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Early Humans Australopithecines1st to grow the opposable thumb Homo Habilis“Man of Skill”, Traits, 2.5-1.5 million BC, Brain size = 700 cubic cm Achievements Made tools from lava rock,Use tools to cut meat and crack bones, Homo Erectus, “Upright Man” Traits,1.6 – 30,000 million BC, More intelligent and adaptable, Brain size 1,000 Cubic cm Achievements Used intelligence to develop technology Neanderthal Traits, 200,000 – 30,000 BC, Brain size 1,450 cubic cm Powerfully built, Heavy slanted eyebrow, First to have ritual burials, Tried to control and explain the world CroMagnons Traits, Identical skeleton to modern humans Studied animals’ habits, Planned their hunts, Advanced skill in spoken language, Created art HomoSapiens (modern humans) appeared in Africa 100,000 to 400,000 years ago. Then migrated to ,Europe,Asia, Australia, The Americas Early human societies met their needs by hunting animals and gathering other foods like edible plants. These hunters and gatherers were also known as nomads Nomads: People who depend on wild plants and animals to survive. They followed where the food supply went and gathered seeds and nuts.

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- “THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS” ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- DEFINITIONS CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland. LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIGRIS-EUPHRATES RIVERS, BOTH RIVERS FLOW INTO THE PERSIAN GULF LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY IRAQ Fertile Crescent ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- GEOGRAPHY POSITIVE abundant amount of clay, easy till-able soil, water supply from Tigris-Euphrates Rivers NEGATIVE few natural resources, minimal protection from deserts and mountains City-States SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION, BELIEVED TO BE SETTLED . 3000 B.C. DIVIDED INTO CITY-STATES HELPED TO DEVELOP THE FIRST FORM OF ORGANIZED RELIGION CREATED ONE OF THE EARLIEST FORM OF WRITING ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CITY-STATES ALWAYS IN CONSTANT CONFLICT OVER WATER RIGHTS AND LAND CREATED WALLS FOR PROTECTION, WITH MOATS ALONG THE OUTSIDE FARMS WERE LOCATED ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF THE CITY Sumerians invented: Wheel, Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute, 12 month lunar calendar, arch ramp Religion, Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the main gods. Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses

Sun god – most important.,Life after death was an extension of life.
Ziggurat – Holy Mountain Ziggurat, Large pyramid shaped structures connected to heaven and earth Ziggurat: “center for learning and religion” Sumerian Religion Monotheism: worshiping one god. “Mono” – means one Polytheism: worshiping many gods. “Poly” – means many Writing:, Cuneiform (LATIN FOR WEDGE) WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS NEEDED FOR RELIGION, GOVERNMENT, AND TRADE LEARNED IN SCHOOL, BY MALES THAT LASTED FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY Make, sell or barter goods.,Trade helped expansion. Development of money,Will evolve over time. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY RICH government officials, religious leaders, traders POOR Farmers, craftsman ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN PASTIMES Entertainment, No longer had to hunt and gather. More time for fun times. Rich had more time than poor

BOARD GAMES, INSTRUMENTS, BARE FISTED BOXING Activities geared toward young and used for socializing. The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. Agriculture (Farming) Growth of Cities, Division of Labor (Specialization), Trade, Writing and Mathematics

Kingdoms Hittites Assyrians- Semitic people; Nineveh is the capital Assyrians, Chief god Assur, Chariots used, First Cavalry Akkadians-Spoke a Semitic Language related to modern Hebrew and Arabic; Babylonians-Chief god: Marduk, Prayed for good harvest and success in business. King Hammurabi- Hammurabi’s Code, Earliest code of law, Based on equal retaliation. 282 laws.,Harsh punishment for crimes., Based on equal retaliation. “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death” “If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off” Laws were varied for the wealthy and powerful. “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death” “If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off” If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss. “If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death. Chaldeans-Skilled astronomers, Hanging Gardens of Babylon King Nebuchadnezzar, the destroyer of the temple of Solomon, built them for his wife,One of the Ancient Wonders of the World;

Persians-Present day Iran; Spoke an Indo-European Language; Zoroastrianism is the religion: famous ruler is Darius Belief in final judgment and training for it Phoenicians-Major natural resource: lumber from cedar forests.;Invented the art of glassblowing.; Alphabet, Then adopted by Greeks., Then adopted by Romans Lydian-First to use a money economy. An economic system based in the use of money as a measure of value and a unit of account. Israelites – Hebrews. From Canaan, founded sate in Philistine. Started from the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Another son of Abraham is Ismael believed to be the forefather of the other group of people from the Middle East. Jacob became the father of 12 Tribes one of them would be the tribe of Levi form where Moses and Aaron would hail. Moses is the biblical figure that would lead the Israelites from Egypt to the promise land. The Levites would be the priest of the Hebrews. The other tribe is that of Judah where King David, Joseph the Father of Jesus would hail.

