing disposal of waste. Every country has one because it is a source of income and is needed for the protection of the country’s environment. If waste, considered garbage, is not properly acted upon major problems can occur which can lead to a downfall of the country. There are different kinds of waste management in countries, take for example the Philippines. The Philippines has Solid and Liquid Waste Management companies and many more. Man has always had the tendency to produce garbage due to certain mentalities e.g. laziness. And so these garbage problems are solved by this waste management system. Other than that unattended waste can stir specific hazardous problems to people. There are specific substances that unattended garbage emits which causes all kinds of diseases on people. Waste management makes sure that these things don’t happen. C. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

This is an international slogan promoted by every country in the world. Littering has always been a problem and so to promote a fun way to segregate waste people have come up with the three R’s. These three R’s were instructed upon to children because researchers found out that children have a greater affect on their parents as compared to local preachers of garbage. According to Cambridge Dictionary reduce, reuse, and recycle is said to encourage people to waste less, by using less and using things again, in order to protect the environment. This is so because we only have one life in the world so why not make the most of it and prolong the world. The longer the world survives the longer the race of man survives. D. The Philippine Government

The Philippines has a democratic kind of government, which means that the people choose the leaders in a systematic way. The people chose the leaders because they knew that the people chosen would actually listen and act, to the people and for the people, upon the current state of the country. Although there are times wherein the government does something for the people but there is no quality in it. The government can deliver what the people want but they need to deliver with more quality. The garbage problem in the Philippines has not been eradicated ever since they set up a single Republic Act. But there has been improvement over the years on the garbage problem. Significance of the Study

This research paper will essentially give an essential point of view of the people to the government. Since government officials are “too busy” with their work someone has to step up and say something about the garbage. The most notable place, in the Philippines, is in Payatas, Manila where the garbage mounds can form into mountains. People around this area are really affected and so this paper will provide as a consideration letter to the government to help these unfortunate people. Other than this it will give readers a wider view on the “real” world of the Philippines, especially those who live in very privileged subdivisions.

These people will see a need to contribute in avoiding more garbage to pile up in one specific location, which also will reap environmental problems. And if these environmental problems will not be mended economic problems will stir as well. If the economy crashes because of a simple problem then everyone is at fault for the responsibility of the country. Garbage is a very simple problem that can be resolved. But instead of resolving the issue people ignore it because they see it as a minor problem which can be solved at any time. As time passes by that problem then becomes bigger and bigger and will soon consume everyone. One small spark can start a forest fire, and this can be seen in the unending problem of garbage.

Objectives of the Study
This paper revolves around the insufficient aid of the Philippine government concerning garbage problems. Knowing this, this paper aims to achieve the following ideas: 1. To show how garbage has affected the daily lives of people. 2. To show that the government is not properly funding infrastructures for the depletion of garbage and that their laws are not being implemented. 3. To provide solutions in solving this problem.

This paper aims to answer these because it will show that everyone must be aware of something that can affect their lives directly. Garbage has always been disregarded because people know that there will always be someone there to clean it up. But actually we are supposed to clean up our own mess. Statement of the Problem

Garbage has always been hounding the Philippines. Everywhere district there are papers and plastic flying around the roads. And so to find solutions for that problem this paper will answer: 1. What are the economic effects of not properly disposing garbage? 2. Is the government helping in eradicating the garbage problem in the Philippines? 3. Are the laws concerning garbage disposal properly implemented? From these questions we are able to fully understand the main topic of this paper. The main topic is “Garbage problems that are continually unsolved will reap economic problems unless the Philippine government will strictly act upon it.” Through this main topic the problem of garbage will be properly addressed in a systematic way. So that people may be aware of the problem. Scope and Limitations

This paper will focus on the hounding garbage problems of the Philippines most especially the cities within Metro Manila. Metro Manila is the center of garbage production due to all the people working and living there. By seeing the garbage production of Metro Manila this paper will show that there is a need to find a solution to this problem. Other than this, Metro Manila provides the Philippines as an example of what will happen if garbage is not properly dealt with. Conceptual Framework

