Problems Encountered by Police Officers
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This study was conducted to determine the level of Awareness on Drug Education Among BS. Criminology of BSU-JPLPC Students during the school year 2010-2011. It involved one hundred (100) selected BS. Criminology students as respondents of the study. The researchers employed the descriptive correlation method of research. A questionnaire was used to gather data. The number of respondents statistically determined through the use of the slovin’s formula at 5% marginal error. Frequency, percentage, weighted mean and chi-square were used to determine the significant relationship of the student’s profile and the level of awareness.
Specifically, it sougth answers to the following questions: What is the profile of the respondents in the terms of: age, sex, educational background of parents; employment of the parent; and media exposure? Secondly, What is the level if in drug education among BS. Criminology of BSU-JPLPC students in terms of: Commonly abuse; effects on health; effects on community/society; effects on family/ school; and drug prevention program? It there a significant relationship between the level of awareness on drug and the profile of the students such as age, sex, educational attainment of the parents and employment of the parent and media exposure? Costly, What is the implication of the study to drug education instruction?
This study was guided by the null hypothesis that there was no significant relationship between the student profile and level of awareness of BS. Criminology of BSU-JPLPC students on drug education.
After the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered, the researcher found out the following:
With regards to the profile of the respondents, out of 100 respondents 49 or 49% belong to ages 16-18 with meant that majority of the respondents belong to school age, 46 fell on the ages 22-25. For the sex, it was found out that there were 75 or 75% male and 25 or 25 % female. As to educational attainment of parent, father’s educational fell on the high school level with 47 or 47%. In terms educational attainment of mother, it fell also on high school level with 40 or 40%. In terms of employment status of parents, father’s employment status fell on employed with 68 or 68%. As to the employment status of mother, it fell on unemployed status with 69 or 69%.
Regarding the level of awareness on drug education among BS. Criminology of BSU-JPLPC student in terms of commonly abused, effects on health, effects on community/society, family/school, and drug prevention program. On the level of awareness on drugs that were commonly abuse, shabu ranked the highest with a weighted mean of 30%. On the effect on health, sleeplessness got the highest rank with a weighted mean of 35%. On the effect on the community/society, rape ranked first with a weighted mean of 21%.Low grades and Fight, on the effects of drugs to family/school, got highest rank with a weighted mean which was15%. On the level of awareness about drug prevention
campaign being conducted by school, government, civic organization and other institution, parental advice with a weighted mean of 25% ranked first.
On the analysis of relationship between the respondent’s profile and level of awareness to drug education as to age, the computed value of 6.40 was less than 15.507 at .05 level of significance that led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis, thus, there was no significant relationship between the age and the level of awareness on drug education. As to sex, the obtained computed value of 0.83 was less than 9.488 which was the critical value at .05 level of significance leading to the acceptance of the null hypothesis, thus, there was no significant relationship between the sex and the level of awareness on drug education. As to educational attainment of parent based from the computation, the result was 17.68 which was less than the tabular value of 31.410 at .05 level of significance with led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis, thus, there was no significant relationship between the educational attainment of father and awareness on drug education. The educational attainment of mother obtained computed value of 31.410 which led to the rejection of the null hypothesis leading to a significant relationship between the variables.
The educational attainment of mother affected the level of awareness of the students as the result of the findings. The students showed most of their affection to their mother, and because of the high level of educational attainment of mother they had knowledge and awareness on drug education and helped them to guide and to give support to their children. As to the employment status of parents, the computed value of 3.12 was less than 9.488 at .05 level of significance that led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis, thus, there existed no significant relationship between the employment status of father and level of awareness on drug education. Some with the employment status of mother where the computed value of 0.94 was less than the tabular value of 9.488, which led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis that there existed no significant relationship between the employment status of mother and level of awareness on drug education. With regards to media exposure, the computed value of 103.093 which was greater than the tabular value of 26.296 led to the rejection of the null hypothesis that there was significant relationship between the media exposure and level of awareness.