Jesus would later be the founder of Christianity and believed by the Christians as the Son of God the savior of the world. He died on the Cross but believed to have resurrected on the third day and later on ascended into heaven Egyptian civilization Egyptian civilization arose a bit after Mesopotamia. Geography: It was centered on the Nile River. The Nile River Pyramids-These are the Giza pyramids, the most famous. Pyramids were tombs for the kings.These were built in 3500 B.C. Egyptian Pharaohs-Egyptians were led by Pharaohs.;They were priest-kings King Tut is the most famous AbuSimbel was built by Ramseses II Mummies-Egyptians who could afford to do so would have themselves mummified. They believed in a better afterlife if their body was presered Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics Ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a substance derived from the plant of the same name The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about six miles west of Cairo.

Nubia-People around the world have learnt about the glorious past of the Egyptian empire, but most have failed to learn of the Nubia, which was sometimes even stronger than the Egyptian empire. Nubia rivaled Egypt in wealth and power, and mutually influenced each other. Egyptian economy Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the economy is a traditional economy based on farming and trade. Egyptians traded up and down the Nile, with Mesopotamians and sometimes with Indus Valley (in Pakistan) Indus Valley civilization Indus River Valley This civivilization is still mysterious.

The writing has not been translated. Indus River civilization We do know the cities were sophisticated enough to have brick walls surrounding them for protection against flooding from the Indus River Indus Economy Just like the other river valley civs, the Indus river valley people were mostly farmers. Traditional economy-They did trade with Chinese and with Sumerians (Mesopotamians). Ancient Greece- 500-323 B.C.E.  Greece is a peninsula about the size of Louisiana in the Mediterranean Sea.  It’s very close to Egypt, the Persian empire (includes Turkey) and Rome.  Greece is mountainous  Greek communities often times developed independently because of the mountains, thus they were diverse  As a result, they fought each other a lot.  Technology results from necessity  Since Greek coastal cities were sandwiched between the ocean and the sea, they developed an awesome navy for trading and fighting.

 Technology results from scarcity  All cities need fresh water. This is a Greek aqueduct, basically a brick water pipe.  The first aqueduct was Assyrian, but most ancient societies had them.  Terracing saves water and soil in mountainous environments  Greek Inventions  The Greeks invented dice.  The Greeks invented the crane.  Greek Architecture  Greeks invented arches and columns.  This obviously took advanced mathematics.  Greek Military  This is a catapult, a Greek invention.  It could throw 300 pound stones at walls and buildings  Greek Military-a hoplite, a Greek infantry soldier.

 Hoplites were middle-class freemen who had to pay for their own weapon and shield.  Phalanx.-Soldiers get in a tight box. They each have a large shield and a 9 foot long spear.  Greek religion was polytheistic.  Athens was the first democracy.  Democracy: type of government where people vote.  Well, actually, Athens was a direct democracy where people vote on everything  Most of Greece was a monarchy a type of government ruled by a king or queen.  Pericles, a good king of Athens.  Sparta-Sparta was an isolated city-state that was culturally and politically different from Athens.  Sparta was an oligarchy, government ruled by a few. They had 2 kings.  During the Peloponnesian Sparta sacked Athens.

 Spartan society was obsessed with war.  Boys were sent to military school at a young age.  Boys who are born deformed are left to die on mountainsides  Athens-Athenians were tough but were encouraged to engage in activities like art, philosophy, music.  Alexander the Great-Alexander was not from Athens, but Macedonia.  Alexander was a brilliant military strategist.  His favorite book was Homer’s Iliad  Alexander conquered the Persian empire.  Alexander spread Hellenistic culture throughout Asia.  Hellenistic is a fancy word for Greek.  Alexander spread Greek technology and ideas throughout his empire  The Roman Coliseum has a strong Hellenistic influence.  Classical Greece-500-339 BC  Centered in Athens  Began  Revolt of Greeks in Ionia (coast of Asia) against the Persians  Eventual defeat of the Persians  Battles of Thermopylae and Marathon  Athens expansionism and colonization  Delian League  Peloponnesian War  Between Athens and Sparta/Corinth  Lasted 27 years and was won by Sparta/Corinth  Pericles  “Ideal” ruler of Athens

 Builder of Acropolis  Used money from the Delian League for city improvements  Is creativity adversely affected by war?  Daily Life  Population:300,000  Adult Males: 50,000  Women: Not able to participate in government  Protected by law  Seemed to be “generic”  Slaves:  Did menial work  Foreigners  Daily Life  Greeks had few material possessions  Houses were simple  Food was simple  Religion was important  Common temple rituals  Seeking favor of the gods  Loyalty in worshiping gods of the polis  Belief in a single God was advocated by a few (disloyal?)  Drama  Festivals of Dionysus (God of Wine)  Playwrights submit 4 plays for competition  Method of presentation

 Actors with masks  Chorus  Acoustics  Reserved seats  Dry seats  Mechanics  Themes  Trojan war characters and their descendents  Ethics from Heroic period  Tragedy  Genre invented by Thespis (543 BC)  The most common of the genrés  Of about 1000 written, only 31 remain – all by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides  The change that occurs due to difficulty  Not about a person dying  Aristotle’s Poetics describes ideal tragedy  Tragic defect—weakness in character that leads to the difficulties or that must be overcome  Aeschylus (525-456 BC)  Aware of human weakness  Discusses pain and suffering  In the end, justice triumphs  Oresteia trilogy about the House of Atria  Agamemnon  The Libation Bearers