Through this conceptual framework the organization of the paper is very clear. It aims to provide the reader a brief view on the garbage problem in the Philippines. As we see the garbage problem we are also able to see the economic state of the Philippines. The economic state dictates whether or not a country is progressing. As the research paper continues to describe the problem the reader gets a better understanding of the Philippines and the waste people produce. Where there are people there is trash and vice versa. As citizens of the Philippines it is the duty it is the duty of every Filipino to help develop the country. It is one way to return back to what the country has done for the people. Development is essential because it is for the betterment of everyone. Through the knowledge of proper disposal people are able to learn what to do and what not to do. And as always there will be benefits to those who do abide by proper law. Definition of Terms

Diseases – A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, esp. one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury. Economic Effects – A macroeconomic effect on commerce, employment, or incomes produced by a decision, event, or policy. Environmental Effect – Any direct or indirect effects of activities, products and services of an organization upon the environment, whether adverse or beneficial. An environmental effect/impact is the consequence of an environmental intervention in an environmental system. Garbage – food waste and discarded or useless material.

Global Warming – A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. Government – The governing body of a nation, state, or community. Infrastructure – The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. Investments – The action or process of investing money for profit or material result. Natural Disasters – A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses. Ordinances – A piece of legislation enacted by a municipal authority. Recycle – to use a specific product again but to serve a different purpose.

This is the most popular R because people are able to think of alternative ways in reusing a product for other means. A cardboard box, for example, can be recycled and can be transformed into a keychain. Reduce – to lessen the disposal of products. It is given that trash is produced every day, now to prevent a massive pile up of garbage we lessen the amount of products we consume. Reuse – to use a specific product again. Take for example a bottle; you can reuse it because its purpose is to contain water. Segregation – The action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart. Waste Management – Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature
A. Journals/Articles:
This paper uses Ma. Eugenia C. Bennagen’s paper as a reference because it gives readers an inside look on the garbage problems within the different cities of Metro Manila. Her research paper is packed with surveys, charts, and data from within the different cities of Metro Manila, which is what this paper needs. The cities surveyed are the cities needed because Metro Manila produces a large quantity of garbage. Other than that, Ma. Eugenia C. Bennagen shows economic effects that will occur if the garbage problem in the Philippines is not properly addressed, which is one of the topics this research paper plans to tackle hison as well. Besides showing economic effects, Ma. Eugenia C. Bennagen shows facts pertaining to how local government units deal with the problem, which will support what this paper has to say. Another useful piece of resource for this paper is on a journal about sanitation within the areas of South East Asia.

The Philippines is part of and plays a big role in the study. This journal focuses on the sanitation state of each country in South East Asia and is then compared with one another. This resource is useful because it serves as an indicator in differentiating the rural and urban areas concerning sanitation. Sanitation, although not a big part in this paper, will be useful because it brings about economic stature. People will be more attracted to places that are clean as compared to those that are dirty. An article which will help this paper was found in the archives of the Manila Bulletin newspaper, which was about a garbage leak in the Philippines. This article serves as huge help for the researcher’s paper because it presents situations wherein garbage can affect the lives of other people. Through this article the researcher will be able to express the dangers of garbage when untreated. It also states the Republic Act on garbage disposal which is a source of evidence in presenting this research paper.

B. Website:
The websites narrate most of the environmental problems that hound the Philippines. But the parts that this paper really need can be seen on websites about garbage disposal. These websites explicitly describe the condition of garbage in the Philippines and show some solutions the Philippine government has made. Also, these sites summarize the laws that the Philippine government has made. Besides that, these websites provide information on what the people should do to help and be aware of the problem. The intention, of these websites, is to give an understanding to its readers so that they can help save the country and the world. These are the bits of information this paper needs because it would need a basis on how people should deal with the problem. Other than that this paper needs the bits of information that state the specific rules and what these rules say. Knowing what these laws state this paper will be able to use them as evidence to back up its claim on the laws of the Philippines.

Another piece of information this paper uses is a PowerPoint presentation which shows the amount of garbage cities in Metro Manila produce. This information will be really helpful in my research paper because it will have already provided me with information pertaining to garbage disposal. Updated information about garbage disposal will strengthen my paper even more because it provides current facts that have not changed over time. Current facts are what provide a solid foundation for any research paper, which is exactly what my paper needs. Other than it showing garbage disposal, this presentation shows specific contractors and their budget in properly disposing the garbage accumulated in the cities of Metro Manila. This part is important because I will be able to see if the local government units are helping in solving the unending problem, which is garbage.

