Thesis with Definition of Terms
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In this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is considered as a first step for every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living. The quality of students’ performance remains at top priority for educators. It is meant for making a difference locally, regionally, nationally and globally. Educators, trainers, and researchers have long been interested in exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of performance of learners. These variables are inside and outside school that affect students’ quality of academic achievement. Learning (represented by academic performance in this study) of students is not confined in a closed space.
Different factors bombard this learning which can either enhance or undermine it. These include family factors, student-related factors, school related factors and teacher factors. Different theories can explain the learning behavior of learners that may affect their academic performance. Many IT students particularly from PUP Santa Rosa became an irregular student due to many factors. There are many factors that affect the academic status of selected IT students. Factors like the teaching methods of the professor, the availability of the student’s parents, financial standing of the student, facilities of the university.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The main problem of the study is the increasing amount of irregular IT students particularly in PUP Santa Rosa campus. This problem back fires the performance of the PUP Santa Rosa campus. If this problem continuous, PUP Santa Rosa campus may have many irregular students. Furthermore, it sought to answer the following: 1. Is there any significant relationship between the teaching method of the professor and the learning of the student? 2. 2. What are the characteristics of the BSIT students with regards to the following: a. family-related factors (educational attainment of parents, occupation of parents, family income and parent’s learning support) b. student factors (attitude, study habits, peer influence)
c. school-related factors (physical facilities)
3. What is the level of performance of the teacher with regards to teaching effectiveness as to commitment, knowledge of subject, teaching for independent learning and management of learning?
The concept of mentoring has been around for a long time and stems from Homer’s Odyssey. Mentoring is now looked at as a “promising approach for enriching children’s lives ( w.webspace.ship.edu/cgboer /erikson.html). According to George Herbert Mead’s theory of social learning, children begin to perceive themselves from the perspective of the generalized other, the community as a whole. Knowing the norms and values of society, children can begin to know how their actions are perceived by the generalized other. Mead said that everyone has an “I” and a “me.” The “I” is the individual or the true self and the “me” is the way one acts in different social situations under the norms of society. Through social interaction people learn the acceptable “me”. Mead felt that children develop their “selves” through social interaction. Children begin to pattern their “selves” after a role model (www.webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/ erikson.html). This theoretical framework can be applied to the thesis that mentoring has positive effects on children. The mentor acts as the generalized other and serves as a role model to the student who begins to imitate the mentor.
This then reflects the positive effect of mentoring. The student changes his/her “me” to conform to the norms of society, and the mentor is the role model whom the 5 student uses to pattern his/her “me” (www.webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/ erikson.html). Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages and described the impact of social experience across the lifespan (http://www. termpaperslab.com/term-papers/154593.html). During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self (www.psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psycholsocial.htm). They explore different possibilities for career, interests, friends, etc. At this age, adolescents are trying different behaviors and values from what they have learned at home (www.fractaldomains.com/devpsych/ erikson.htm).
Those adolescences who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future (www.psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psycholsocial.htm). They are trying to define themselves separate from their parents, although, in the end, most adolescents adopt many of their parents’ same values and behaviors as well as unique views of their own (www.fractaldomains.com/devpsych/erickson.htm)
According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also 6 motivates behaviors and actions (http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesof personality/a/psychosocial.htm). During this stage also, adolescents may feel the pressure of the conflicting demands on which they are faced. Because of these pressures, adolescents often feel helpless from the adversities they encounter. The learned helplessness theory of Martin Seligman explained why many people give up or stop short when faced with life’s challenges. For this reason, this theory is the most significant ingredient in the formation of AQ®. Likewise, it is considered by the American Psychological Association as the Landmark Theory of the Century (http://stitchestm. blogspot.com/2007/09/adversityquotient-aq-emerging.html).
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research will benefit the students to become more interested in what they are doing and also much more motivated to study and get high remarks.
The universities will be more prominent because of the high remarks that they will get if their students are intellectually and mentally enhanced from the way their professor’s educate. Parents
Parents will also be affected because they will be delighted in that their children are improving in their studies. Community
It will affect the future of community to be progressive and advanced. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This study is conducted to know the reasons why there is an increasing amount of irregular students particularly IT students of PUP Santa Rosa. The study will be conducted within the school premises and selected places. It will only be limited to the provided data and information that are revied. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Adolescence – to grow up
Adversities – sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy.
Acquire – buy or obtain (an object or asset) for oneself.
Bombard – attack (a place or person) continuously with bombs, shells, or other missiles. Competence – the ability to do something successfully or efficiently. Delighted – happening or developing gradually or in stages; proceeding step by step. Ego – the action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope. Encouragement – the action of giving someone support, confidence, or hope. Era – is a time of time marked by character, events, changes on earth, Globalization – is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. Imitate – become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand. Irregular – students that have been failed to their some certain subjects. Leam – a gleam of light : radiance
Norms – become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand. Perceive – become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand. Progressive – happening or developing gradually or in stages; proceeding step by step. Prominent – important and well-known
Reinforcement – the action or process of reinforcing or strengthening. Significant – sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy.
Technological – of, relating to, or using technology
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Theory of Educational Productivity by Walberg (1981) determined three groups of nine factors based on affective, cognitive and behavioral skills for optimization of learning that affect the quality of academic performance: Aptitude (ability, development and motivation); instruction (amount of quality); environment (home, classroom, peers and television) (Roberts, 2007).