 The Eumenides (The Furies)  Sophocles (496-406 BC)  Friend of Pericles  Great prestige and wealth  Wrote 123 plays, but only 7 exist  Sophoclean tragic heroes  Have tragic defects  Are likeable and we feel sorry for them  Introduced two-actor interaction  Conflict:  Tradition and loyalty to king (Antigone)  Good intentions and fate (Oedipus the King)

Sophocles  Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex)  Epitome of Greek tragedy  Fate has powerful hold on humans  Before his birth, destined to kill father and marry mother (revealed by oracle)  Conflict between fate and attempts to control destiny  Inherent moral outrage of marrying mother and/or killing father

 Antigone  Thebes attacked by Polynices (son of Oedipus)  Polynices was fighting his brother  Both were killed in battle  Creon, the new king, forbade Polynices’ burial

 Antigone, Polynices sister, buried him  Antigone was condemned to death  Creon’s son was engaged to Antigone  Creon revoked his penalty, but only after Antigone and Creon’s son had committed suicide  Euripedes (484-406 BC)  Expressed disillusion because of the war  Acknowledged powers of gods in fate, but did not respect them  Characters pushed to the limits of endurance  Deep hatred for war  Medea  Barbarian princess (on the coast of the Black Sea)  Helped Jason find the golden fleece against her father’s wishes  They married and had two sons  Medea was ostracized for marrying foreigner and had to flee with Jason to Argos (in Greece)  Jason later married a younger woman  Medea sent magic robe to the bride causing the bride to burn to death  In further retribution against Jason, Medea also killed her two sons  Aristophanes (450-385 BC)  Father of Greek comedy  This genré ends happily  It is not necessarily funny  Theme—futility of war  The Birds  Lysistrata

 Poked fun directly at Sophecles and Aeschylus  Creative Project: Play about Aristophanes in the BYU library who meets a young woman who agrees to write a play in which he can demonstrate his superiority to other Greek playwrights  Music  Plato believed in ethos  The power of music to influence people’s lives  Music molded the soul  Musical scales (Pythagoras)  Role in Greek dramas  Role in development of Opera  Instruments: Lyre, Cymbal, Tambourine, Pipe  Pre-classical Art  Simple pottery  Geometric designs  Migration to human forms (perfect symmetry)  Sculpture-generalized to be symbolic of all humans  Relation to Forms  Generic  Without dramatic expression  Lacked realism  Classical Sculpture  Great advances  Technical ability  Reality  Perception of inner qualities  Greek principles important

 Exact proportion—Golden mean  Phidias—greatest Greek sculptor  Parthenon, Temples in Olympia  Vases  Why painted?  My Greek vase  Architecture – Initial temples were simple and rectangular  Two columns at entrance  Columns around perimeter (peripteral)  Column style The Acropolis: Parthenon  The Parthenon  Erected by Pericles as a tribute to Athena  Funding from Delian League  Phidias was sculptor in charge  Combined Doric columns with Ionic features  Columns are thinner at the top  Tip towards each other  Corners thicker  Floor is convex  Single main room-statue of the goddess  Later classical period lacked innovation and boldness of earlier period  History  Herodotus (484-420 BC)  Father of History  Tried to record coherent history

 Traveled widely  Books called Researches  Made judgments based on humanness  Most writing were about Persian wars  Thucydides (470-405 BC)  Prominent soldier/historian  Removed from command for failure in battle  Inserted important speeches into history  Criticized because he could not have heard all these speeches  His history ended before the war  Probably died in war  Architecture  Proportion was a major design factor  Temple of Zeus at Olympia The Roman Empire After Alexander the Great Rome rose into power Believed to have been founded by Romulus the twin of Remus about 1000 B.C.

The Etruscans an Indo European people would establish the government of Rome Rome will give rise to a Republic and with its own constitution The Republic shall be led by the group called Patricians Consuls are the chief magistrates Aided by a Praetor and a Quaestor Electorate shall be grouped into 100 individuals called Centuriate. Only males can vote Classes of people: Patricians and Plebeians are the general groups. Plebeians are further divided among: equestrian(wealthy plebeians who served in the cavalry), artisans(those who are engaged in certain craft) proletarians(those who do not own any land) The Patricians formed the Senate and ruled the same with the aid of the Equestrians Became the power after crashing Carthage in the Punic wars Introduced the military group called the Roman Legion(composed of 4,300 soldiers) First triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus who crashed the rebellion led by a Gladiator named Spartacus, and Caesar who was assassinated by Brutus on the Ides of March(March 15) 44 B.C.. Second triumvirate: Mark Anthony, Octavian and Lepidus

Octavian was the one who consolidated the Roman Empire

Other Notes to remember Meaning of History Meaning of geography Prime meridiem, Post meridiem, ante meridiem, Greenwich meridiem line, latitude, longitude, tropic of Cancer, tropic of Capricorn, temperate, tropical and arctic zones, the equator.

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