C. Books:
Earth’s Garbage Crisis by Christiane Dorion explains an everyday problem that happens and is unresolved. In this book she suggests some solutions that can be applied to solve this problem. Within the book, as well, are graphs, charts, and statistics that enhance the text. These things provide an in depth look into the problem and tell people that it must be resolved. The researcher found this book useful because it talks about garbage problem in general. With Christiane Dorion’s book, the researcher is able to see garbage problems in another person’s point-of-view. Other than this, the graphs in the book will really help and support my claim.

Another book the researcher managed to find was Garbage in the Cities by Martin V. Melosi. This book talks about the history of garbage coming from urban areas around the world. It doesn’t talk about all the countries but summarizes the fact that the urban areas around the world generate tons of garbage. Besides that, it also “traces the development of waste management and related technologies from the Progressive Era to the present” (books.google.com.ph). From knowing this, the researcher’s paper will be packed with information on how to manage waste properly and efficiently. Waste management is a big part of what this research paper will talk about.

The last book this paper needed was The Solid Waste Handbook written by William D. Robinson. This book talks about issues concerning solid waste management and provides information on issues that happened in 1986, which can somehow be related to the present time. It “reviews the evolution of solid waste management since the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, amended in 1978, 1980 and 1984” (books.google.com.ph). Although this book is based in the United States of America the concept is the same as the Republic Act of the Philippines 9003. Other than that it presents graphs and charts that the researcher will use as a comparison between the waste problems in America then and the Philippines now.

Chapter 3

Methodology:
How the researcher is going to gather all the data that he will need will be solely done on pure research. This is so because the researcher has already gathered all the data he will most likely need for this research paper. The information he has gathered has been done by other people and has been proven to be correct. These people who have collected the said information are experts and know what they are doing and saying. Although an interview maybe good because the researcher will need as much current information as he can get for this paper to have a solid foundation.

Another reason why the information the researcher has gathered is sufficient is because the surveys, graphs, and statistics given to him are fairly recent but very limited. Even though they are limited almost all the things he needs is provided. But for the sake of research he might as well conduct surveys to see if it will yield the same results. His survey though will not hit the adults but more on the youth of Metro Manila, starting in his school, PAREF Southridge. This will give him a good conclusion on his paper because he would want his readers to know that the youth of the Philippines is not incompetent on issues regarding the Philippines.

To gather more data on recycling and finding the exact amount t of garbage generated in the Philippine, the researcher might, also, visit a couple of recycling centers and see how they recycle and if their infrastructures are truly aided by the government. Through this the researcher’s paper will be based more on facts instead of opinions he just thought of while writing this paper. Other than that he shall be recording all the data in terms of graphing and charts to see a progression of garbage. The researcher will see if he can get a chart on the history of garbage generated from mid-2000 to present day to make his paper more concrete in terms of examples. Design:

This paper will first start on a brief introduction dealing with garbage in general. The introduction will tell everything one must know concerning the garbage problems in the world. It will showcase facts about waste management as well but not in a detailed manner. But it will give the tip of the iceberg discussion. After going through that the research paper will slowly move on to something more specific, which is the state of the Philippines in terms of garbage generation. This is so because the research paper would bring a sense of awareness to the readers. So its introduction would at least be nine pages just to give background information on the topic. After that this paper will then move onto the information the researcher has gathered. This part is important because it will assure the readers that the paper they are reading is based on pure fact instead of opinions. Facts are everything, and are what people would want to know.

They are the researcher’s equipment in dealing with the problem. Without factual information this paper would not be accepted because there is no basis to what he is saying. Then the paper would move onto the methodology or how the researcher worked on the paper. Methodology is an important part in research papers because it can stir the readers to continue on what the researcher has done. Without a structure this paper would have been chaotic and hazy. By having a fixed structure a path is shown to the readers to follow. Other than that a methodology would present how organized the researcher has worked on this paper as compared to bits of information gathered. It also brings about on how well the researcher has worked in making sure that he gets the right amount of information i.e. surveys, interviews, and etc. Moreover, this part will also be talking about how the researcher formulated the graphs he needs that will represent the specific data that was gathered by him.

Chapter 4
Body of Research

Awareness of People about Garbage in the Philippines
Garbage has always been a problem in the Philippines, especially paper and plastic. Everywhere we go we can see plastic flying around, whenever we pass by Metro Manila there are papers flying away. People are constantly dumping plastic and paper out of their cars; it’s disgusting. Since these things are unwanted, people disregard and it throw it wherever and whenever they want. According to Kyodo News International, Inc. “According to government records, metropolitan Manila generates an average 5,854 tons of waste, 29,268 cubic meters, daily.” Here we see how much trash we dispose per day and even more problems can stir from this garbage problem. Garbage is everywhere.