In the light of the significant findings revealed in the study, the following conclusions were made:
Out of 100 respondents, majority belonged to the age of 16-18 and most were made. Employed father had the highest percentage while unemployed mother also got the highest percentage. In the educational attainment of parents, high school graduate got the highest percentage on both father and mother. On the item types of media and kind of information which the respondents get about drug prevention and addiction, majority of the respondents were very well expose on television which got the mean.
Majority of the respondents were aware of shabu as the most commonly abuse drug. Sleeplessness was the first in rank as the most commonly effect of drug to heath. Rape was ranked as the common crime in the community/society as a result of drug addiction. Rebellion was the most common manifestation of drug addiction in the family and school. Parental advice was noted as the most effective way of drug prevention.
There was no significant relationship between the profile and the level of awareness except in educational attainment of mother and media exposure.
Based on the conclusion researcher in the study, it is recommended that administrator and the rest of the faculty member should organize seminars/symposium about drugs to provide students with accurate information and encourage them to participate in curricular activities which further enhance mental health. They must give emphasis in teaching about drug education which are include in the subject sociology, health and ROTC. It is further recommendation that school publication include a portion on the newspaper about drug education. They may cite some real life stay regarding drugs for the students to become more aware. On the school bulletin board they may post some articles, poster and updates about drug prevention and reminders about drug use. Moreover, parents should develop effective means of communication to their children. They should listen to their children, respect their opinion and guide them in making wise decision. They should also learn to give their children responsibility which will commensurate to their age, and most of all, parents should take time to see with their children no matter community service must have a program educating the parent specially the mother about drug education.
The researcher would like to extend their thanks to everyone who directly contributed their assistance for the fulfillment of the piece of work.
Special thanks go also to our friends, classmates and fellow criminology students for being a part of his thesis. But without the guidance of our research adviser MS.MOLINA RIZO, this work may not have been completed and we thank her for that.
The teacher, who helped and were very cooperative during the distribution and collection of the questionnaires from the respondents.
To all the respondents specially, the Bs. Criminology, who without their help, the data needed in this study would not be made available.
To all our truest friends, for the support they had given all these years.
To the parents and guidance of the researcher for the understanding, moral and financial support and prayers during the process of the research.
Above all, our SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST, for the countless blessings have bestowed upon us, for watching us grow throughout these years for keeping us safe from this troubled world, for making us strong when times get rough, for accepting us in spite of our shortcoming and for giving his life for us.
Drug education promotes a healthy lifestyle and provides young people with accurate information and clear messages about the consequences of drug use. It also provides with interaction, communication, decision-making and problem solving skills so they are able to make informed choices about drug use. Drugs are among the most useful means for relieving pain and suffering of people, but drugs have to be taken in accordance to the doctor’s prescription. Abuse of drugs can make an illness worse, destroy blood cells, damage the body or cause death.
Drugs when excessively used are dangerous .People say that anything prohibited arouses a person interest, especially the youth who are lured by agents who use different methods to reach them. Drugs cause the problems that beset the country today. Day in day out, all the news tells about crimes, petty or grave committed. These poor souls seek love and attention from their peers. Many people turn to drugs believing that drugs can solve their problems. However, in most societies there have been few people who have taken drugs because they were very unhappy or dissatisfied with ordinary life or perhaps they thought that the drugs could give them particular feelings that were very much desired.
In recent years, drug abuse has been increasing at a rapid rate throughout the world. The practice occurs most among young people who are looking for new sensations or who hope that drugs will increase their mental functioning of their ability to understand themselves. Assuming that younger adults will retain and apply the information they receive about alcohol and drug abuse is a common mistake. Repetition of the true message is the key to combating the false information .Many young people have experimented with drugs because they were told not to do so, and they were likely to disobey their parents or teacher just to be rebellious. Because of this, most of the nation’s drugs education and prevention programs are designed for younger students and then taper off beyond middle school or junior high, learning few programs targeting the segment of the population that is at the greatest risk. Meneses (1997) cited that, drug education concepts are integrated in curriculum in the tertiary level. It is integrated in current social issues in National Development and in Sociology and Psychology subjects.
