Identification , Authentication , and Authorization Techniques Authentication
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Authentication is used by a server when the server needs to know exactly who is accessing their information or site. Authentication is used by a client when the client needs to know that the server is system it claims to be. In authentication, the user or computer has to prove its identity to the server or client. Usually, authentication by a server entails the use of a user name and password. Other ways to authenticate can be through cards, retina scans, voice recognition, and fingerprints. Authentication by a client usually involves the server giving a certificate to the client in which a trusted third party such as Verisign or Thawte states that the server belongs to the entity (such as a bank) that the client expects it to. Authentication does not determine what tasks the individual can do or what files the individual can see. Authentication merely identifies and verifies who the person or system is. Authorization
Authorization is a process by which a server determines if the client has permission to use a resource or access a file. Authorization is usually coupled with authentication so that the server has some concept of who the client is that is requesting access. The type of authentication required for authorization may vary; passwords may be required in some cases but not in others. In some cases, there is no authorization; any user may be use a resource or access a file simply by asking for it. Most of the web pages on the Internet require no authentication or authorization. Encryption
Encryption involves the process of transforming data so that it is unreadable by anyone who does not have a decryption key. The Secure Shell (SSH) and Socket Layer (SSL) protocols are usually used in encryption processes. The SSL drives the secure part of “https://” sites used in e-commerce sites (like E-Bay and Amazon.com.) All data in SSL transactions is encrypted between the client (browser) and the server (web server) before the data is transferred between the two. All data in SSH sessions is encrypted between the client and the server when communicating at the shell. By encrypting the data exchanged between the client and server information like social security numbers, credit card numbers, and home addresses can be sent over the Internet with less risk of being intercepted during transit.