But we have to ask ourselves first “where is it greatest?” To answer this question we have to dissect society into smaller parts, particularly into two: Private sectors i.e. our homes and the Public sector i.e. school, malls, companies, etc. It is public knowledge that your environment dictates what kind of person you are. By learning whether or not there are paper and plastic garbage around a person we can see how it affects their daily life and how they progress in their work. Maria Eugenia C. Bennagen and company show, in their research paper, that “The household sector is the primary source of solid wastes in Metro Manila, accounting for almost 75%.” As stated earlier in this paper, paper consists of at least 16% and plastic takes up at most 15% of garbage in houses. Food/kitchen wastes consist of 45%. From this we can say that the containers of these food products are not properly disposed of rather it is just collected and dumped in one of the neighbouring dumpsites, particularly Payatas or Smoky Mountain. To fully understand the awareness of the disposal program, a survey conducted by Maria Eugenia C. Bennagen and company showed that there were two cities within Metro Manila that were practicing proper garbage disposal, and these were Parañaque and Mandaluyong City.

Within these cities, barangays with active garbage disposal programs were chosen. “In Barangay Sun Valley, Paranaque City, a total of 70 households residing in two communities were sampled and in Barangay Barangka, Mandaluyong City, 73 households residing in two communities, were sampled… In each of the two barangays selected, one segregating and one non-segregating communities were chosen. The 143 households in the four selected communities were sampled using a systematic random sampling design, i.e., the nth household from a landmark, usually the subdivision or village gate, and every nth household thereafter until the sample size of 135 was reached.”(Bennagen 8) Soon they concluded that only 76 were practicing the disposal program/segregating waste while 59 were not, out of 135 households.

Although the household compromises most of the waste in Metro Manila, the other public institutions also take part in the garbage produce. At least 18% of the garbage population in Metro Manila comes from the commercial institutions, as seen in the report of Maria Eugenia C. Bennagen and company. These institutions deal with the advertising and producing of things and find no time in disposing their trash. This should not be the case because they’re the second largest producers of garbage in Metro Manila. Six percent of garbage comes from the markets. These markets continually use paper and plastic for their packaging. What these people don’t know about plastic is that if left alone it has a dangerous effect on society i.e. clogging of drainages and, if burned, produces CFC, chlorofluorocarbon, which destroys the ozone layer.

Garbage in the Philippines
A. Most Polluted Areas
1. Population of these Areas
According to Stratbase, an advisory and research consultancy group, Metro Manila is estimated to have a population of 12 million in 16 cities and one municipality. From this the group also discovered that the city of Manila generated the most amount of garbage in a day. The city of Manila generates at an average of 1,653 tons in a single day. Navotas, on the other hand, generated the least amount of garbage, only an average of 70 to 80 tons of garbage in a day. Other cities in Metro Manila only generated an average of 94 to 1,472 tons per day. Now, in the charts below one will be able to see the amount of garbage each generated in each city of Metro Manila. Other than that the charts also show where the garbage is disposed of, how much money is put into the segregation of the garbage, the contractors of these cities for garbage, and how much tip garbage men get from disposing other people’s trash.

Source: Stratbase: An Advisory and Research Consultancy Group Local Government Units with Outsourced Contractors
Table 4.1

In this table one will see the top three cities in Metro Manila that generate the most garbage per day. Manila tops the chart because of how congested it is with people and the companies stationed there. With a total population of around 1.58 million inhabitants, Manila is highly congested with people and its surrounding companies. Since there is a plethora of people and companies in Manila it is not surprising that their budget for garbage segregation is big, 412 million pesos.

The cities that generate the least garbage in Metro Manila are Valenzuela, Las Piñas, and Navotas. These three cities generate the least amount of garbage because these cities are not highly populated. Valenzuela only has a total land area of 44.69 square kilometres and has a population of around 600,000 people. Las Piñas, on the other hand, has a total land area of 41.54 square kilometres and a population of 532,330. Lastly, Navotas has a total land area of 10.77 square kilometres and a population of 245, 344.