According to Nowlis (1967),”.At the present time there is no standard or widely accepted model for planning an effective drug-education program. This is an area that urgently needs research, development and demonstration”. Pronouncement abound on the kinds of program that should be undertaken and model curricula are easy to find, but hard data on the effect such programs have on students are virtually non existent. Given this situation, the two major priorities in this field are: well-designed and tested evaluation techniques to measure the attainment of specific goals (once they have been defined) in any school drug-education program; are a formal compilation of what evaluation data exist, which programs have been evaluated, what criteria have been used, and what results have been obtained. This information should be widely disseminated to members of the educational community as well as to those involved in drug programming(treatment, rehabilitation, intervention).
A program must be ongoing, with the opportunity for recurrent discussions throughout the year. Even some of the new, well-motivated programs suffer from a “crisis” approach. An evaluation of programs conducted showed that short-term programs, even though very sophisticated and intensive, may have little impact on the attitudes of students regarding the abuse of drugs. The study concludes that the primary value of the project is that it adds a note of caution to those who would set aside a single day for drug education and be satisfied with the result. Although countless “one-shot programs” are sponsored nationally, there is little evidence that such programs have any lasting effect.
This statistics show that 9.9 percent of youth’s ages 12.17 reported current use of illicit drugs in 1998.This estimate represents a statistically decrease from the estimate of 11.4 percent in 1997.The rate was the highest in 1979 (16.3 percent),declined to 5.3 percent in 1992,then increased to 10.9 percent in 1995.The percent of youth reported using illicit drugs has fluctuated since 1995 (9.0 percent in 1996 and 11.4 percent in 1997),8.3 percent 0f youths age 12-17 were current user of marijuana in 1998.The prevalence of marijuana use among youth did not change significantly between 1997 when it was 9.4 percent and 1998 when it was 8.3 percent.
Marijuana use reached a peak of 14.2 percent in 1979,declined to 3.4 percent in 1992,more than doubled from 1992-1995 (8.2 percent),and has fluctuated since then (7.1 in 1996 and 9.4 percent in 1997).The percent of the youth using inhalants decreased significantly from 2.0 percent in 1997 to 1.1 percent in 1998.An estimated 4.1 million people meet diagnostic criteria for dependence an illicit drugs in 1997 and 1998,including 1.1 million youths. All sources confirm that the use of drugs is widespread amongst young people and the average age of first drug use is dropping. This statement inspired the researchers to conduct a study on drug education. This gives much information to the researchers which added in the formulation of the problem under study.
The main purpose of this study is to determine the awareness of the student about drug education. Since, the researchers are future criminologist and law enforcer who will play a significant role to transfer education to youth, they are curious on how departments, schools and other establishment related for educating young people about the dangers of drugs and take their role very seriously. Links between drugs, themes and relationship need to be more explicit to the pupils to understand the links between drug use to their education. But more schools need to work towards and ultimately meet the criteria for providing the student’s health and well-being. They must know that these drugs are not only physically debilitating, but they also hamper mental ability and spiritual growth .The disrupted families breed criminality and they destroy lives. And they make people dependent on the source of the drugs they are addicted to. Another aspects of drug education critical to preventing abuse is to provide children and students the opportunity to hear directly from individuals with first hand experience in overcoming drug abuse or from the professional drug counselors. It also provides the children gain information and form attitudes about drugs from many including family, friends, schools, the community and the media.
This study attempts to find out the Level of Awareness on Drug Education among Bachelor of Science in Criminology of Batangas State University Jose P. Laurel Polytechnic College Students. Specifically, this study will seek on the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, educational background of parents, and employment of parents? 2. What is the level of awareness on drug education among Bachelor of Science in Criminology of Batangas State University Jose P. Laurel Polytechnic College students in terms of: 1. commonly abused,
2. effects of health,
3. effects on community/society,
4. family/school, and
5. drug prevention program?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the level of awareness on drugs and the profile of the student such as age, sex, educational background of the parents, and employment of the parents and media exposure?
