History of Abnormal Psychology
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History of Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal psychology has been around for 100 years. During this time there have been many different theories of what cause a person to have abnormal behavior that go far back as the biblical time. Over time scientist and doctors have developed diagnostic criteria and treatment for abnormal behaviors. The study of abnormal psychology looks at aspect of life, internal and external factors that can contribute to abnormal behavior. Origins of Psychology
History of psychology dates back century ago with people who spoke words of wisdom, the many philosopher’s teachers who words spoke of intelligence. Philosophers relied on observation and logic to draw conclusions. The philosophers of the early centuries, had interest in the world and, the things in it, how things work and what makes them function. Philosophers of early times relied on methods such as observation and logic; however psychologists in this age use scientific methods in the study human thought and behavior. According to psychology historian (Morton Hunt), an experiment performed by the King of Egypt, as far back as the seventh century B.C. can be considered the first psychology experiment. The king interest lied in knowing if Egypt was the oldest civilization on earth. People like Newton, Darwin, and Freud changed the course of the history of science. Johns Locke, a philosopher who also was trained in medicine, had an impact on psychology; the way humans acquire knowledge and understand the world and education. Locke believed that a person environment had a much effect on behavior. Wilhelm Wundt’s approach to psychological experimentation moved psychological study from philosophy and the natural sciences and used physiological experimental techniques in the laboratory. Also Sigmund Freud founder of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic approach of psychology. Evolution of Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal psychology as a scientific discipline has been around for 100 years; however, the beginning of abnormal psychology most likely have the works of Hippocrates believed that diseases and mental illness were caused by disorder of an imbalanced of fluids in the body. Hippocrates introduced a perspective view pointing to what is abnormal psychology. “The study of psychology has a long history of the methods of foundational and non-foundational thinking. Non-foundational forms of psychology included mental illness to spirits and unknown evils that could only be cured with barbaric forms of neurosurgery and religious practices”. The evolution of psychology recycles old ideas into new discoveries. Using what was learned or discovered has great impact on the work of science today. Mental illness thought to be some kind of spiritual sickness that conspired with evil spirits or being possessed by demons. During this time the way to cure mental illness was by trephination the procedure called for hole driven in the frontal lobe of the brain to release the demons thought causing mental illness.
“The Hippocratic tradition shed light on the more biological aspects of psychology and helped many thinkers to employ a more foundational approach to psychology that required observation and knowledge of the nervous system and its functions”. During the middle age mental illness was brought about with some kind of relation with witches and demons. Those that did fall into mental illness were ostracized by the community believing they were plotting with the devil. Avicenna, an expert Islamic diagnostician and physician Johann Weyer did not believe mental illness was caused by demons and evil spirits; outright rejected the belief that madness was caused by evil spirits. Paracelus, a Swiss chemist, argued madness was not of spiritual nature but rather a disease that could be treated clinically (Rescorla). This change ended the demon and evil spirit thinking and brought a new classification of mental disorders. Different Theoretical Viewpoints
The earliest descriptions of abnormal behavior were drawn from religious ideology and simplistic biological concepts (Meyer, Chapman & Weaver, 2009). Centuries ago it was thought to be the spiritual concepts defined what was normal and abnormal. Abnormal behavior goes way back to the Bible days when people were ostracized for leprosy and women stoned because they were thought to be evil. In the primitive days abnormal behavior was looked at as possessed by demons and evil spirit. The procedure of trephination was cutting into the skull and releases the evil spirit to cure the individual. Information accumulates there will be continues change the understanding of the concepts of normality. Defining what is normal and abnormal have changed over time, bringing about a scientific foundation of major theoretical concepts. Sigmund Freud the founder of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic approach of psychology. Freud theories of the conscious and unconscious showed a different way of thinking about behavior. Psychoanalytical perspectives grew as other theorist developed his or her own theories that contribute to abnormal behavior, to name a few Alfred Adler and Carl Jung.
Biological psychology or biopsychology is the study of the mind and behaviors and genetics. Psychologist continues to do research in this hoping to find answers to the mental process and also ways to treating individuals with mental illness. Biological psychology is the study of human and animals and study of the behavior. Biological psychology studies every aspect of the mind, behavioral neuroscience focus on relationship the brain and mind. Psychological
The two requirements for using psychological needs is to explain behavior. Measuring the intensity of a psychological need, and the second is to show that this intensity come together with the magnitude of a need to satisfying behavior. Example is hierarchy of needs, physiological needs. Social
Social psychology early influences were people like Aristotle one of many philosophers, he saw from his observation perspective, people are naturally sociable. Plato viewed more on the socio-centered approach, society was encouraged social responsibility. Social psychology studies the intimacy and family relationships between people trying to understand behaviors. There is a wide scope of research to the study of social psychology. Social psychology study attitudes, emotions our inner feelings that make one behave in a certain manner.
American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 and started with 31 members and has grown enormously. Psychology is a science that men and women have pondered on and continue to search for answers to questions of the how and why people behave as they do. Psychology is a science that man will always have questions as new theories are presented. Abnormal psychology has been around for some time, to truly understand abnormal behavior there should be some background knowledge of the subject of psychology. From the beginning of time abnormal behavior have been interests. Psychology is a science so broad and many different thoughts and theories as it continue to advance.
Hansell, J., & Damour, L. (2008). Abnormal psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Rescorla, Leslie A. “History of Psychopathology from the Middle Ages to the 19th Century.” Abnormal Psychology. Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr. 26 Jan. 2009. Hunt, Morton (1993). The Story of Psychology. New York: Doubleday. Meyer, R Chapman, L and Weaver, C(2009). Case Studies in Abnormal Behavior (8th ed). Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.