From this data one can see that garbage in not generated greatly due to the fact that there is a small amount of people and land area in the said places. Comparing these to the cities in Table 4.1, one can see that population and land area play a huge role in garbage segregation. Even the budget allocation of each city for garbage segregation is low because of the amount of people. In Valenzuela the budget for garbage is only 200 million pesos since the city generates at most 150 tons of garbage per day. Las Piñas has a budget of 104,488,039 pesos with a garbage generation of 162 tons of garbage. Although Las Piñas generates more garbage than Valenzuela the budget for segregation is less meaning it is easier to segregate garbage in Las Piñas than in Valenzuela because there is less population and land area in Las Piñas. Navotas, on the other hand, has a budget of only 20 million pesos. There is really no problem with this since Navotas is a relatively small city and so it is rather easy to segregate the garbage there.

Now, there are also special cases wherein a city has a private corporation for segregation and the local government help these corporations to segregate the garbage in their respective cities. In Metro Manila there are only two cities having this kind of segregation style. These cities are the city of Makati and Marikina, as seen in the chart above. Although these cities do not generate a small amount of garbage it is seen that through the help of private corporations the problem of garbage can be eradicated. Makati is highly populated since most of the leading corporations are in that area. Money revolves around the city of Makati which means there is a high amount of people. Even with a high amount of people the garbage generation is controlled through four garbage contractors, as seen in Table 4.3. A. Disposal Programs in the Philippines

Sometime of January of 2000 the Philippines passed Republic Act 9003, otherwise known as The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, which emphasizes solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures, with the protection of public health and the environment as the primary goal. So this states that garbage has to be disposed of properly. The only problem is if it’s being practiced. Other than this, in Muntinlupa City, Mayor Aldrin San Pedro proclaimed City Ordinance 10-109. In this city ordinance Mayor San Pedro disallowed the use of plastic in exchange for the use of paper bags. There are other rules on waste management which this paper will also talk about. B. Typical Garbage in the Philippines

Composition of Household Wastes, Metro Manila
Chart 4.1

Paper, plastic, and food wastes are frequently used or consumed and disposed materials in the Philippines. Wherever you go you can see paper, plastic or food wastes, from books to chairs to leftovers and etc. These are frequently disposed because these materials are cheap or affordable and are used to package materials we buy from stores for paper and plastic. Food wastes, on the other hand, are found everywhere since man eats to live, but some people
live to eat and so their money is wasted on food. Food which these people don’t even bother to finish and so it becomes waste. A research done by Maria Eugenia C. Bennagen and company shows that “About 45% of Metro Manila household wastes consist of food/kitchen wastes, 16% paper, 15% plastic, and 9% glass and wood.” From the chart one can see that garbage is a main issue in the Philippines, but some people ignore this and so it becomes worse.

Economic Effects
A. Loss of Investments
Building landfills, paying for contractors, and tipping the garbage men per collection costs a huge amount of money (see Chart 4.1 – 4.3). As seen in Charts 4.1-4.3 and 4.5, the prices for paying the contractors is already above a million pesos while paying for the garbage men reaches the thousands already. It would be a total waste of money if these garbage sites were not fully functional and other than these foreign investors would not want to invest in a country that is not amicable to its people. Foreign investors are what the Philippines needs for it to develop more. Other than this, the money spent for building the landfill or a segregation company could have been spent on making roads or to renovate the hospitals in the Philippines.

These buildings would have been considered as bigger assets as compared to that of a landfill wherein a ton of money is spent but there is not much money to be gained from it. Another thing that is part of the loss of investments is the loss of employment opportunities for the people of the Philippines. If investors were to set up here in the Philippines then they would need people for that particular investment. This would mean that job opportunities would be open for the people. The more people are employed the better it is for a country because money would be circulating around the economy of the Philippines. Besides that high employment rates would mean development of a country. With a high development rate the Philippines would be attracting more and more investors to come which would be a win-win situation for the Philippines and the investors. B. No Tourism

If the garbage problem in the Philippines were left unanswered then tourism of the Philippines would be greatly affected. Foreign travellers always visit the Philippines because of its tropical location. Now, if the garbage
were to be left the same these foreigners would not bother going to the Philippines and spending their money on “used-to-be” beautiful places for vacation. Tourism accounts for a huge part in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Philippines, making up 5.8%. According to the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB) “For the years 2000-2010, the average share of Tourism Direct Gross Value Added (TDGVA) to the country’s GDP is about 5.8 percent.