4. What is the implication of the study to drug education instruction? Significance of the Study
The result of this study would be useful and valuable to the school administration, instructors, students, parents and community leaders.
For the school administration, to make arrangements for the teaching personnel and students to plan and initiate awareness sessions related to drugs and problems sanction and coordinate public relations and communications among faculty and students.
For the instructors, they may be able to know their student and be sensitive to their needs and problems and providing them enough information about drugs.
For students, this study will help them to gain much more information about drugs. This may also help them to learn to cope with their problems and other stresses without the use of drugs.
For the parents, they exert a profound influence on their children’s lives by serving as models for guiding them to have enough information about drugs and providing them consistent discipline.
For the community leaders, the need to plan and implement social action programs involving the students and this include the youth development programs regarding drugs.
Scope and limitations
This study aims to determine the level of Awareness on Drug Education among Bachelor of Science in Criminology of Batangas State Univetrsity Jose P. Laurel Polytechnic College year 2010-2011.
The study will involved one hundred (100) Criminology students which are taken from the total population of three hundred (300) enrolled during semester academic year 2010-2011 through random sampling.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter presents the reviewed literature and studies that are relevant to the present study. Conceptual Literature
An article which appeared at the Philippine Daily Inquirer (1989) entitled, “The Addict is a child”, was reviewed for the ideas relevant to this study. It mentioned that in the cities of both industrialized and developing worlds, the children were turning to drugs as a result of some deficiencies such as lack of proper playground facilities, lack of home and social environments providing sufficiently for such needs as affection, understanding, encouragement, support, meaningful friendship and a feeling of personal worth. These children were truly among the severely alienated and handicapped in the world. In an interview with Herrera (1990), he ranked peer pressure as the highest cause of drug abuse. Then lack of information and parental neglect was next. Many youths thought that to be in they have to take drugs or smoke marijuana. An article appeared in the Philippine Daily Inquirer entitled “Youth Must Empower themselves to Fight Drugs (1998), Madamba urged the youth to empower themselves in the war against drugs.
She challenged the youth to defy drugs and pushers by strengthening their self-esteem and being role models in society. Drug abuse was an evil that preyed on the vulnerabilities of character. Many young people thought that by resorting to drugs, they could either resolve inner conflicts and fears or affirm their independence by defying authority. Little did they realize that the solution to their problems cannot be found on drugs but in themselves. Madamba added that parents and teachers should complement such initiatives by being vigilant, providing the necessary guidance, instilling the proper values and keeping open the lines of communication and understanding in homes and schools. According to Gonzales (1990), an academic drug education course could be designed to include information on the severity of drug abuse problems, the susceptibility of students to these problems and the viability of alternative behaviors to drug abuse. On war against drug abuse, Vidal (1998) said that educational programs played a critical role in the overall fight against drug abuse. For those who have started to use drugs the proper education provided a pathway to successful intervention and treatment by increasing the user’s awareness of the dangers connected with drug abuse and by helping them make the choice to stop.
In the book of Bustos(2002), it stated that education and explanation had always been through some form of media as a means of providing health information and education about drugs. Media had the advantage of bringing intimacy and immediacy to a topic. The literature of coggans and Watson (1995) suggested that for drug education approaches to be effective they had to be audience appropriate and based on methods which took developmental influences into account. Nowlis (1994) pointed out that college students often seemed less interested in the legal and medical facts about drugs than in a personal philosophical discussion about the limits on an individual’s right to self-discover and expression. Why do young people take drugs? Cullen (1989), head of preventive and rehabilitation center for drug dependents (PREDA) located in Olongapo City, wrote: “When parents come over the PREDA center to talk about their problems it always make it a point to explain to them that drug abuse is a symptom of something else. But usually it is a combination of personal, family and social problems.” Parents could cause drug abuse by creating on unhappy home.
