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What is Inclusive Education Argumentative

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Nowadays, much attention is being given to inclusive education. several theorists define inclusive education in different ways. For instance, Fuchs & Fuchs (1994) defines education as a solution which adopts a “one size fits all” methodology. Furthermore, Collins (2003, p. 449) finds that inclusion is ‘an educational philosophy that places a high value on the acquisition of social skills and holds that segregating students inhibits this acquisition’.

UNESCO (2009) describes inclusive education as a “process of strengthening the capacity of the education system to reach out to all learners”. Nevertheless, it must not be ignored that it is not that simple, as inclusive education requires many preparations in terms of planning, support and commitment, adequate school infrastructure, classrooms settings, programs for cooperative learning and participation, teachers training and more importantly the use of appropriate strategies to cater for all learning abilities.

Introduction Some years back due to lack of policies, special needs education has been relatively neglected. But nowadays, much importance is being given to inclusive education whereby children with special needs are given the opportunity to participate and learn together with children without disability. Moreover, educationalists are accepting the fact that there is no harm in merging the two types of children in one single classroom.

In fact, they believe that inclusive education can strengthen the educational outcomes and brings many positive things. This approach has allowed more children with disabilities in regular classrooms, thus making teachers to find every possible ways and support to cater for the needs and capabilities so as to make the education of these students as appropriate as possible. Moreover, with modernisation of the society and with the advancement of information and communication technologies, new hopes are emerging for persons with disabilities.

Means (1994) argues that the application of ICT, the way the teacher uses it can be used to tutor or to explore and most importantly can be used to communicate In fact, in the modern society ICT is known as a “tool for inclusion”. One way, is the use of ICT, which has become primordial in improving and enhancing the learning experiences of all students. Use of Ict to Support Children With Special Needs And Disabilities. 457200-317500Technology benefits special education classrooms in many ways for students who have various challenges.

The use of ICT has been proved to have a positive impact on students in the classroom as well as for the inclusion of children with special needs. ICT has become an important component in teaching and learning.

3. 1 easy access to curriculum First and foremost technology is used to give equal opportunities to all including pupils with special education needs in the sense that it improves access to the curriculum.

3. 2 develops skills and knowledge Many children with special needs find it difficult to be on the same level as their nondisabled classmates but thanks to technology these students are given the opportunities to take part in drill and practice, simulations, explorations, experimental or communication activities that match their abilities. In other words they help students develop skills and knowledge.

3. 3 software for special needs education Computers offer incredible opportunities to advance education in all types and ages of students.

There are actually a lot of different types of educational software which allow SEN pupils to participate more actively in a lesson or activity. Software for special needs education enable students to become more effective and independent learners. One of the most helpful software is the word prediction software. This software allows pupils to express their feelings and use words and ideas to reflect their thinking. Moreover, pupils or who have speech, audio or physical disabilities use ICT as a patient tutor allowing them to learn at their own pace.

3. 4 ict as a communication tool Students with learning difficulties can communicate more easily (Detheridge,1997) with their classamtes . In fact, ict can be used to perform networking activities using the internet to access and send information just like any other students.

3. 5 ICT promotes collaboration among learners.

3. 6 ict helps children with special needs be more independent. Using special softwares diabled, children can complete assignments by working alone and building a sense of achievement and independence.

3. 7 ICT gives them self-confidence Very often these children lack self-confidence but as said earlier, assistive technology and softwares boost up their confidence. For instance, text-to-speech software can have a text read aloud thus saving time if the pupils had to read it several time on his own. 3. 8 Promotes interrelationships Assistive technologies such as the telecommunication Devices for the Deaf (TDDs), Question 2 What is co-education in inclusive practice?

We are living in an era where teaching is no longer comprised of a teacher and 30 to 40 pupils in a classroom but instead Co-teaching is when two educators work together to plan, organize, instruct and make assessments on the same group of students, sharing the same classroom. In short, Co-teaching is two or more people sharing the responsibility of a single classroom with students having different learning abilities as well as those with disabilities. It is a practice that Benefits of co teaching.

According to Ferguson, Desjarlais, & Meyer, (2000), co-teaching in an inclusion classroom promotes interrelationship between teachers and Students with disabilities allowing them to have access to the general education curriculum. Students will have the opportunity to be taught in an intense, individualized manner providing them with greater instructional intensity and differentiated instruction Co-teaching is implemented through different models notably: One Teach, One Support: one teacher conducts the class while the other support.

Parallel Teaching: both teach the same lesson but to different group of pupils at the same time. Alternative Teaching: one teacher teaches most of the class while the other works with a small number for pupils. the latter do not follow the current lesson. Station Teaching: Both teachers divide the lesson and each one of them teaches part of the lesson, and each takes responsibility for planning and teaching part of it. Team Teaching: Both teachers take the responsibility of planning and sharing the instruction of all students. Both educators instruct class together.

However, for co-teaching to be implemented successfully, a lot of planning. needs to be done. But unfortunately co-teaching cam be difficult to implement due to some challenges. Barriers of co-teaching? finding time to plan. Barriers of Co- Teaching With benefits there always come barriers with it, because nothing is easy to achieve in life. It is also important to take a look at those barriers and get rid of them as early as possible. Some of them are more serious than others, but each one can cause individuals or schools difficulties. Lack of training or professional development

Teachers are often asked to “co- teach” without any pre- experience or training. They have no idea what it should or what it not should look like. The outcome was that teachers often had negative experience with co- teaching. In addition, those who managed to teach in in a team often reported that they had to spend way more time to figure out what is important for co- teaching and what should it include and that they would have needed to had some upfront training been provided to them. Personality or philosophical clashes Personalities matter.

If two people are put together over a longer term and have to work together, their personalites have to match in some certain ways. Especially regarding to childrens education, it is important that the two teachers can compromise, collaborate, and communicate. It is like with a relationship and children. If the parents do not enjoy beeing together, the children are not comfortable either. Same with teachers and students, if the students pick up their teacher’s bad vibes, the outcomes are generally negative – for students and teachers. Limited resources Resources are always a big issue in schools and co-teaching.

Resources might be human or material. Not enough teachers to co- teach in all desired classes. And on the material side, not enough desks, teacher’s guides. Resources can cause issue problems between teachers and administrators. Reluctance to lose control Control is hard to give up, especially for teachers who are used to be in control of different things (class, students, caseload, schedule, or content). Sharing this “power” is sometimes not easy for some of the teachers, particularly for teachers who have a different area of expertise. Lack of time Time is one of the biggest factors in co- teaching.

It takes more time to plan, because there will be a second person in the classroom who have to plan in. In the books time is often displayed as the biggest factor for successful co- teaching. While some teachers find ways to make time to plan and collaborate, others lament the lack of time and resort to simply providing in- class support or other options. I have never heard of a teacher who feels that he has sufficient time to do all the things he is asked to do as and educator. (Murawski, 2009) Many teachers need some practice and experience in co-teaching first to find time. Lack of administrative support

Administrators are involved in every part which is already mentioned. Administrators play a key role in: Providing teachers with professional development related to any new educational initiative Determing partnerships between co- teachers Obtaining and doling out resources among faculty and staff Creating the master schedule Enabling teachers to feel free to try new things and “lose a little conrol” Finding or creating time for teachers to plan, share, and collaborate Administrators set the tone for the success- of failure- of inclusive practises such as co- teaching. (Murawski, 2009)

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