From the graph one can see an increase of GDP per year especially for tourism alone. Now, if the tourism rates were to drop then the GDP of the Philippines would drop. If the GDP would drop then that would mean that the Philippines is under developing which is bad for the economy. Economic Growth is measured by GDP and if there is no increase then there would be no Economic Growth. No Economic Growth would also mean that the foreign investors would have to look for other places to invest their products, which is not a good sign for a developing country, like the Philippines. C. Waste of Infrastructures and Money

As mentioned before it takes millions to set up a landfill. Take for example the city of Manila, according to Stratbase: “The city of Manila has a P412-million contract with their sole waste management contractor Leonel Waste Management Corporation for this year. The current contract amount is less compared to the previous year which is P450 million.” It is stated that the city of Manila uses P412 million, with that money one would already be able to set up better roads for the people and put up toll gates to compensate for the amount of money spent building the road. Aside from roads the government could spend that money in renovating the government hospitals around the city. Even though these hospitals are affordable they are not convenient for the patients.

Although the Philippines should be spending the money it has it should be spent for purposeful reasons instead of wasting it on liabilities. If landfills or segregation companies are dormant then these fixed structures would be considered liabilities instead of assets.

Environmental Effects
A. Global Warming
According to Imagine Echo Groups, a group of environmentalists, “Environmentalists stress that Republic Act 9003 calls for the adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste management and explicitly excludes waste incineration as an ecological option. These polluting disposal facilities are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere which adds to global warming. Landfills and open dumps, according to studies, account for 34 percent of human-related methane emissions to the atmosphere, a global warming gas that has 23 times more heat-trapping power than carbon dioxide. These landfills and open dumps are illegal under RA 9003. Incinerators, on the other hand, have significantly higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions (per kilowatt) than a coal-fired power plant when all of the carbon coming out of an incinerator stack is measured. Such emissions are banned by the country’s Clean Air Act.

Inaction on garbage contributes to the death of at least two persons every minute due to complications from environmental problems, which could be prevented if the country only developed a more efficient environmental management program.” As stated by this group, garbage produces methane which is very harmful to our atmosphere. If this problem continues there would be no stopping the ozone layer from completely depleting and killing every person through radiation. To prevent this from happening there must be active segregation sites to lessen the amount of garbage in a specific landfill. B. Natural Disasters

Natural disasters play a big role in spreading garbage around a country because of what it brings i.e. rains, heavy winds, and etc. Take for example during Typhoon Ondoy, heavy rains filled the streets on Metro Manila with excessively dirty water due to the ignored problem of garbage and the increasing problem of littering in the street. If these problems are not answered then Filipino citizens will soon find out the burdens it will bear on the ignorant and the indifferent. “Mismanagement of waste has serious environmental consequences: ground and surface water contamination, local flooding, air pollution, exposure to toxins, and spread of disease. Many of the disposal sites contain infectious material, thus threatening sanitation workers and waste-pickers.” (Imagine Echo Groups) The garbage in the cities will prove to be harmful to everyone if it is not properly addressed.

C. Health Problems
1. Diseases
Garbage is one part of society that brings harm to the person especially to those living near landfills. These landfills are prone to having numerous diseases such as Dengue, Malaria, and etc. Due to the rains and excessive waste there is in the landfills neighbouring folks around these landfills are target to health problems. One major problem is due to contamination of water due to human and animal wastes found in these landfills. Usually, also, when there is stagnant water there are mosquitoes lurking around which can cause malaria, a parasitic disease that causes high fever, shaking chills, flu like symptoms, and Anemia. This disease is very dangerous because it has been proven to be very deadly to a person.

Other than malaria, Derek Perez found out other notable diseases found in landfills as well. “Some known diseases caused by polluted and infected water include gastro-enteritis, diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, and more recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In the Philippines about 6000 Filipinos die prematurely each year from waterborne or water-related diseases such as diarrhea, which is the second leading cause of morbidity in the Philippines.” (Perez).

