Surgical Site Infections
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Surgical Site Infection has a broad spectrum of scientifically attached possible features. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define it as the infections that take place or occur to the surgically treated site through external effects after the surgery. In the 2010 report done by the CDC where 16 million operative routines were done in a cute center; it was realized that Surgical Site Infections (SSI) were the most usual infections associated to healthcare. This counted to 31% of all the treated patients who were then hospitalized. (Press, 2007) Approaches have been made in coming up with practices in controlling infections. The advances include upgraded ventilation of operation rooms, advancing techniques of surgery, barriers and methods of sterilization and handiness of antimicrobial prevention. Surgical site infections stand out as the major course of morbidness, sustained hospitalization and even death. It has been associated with 3% mortality rate. Surgical sites are wounds that need through care for the required healing.
Surgical mortality is contributed hugely by infection of the wound within 30 days after the surgery. Open wounds have a potential of attracting serious bacterial infections. The infections may result to long term disabilities and chronic infections that end up in deaths. The prevention of surgical site infections covers operative techniques that are meticulous. It also involves the administration of preoperative antibiotics in a timely manner and a wide range of preventive measures directed to kicking off viral, bacterial and fungal threats. These preventions are vital both before the operation, within the operation room and during recovery period after the operation both in the hospital and at homes. The main concern in this case is the before and after operation.
Antibiotics are medications that are commonly used to handling and prevention of bacterial infections. The bacterial infections are the common infections that affect the skin and open wounds. The types of antibiotics are varied depending on the type of bacteria. This is because some antibiotics perfume their mandate well against a small group type of bacteria. Other antibiotics available also are effective in a wide spectrum of dissimilar bacteria. Medical specialists often use available and specified antibiotics for infection treatment to reduce side effects to the lowest level possible. The impression that antibiotics are demanded after the operation room is misplaced. (Rello, Kollef, Diaz, & Rodriguez, 2010) This is due to the understanding that antibiotics are needed only in the operation room and precisely before the operation and not after the operation. The antibiotics may not be commonly use after operation.
However, in some cases operations are done in sensitive areas. The areas such as abdomen and artificial implant require use of antibiotic to play an important role in the healing process. In the need of using antibiotics, there are varied issues that must be considered so as to verify the viability. Antibiotic come with a great deal of potential problems which are essential to be known. Some antibiotics are allergic and may cause reactions that can be serious and bothersome. Some antibiotics have side effects such as nausea, diarrhea and rashes. However the most dangerous effects are long terms which result to kidney and liver damage. Antibiotics also do not eliminate all the bacteria hence the remaining ones might develop resistance which may be difficult to handle. It is also important to understand that most antibiotic work in elimination of bacterial infection if they can reach the blood stream. However there are some bacteria which are useful in healthy keeping. Problem and Impact
Surgical infections can be categorized into organ, superficial and deep incisional infections. All the infections occur within 30 days after the operation. Superficial infection affects only skin and hypodermic tissues. It also includes at least symptoms of swelling, redness, pain or heart. Deep infection occurs if there is no implant left in place and the infection involves deep tissues that are soft related to the operation. It also involves symptoms like localized tenderness and pain. In organ, the infection involves organs or places that form part of human body. It also involves evidence of contagion in organs found through examinations in the re-operational process or through histopathology. Surveillance of SSI is helpful in providing data that can be informative and useful in creating best practices. This tool was used in reducing the rates in the early 1980s and can be vital in the determination of effects of antibacterial soap sower and non-antibacterial soap shower after the surgery. (Minnaar, 2008)
The demand of information on the performance of healthcare providers and safety measures after surgery is vital. This helps in creating awareness for the best strategy in management of the wounds for best healing process and needs. The SSI risk factors are due to endogenous and exogenous taint. The antibiotics use may also reduce the efficiency of general response by the immune system. Age wise, elderly people above 40 years have the risk of developing SSI at 95% in reaction to the younger ones. The age factor also affects the SSI in relation to the use of antibiotics during surgery. It resulted to re-operation after a span of 2 to 7 days and lead to death in most cases.
Minnaar, A. (2008). Infection Control Made Easy: A Hospital Guide for Health Proffessionals. Cape Town: Juta and Co. Ltd. Press, S. H. (2007). Surgical Site Infections and the CDC Guidelines:Are These Guidelines Being Utilized. United States: ProQuest and Learning Company. Rello, J., Kollef, M., Diaz, E., & Rodriguez, A. (2010). Infectious Disease in Critical Care. Barlin: Springer-Verlerg.