Some declare martial law in the house and home was a strict regime of discipline and duty. Love were affection are thrown into the emotional trashcan. Deprived children would seek comfort and satisfaction elsewhere and the pushers were all too willing to provide the easy means. Parents were not always the cause of disoriented children. The social problems surrounding the family were also contributing factors. Lack of educational opportunities and unemployment also took their toll and of course poverty sapped or affected a teenagers self-respect and hope for a meaningful life. According to Forrest (1999), drug education aimed to assist young people to make informed decisions rather than telling them what to do with the “hidden” and formal curricula working together to produce an environment conductive to health promotion.
Magdale (1986) studied the “Knowledge, Attitudes & Practices of Drugs among High School Seniors & their Teachers, in selected Secondary School of Northern Mindanao”. He found out that drug abuse among students and teachers generally stemmed from a number of interrelated causes in the home and in the environment. It also mad comparisons on the extent of drug knowledge, attitudes and practices of 686 high school seniors & 61 teachers in seven urban & seven rural schools from selected schools in Region X. Meneses (1997) studied about “Level of knowledge and attitudes towards National Drug Education Program as Associated with Characteristics of Tertiary School Students in Cagayan de Oro City”. This study revealed the level of knowledge & the attitudes of college students towards National Drug education. It was found that their was a significant relationship between the level of knowledge on drug abuse the age and the courses of college student.
However, their was no significant difference in the level of knowledge between the sex and the year level as knowledge in drugs was concerned. Quejas (1996), on his study entitled “Parent – Youth Involvement against Drug Abuse”, Revealed that it could effectively reduce the drug problem. He also highlighted the socio-economic situations where volunteerism was of good significance. Tirol (1998), on his study entitled “Level of Awareness of the Male and Female Students on Drug Education”, found out that there was a significant degree of arrelation on the level of awareness of female & male students in the aspect of he types of drugs commonly abused, the effects of drugs &on the precaution campaigns. He also found out that there was a need for more intensives dissemination of information through different media on drugs and the dangers of drug addiction. Synthesis of the study
The of one mentioned studies have similarities and differences that distinguished them from this study. The researchers have been guided will by these studies on how to conduct their own investigation. An article entitled ‘The Addict is a child” is relevant to the present study because if gives the idea about reasons why children are turning to drugs and their needs to prevent it. In an interview with Herrera were mentioned the lack of information and parental neglect as the highest cause of drug abuse which is related on the present study in determining the extent of sensitivity about drugs. An article entitled “Youth Must Empower Themselves to Fight Drugs” is important in the present study because the teachers and parents were mentioned in the article which present researchers are focusing on the extent of sensitivity of the students about drugs considering parents as one of the factors. Gonzales gave the present researchers an idea on what was include on the drug education program course on which the present researchers tend to measure the extent of sensitivity of college students about drug education.
Another idea come from Bustos that media is one of the factors that influences the mind of the students about drugs. The literature of Coggans and Watson is relevant to the present study because it gave the idea on how drug education must be implemented effectively. Nowlis provided the present researchers the idea that the students were less interested in the legal and medical facts about drugs that the level o their sensitivity about drugs was lessen also. Gullen gave an idea to the present study because it mentioned the importance and participation of parents to their child. That usually neglecting them will be a factor of action of engaging children to drugs and some other vices.
The present researchers got the idea from forest that young people must have informed decisions about drug education to produce an environment that was conducive to health promotion of young people which was exactly what the researchers tended to measure. Vidal gave an idea to the present researchers that drug education played an important role on fighting drug abuse. Magdale’s study is related to the present in a way that they both attempted to find out the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the students and they differed in a way that the present study. The finding of Magdale was helpful to the present work because the researchers tended to find out if the home and environment was one factor of having knowledge and awareness regarding drugs.
Conceptual Frame Work
The conceptual frame work used the Input – process – output model.