Government Aid
A. Segregation Companies/Sites
There are 18 cities in Metro Manila with segregation sites and in each city there are over 20 segregation sites. These segregation sites make use of the recyclables they received and turn them into materials used everyday i.e.
key chains, chairs, bags, and etc. Although segregated materials are not well known because of designer brands these materials offer an alternative to expensive materials. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources spear heads all the segregation sites in the Philippines. “Executive Order No. 192 mandates the DENR to be the government agency primarily responsible for the country’s environment and natural resources.” (Department of Environment and Natural Resources) since trash is still hounding the Philippines its effect will also affect the country’s environment and natural resources, therefore making the DENR irresponsible. But, as seen today, there are government established segregation sites i.e. Container Corp of the Phils. which segregate paper properly. 1. Ordinances on Garbage

A. Republic Act 9003
One major contribution the Philippine government established pertaining to proper disposal of garbage was Republic Act 9003 otherwise known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. This act will ensure “Ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste management excluding incineration” (Congress of the Philippines 2). More than that, the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 emphasizes on both urban and rural areas making it safe for tourists and the next generation of Filipino people to live in the Philippines. In Article 2 Section 3 Letter L of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 “Ecological solid waste management shall refer to the systematic administration of activities which provide for segregation at source, segregated transportation, storage, transfer, processing, treatment, and disposal of solid waste and all other waste management activities which do not harm the environment.”

This part shows that garbage collection should be done systematically while being efficient in transporting the garbage to avoid any nuances. There are many more statements found in this act that dwell on the garbage problem of the Philippines, in here we can also see somewhat parts of the Clean Air Act, no trash in bodies of water, and the act of segregating and recycling. This is one major program that the Philippine government wanted so that the Philippines may develop and progress from a 3rd world to probably a 2nd or 1st. B. City Ordinance of Muntinlupa 10-109

In Muntinlupa City, Mayor Aldrin L. San Pedro issued City Ordinance No. 10-109 entitled “An Ordinance Prohibiting the Use of Plastic Bags on Dry Goods, Regulating its Ulitilization on Wet Goods and prohibiting the Use of Styrofoam/Styrophor in the City of Muntinlupa.” This ordinance states that it will ban the use of plastic bags and rather use biodegradable materials or paper bags as containers. Plastic bag are usually a major cause of flash floods during heavy rains and the destruction that it leaves is quite heavy. So the mayor set this up to ensure us that the drainages, in Muntinlupa, will not get clogged due to the plastic people do not segregate. The reason why Mayor Aldrin San Pedro proclaimed this city ordinance was because of “Severe flooding in Muntinlupa has been attributed to plastic bags and other non-biodegradable packagings which clog waterways and prevent proper water flow.

The ordinance, signed into law by Muntinlupa Mayor Aldrin San Pedro and lauded by local environmental groups, is expected to ease such water-flow problems and to stimulate similar bans throughout the Manila metro area. “By insisting to enforce the ban, Muntinlupa will become an environmental leader among local government units with the bold measure to reduce plastic litter and promote ecological values”, touted Francis Tolentino, chairman of the Metro Manila Development Authority in his support of the bill.” (Muntinlupa City’s Bag Ban, Kizler) 2. Alternative Uses for Garbage

Garbage is not all bad though. Sometimes it can be converted into materials that can help the society. For example, food wastes can be converted into fertilizer for plants, as a source of food for some animals, while other types of garbage can be used as an alternative source of energy. Diagram 4.1 shows alternative uses of garbage and that it is not all harm.

As seen in the diagram above there are many uses of garbage aside from it being a burden. It even shows the methods on how certain types of garbage are broken down for it to be converted into something useful for society to benefit from. According to Practical Action “In the outlying urban areas of Manila, backyard pig- rearing has long been a traditional source of income. Commercially produced feed for this activity is expensive and pig raisers often turn to organic scraps to supplement or replace the commercial product. A network of collectors have developed that collects organic waste from restaurants in the city centre, and then distribute it amongst the backyard farmers. The farmers can purchase the scrap at about half the price of the commercial feed. A cost comparison carried out under the WAREN project (cited in a report titled ‘Recycling activities in Metro Manila’) shows that profit is more than doubled by feeding the pigs on organic scraps, even after all other costs, such as veterinary costs, transport, fuel, etc., are taken into consideration. Such ventures are beneficial not only to the pig raisers, but also to the municipality who would otherwise have to dispose of the waste in a landfill.” Here it is seen that income can be generated by converting waste into pig feed.

Organic wastes can even be converted into fuel by means of anaerobic digestion. These organic wastes, after being converted through anaerobic digestion, are turned into Biogas. Biogas contains high amounts of methane from the waste of humans and animals. Through this biogas it can then be turned into an alternative source for fuel. “The digestion of waste yields several benefits: • The production of methane for use as a fuel.

• The waste is reduced to slurry which has a high nutrient content which makes an ideal fertiliser; in some cases this fertiliser is the main product from the digester and the biogas is merely a by-product. • During the digestion process pathogens in the manure are killed, which is a great benefit to environmental health.” (Recycling Organic Waste, Practical Action). If only the Philippine government were able to adapt this, the economy of the Philippines would increase therefore showing further development for the country.

Chapter 5

Conclusion:
To conclude this, this paper has stated what garbage is and the problems of it in society. Garbage by definition is any discarded or used material. But through this paper one will realize that garbage can be segregated and turned into something useful in society. Over the years, though, people have thought of eradicating these problems for a better society. Although these solutions have not been fully implemented they are there just waiting to be unwrapped and unleashed to the world.

The Philippines is a country filled with problems, but so are most countries. When problems arise solutions have to be found as well, and in the Philippines garbage is an issue that has not been fully resolved. As much as the people and the government would like to eradicate the problem they must work together for it to disappear. Even though there are rules implemented the people have to do their best in trying to comply with it. But the government should also walk the talk. Government officials should support the segregation companies and be fully cooperating with them, but the fact of the matter is these segregation companies are hardly recognized and been ignored for some time. Now, garbage through the years has not been decreasing. As a matter of it’s increasing because of the population of the Philippines. Garbage can be classified as either biodegradable or non-biodegradable. Both can be recycled because it would provide us with an alternate solution from buying everyday materials i.e. chairs, tables, key chains, etc to serving as alternative sources of energy. But the only way the Philippines will be able to have these alternate solutions is when segregation sites become more active with the help of the Philippine government, from local to national. Right now segregation companies are not that well known and not that well developed, but as time passes we will see the need to segregate.

“Annual waste generation in the Philippines is expected to grow 40 percent by 2010. Improvements in recycling, collection, and disposal will become even more critical as garbage production continues to increase with population growth and economic development” (Environmental Problems in the Philippines). It is already year 2012 and look where the Philippines is still, surrounded by heaps of trash. Our laws concerning garbage have always been around. The problem is that we overlook it. If the Philippines can develop solutions to the garbage problem then there is a possibility of progression within the country. The Philippine government should be spearheading these programs mainly because we chose these leaders because they are responsible. Their actions affect the state of the Philippines and the Philippines needs help with the problem of garbage.

Recommendations:
Through this paper one is able to see the problems garbage can do. But it also shows some suggestions on how the Philippine government can eradicate or the very least lessen the increasing problem. Now, this paper will suggest three things that can be done to help lessen or even eradicate the problem of garbage in the Philippines.

The first way is to increase the amount of private companies that segregate garbage in each city. The rich business men in each city should provide at least one garbage segregation company so that garbage generation will decrease. Other than that the local government should be aiding these private companies so that there is a greater effect on the people. Just like the cities of Makati and Marikina. In these cities government and private companies cooperate together to decrease the amount of garbage produced a day. Through a cohesive cooperation between these two there is a sure possibility that garbage generation will be lessened.

Another solution that can be made to lessen garbage generation is to promote the already proclaimed ordinances and bills about garbage segregation. Not everyone in the Philippines is well aware of Republic Act 9003, and so to make it more noticeable it should be made well known, just like City Ordinance 10-109 of Muntinlupa City. Mayor Aldrin San Pedro has made sure to lessen the amount of plastic waste around the city of Muntinlupa. Whenever an individual would purchase a product it will always be placed in a paper bag produced by the mayor’s wife which is both good for the economy of Muntinlupa and good for the environment. If the Philippine government could at least do something like this in other cities then development is sure to
come out.

Lastly, the Philippines can imitate the process in altering waste into something more productive objects like compost, animal feed, fertiliser, and even fuel. Now, if the Philippine government is able to spend some money for equipment that can turn waste into something else that can be a huge boost in eradicating the problem. Different types of equipment that will be helpful are machines that can compost, briquette, co-compost, and can digest garbage/waste in an anaerobic manner. With these machines garbage will decrease while at the same time increasing the economy of the Philippines. Garbage as an alternative source of fuel will highly boost the economy of the Philippines through an easier and more efficient way in gaining fuel rather than using oil.

If the Philippine government is able to do these things then the Philippines will not have to worry about waste or garbage problems for a long time. The succeeding generations will look at the previous and say that a job well done to preserve and continue the current lifestyle with a garbage-free environment.

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