Input Process Output
The figure shows the relationship of independent variable which is the profile of the students; the process which is the analysis and correlation of the student profile to the level of awareness towards drug education and its implication to drug education instruction. The input presents the profile of the students in terms of age, sex, family background consisting of educational attainment of parents and occupation of parents, and the level of awareness towards drug education, The process and the implication as output. Analysis and correlation of the student profile is taken as the process and the implication to drug education instruction us the output.
This chapter present the research design, the subject of the study, the data gathering procedure, the data gathering instrument used and the statistical treatment of data.
The main purpose of the study is to measure the extents of the sensitivity of students about drug education in BSU-JPLPC, Malvar Campus.
For this reason, the study made use of descriptive – correlation type of research, which is a fact finding research with adequate interpretation. According to Sanchez (1997) descriptive research includes all studies that purport to present facts concerning that nature and status of any thing, a group of person, a number of objects, a sat of condition, a class of event, a system of thought or any other kind of phenomena in with may aids to this study. Correlational study in one that determine the degree of relationship between two or more traits, behavior, or events.
Subject of the Study
The subject involved in this study are compose of 100 BS. Criminology students of Batangas State University – JPLPC Malvar Campus. This sample
size was computed based from the slovin’s formula at 5% marginal error. These students were taken from the total population of three hundred (300) criminology students through random sampling technique. See table 1 to determine the total population distribution by criminology students with the sample size of the study.
Population and sample of the study
|Course |Population |Sample Size | |BS. Crim 421 |30 |10 | |BS. Crim 321 |30 |10 | |BS. Crim 222 |35 |20 | |BS. Crim 321 |40 |20 | |BS. Crim 114 |40 |10 | |BS.Crim 113 |40 |10 | |BS. Crim 112 |40 |10 | |BS. Crim 111 |40 |10 | |TOTAL |300 |100 |
The main data gathering instrument was the set of questionnaire administered to the criminology students. The questionnaire was distributed personally by the researchers.
This questionnaire was composed of two major parts. Part 1was concerned about the respondents profile such as sex, parental employment, age and media exposure. Part 2 dealt with their perceived determinant of their awareness in drug education. For the interpretation of the questionnaire the researchers used the point value scale with the respondents get description to the following, and for the interpretation of results a criterion was formulate and adopted. Following showed the categories used:
|Point value |numerical |verbal |verbal | |Scale |equivalent |Interpretation on media exposure|Interpretation on level of | | | | |awareness | |5 |4.2 – 5.0 |Very well expose |Very highly aware | |4 |3.4 – 4.1 |Well expose |Highly aware | |3 |2.6 – 3.3 |Moderate expose |Moderately aware | |2 |1.8 – 2.5 |Expose |Aware | |1 |1 – 1.7 |Not expose |Not aware |
The construction of the questionnaire was done through the self of the research adviser. Comment and suggestion were given by the adviser and other teachers to improve the questionnaire.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers prepared the draft of the questionnaire to ensure the content and clarity of the items. Through the help of the adviser and other instruction, the questionnaire was checked and changes were made. It was type and photocopied and then distributed to the respondents. Through the assistance of all the deans of colleges and registrar, the researchers determined the total population of the respondents. For the proper administration of questionnaire, the researchers asked permission, with the aid of formal letter, addressed to the campus administrator. The questionnaire was administrated to three hundred (300) college students. The researchers personally distributed the questionnaire. After retrieving the entire accomplished questionnaire, the data were tallied, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Statistical Treatment of Data
The data gathered through the use of questionnaire were tallied, analyzed and interpreted using statistical tools most appropriate for the study. The researchers used the frequency, percentage distribution, weighted mean and chi-square as tools for data analysis. Frequency. This was used to determined the distribution of the respondents’ profile. Percentage. This was used to determined the respondent’s profile. Weighted mean. This was used to determined the extent of students sensitivity about drug education. Chi-square, This was used to determine the significant relationship between the students profile and the extent of sensitivity of students regarding drug education.