Educational services are often not tangible and are difficult to measure because they result in the form of transformation of knowledge, life skills and behavior modifications of learners (Tsindou, Gerogiannis, & Fitsilis, 2010) So there is no commonly agreed upon definition of quality that is applied to education field. The definition of quality of education varies from culture to culture (Michael, 1998).
The environment and the personal characteristics of learner play an important role in their academic success. The school personnel, members of the families and communities provide help and support to students for the quality of their academic performance. This social assistance has a crucial role for the accomplishment of performance goals of students at school (Goddard, 2003). Besides the social structure, Parents’ involvement in their child’s education increases the rate of academic success of their child (Furstenberg & Hughes, 1995). Having sufficient classrooms (space) and teaching staff characterize students who have higher achievements. Schools whose students do well are those with teachers who have hardly reported any resource storage like overcrowding, inadequate work space, and supplies required to conduct classrooms. The school climate must support academic success.
It must focus on achieving academic goals and provide an environment that is conducive to learning. Bullying in school has a strong negative effect on student performance highlighting the need for a school to be a safe and orderly environment for children. A well prepared teaching force is necessary for student achievement. Teacher quality comes from good preparation in subject content as well as pedagogy. But preparation is only one part. Experience counts – good students come from classes whose teachers have ten years of experience. And equally important, satisfaction in career counts. A teacher who is happy produces better students. (Angel C. de Dios, 2012)
Hunter (1980) cited studies conducted by Hunter and McCouts. Using the Canfield Learning Styles Inventory, they collected data from 1,000 students at Sinclair Community College in Dayton, Ohio. Important learning style differences where shown on 12 of 16 profile scales with respect to age group. Older students preferred reading organization, detail, qualitative and listening. Younger students preferred affiliation with peers and teachers, iconics, direct experience, and inaminates. Some studies were effective in identifying significant interactions between preferred learning styles and preferred teaching styles while others were not.
Zippert (1985) conducted research to investigate whether teaching strategies that matched assessed learning styles of students produced a higher level of achievement. The site of her research was Miles College—Eutaw, Greene County, Alabama. The Productivity Environmental Preference Survey was used to assess learning styles preferences. The College Level Examination Program (CLEP) Social Studies and History examination was used as the measurement of achievement. Subject consisted of 30 students. Fifteen students were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 15 were assigned to the control group. Students in the control group received instruction through conventional methods, whereas instruction was modified to correspond to the learning style preferences of students in the experimental group. Zippert concluded that “students can identify their individual learning preferences and tend to respond positively to teaching methods which are constant with their preferred mode of learning”.
The classroom climate influences the student achievement, their self-esteem and participation in the lesson. The most important aspect of classroom climate is the relationship between teacher and students. There must be elements of caring, trust and respect in the interpersonal relationships between teachers and students. An effective classroom climate is one in which the teachers’ authority to organize and manage the learning activities is accepted by the students. There is mutual respect and good rapport, and the atmosphere is one of purposefulness and confidence in learning. A key consideration is the extent to which the teacher is able to foster favorable perceptions towards learning among students, by establishing in students self-respect and self-esteem regarding themselves as learners.
(http://www.articlesbase.com/educationarticles/creating-conducive-classroom-climate- 256406.htm )
The researchers, employed the survey test design. This design or type of research measured the dependent variable at a subsequent time. By using this design, It is easy to determine what factors are affecting the performance of irregular and regular IT students of PUP Santa Rosa Campus. The researchers, conducted the survey test on the dependent variable, selected irregular and regular students of PUP Santa Rosa, which was used as a basis with the result of the whole research. This type of research design helps determine the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable. The independent variables which are the factors that affect the performance of the students. The researchers conducted a survey and tallied the number of respondents, the dependent variable. The results of the survey will be the main basis for the whole research. SOURCES OF DATA
The respondents of the study are composed of 50 out of 109 IT first year students which comprise of 15% irregular students and 85% regular students. All of the 50 respondents came from the course BSIT. The respondents came from the first year students, 85% are regular students, the remaining 15% have back subjects. The respondents were using random sampling method. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
The data for this research were collected using a survey questionnaire. The survey was created using suitable questions modified from related research and individual questions formed by the researchers. The survey was comprised of 20 questions, which were related to the respondent’s perception regarding the factors that affect student’s performance. In the questionnaire, Multiple choice was used as it’s format, the respondents choose the answer in the choices according to their own perception. The survey were distributed to the first year BSIT students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Santa Rosa.
The researchers assured confidentiality of their survey sheets since the identities of the respondents are not important. The researchers also understood that the people’s consciousness may also affect their honesty and effectiveness in answering the survey, and so, the researchers gave people the option of being anonymous. The respondents were given time to answer the survey sheets and then the researchers collected the surveys after the aloted time. There were no incentives offered for participating in the research. Next, the researchers tallied the results of the survey.
Mean, Standard deviation, correlation and regression analysis are used through appropriate statistical package. In getting the sample size, the researchers used the Sloven’s formula which is, n= , N stands for the whole population of the first year BSIT students who were enrolled in the year 2014-2015, while e, stands for the margin of error, the researchers used 0.01 as the margin of error. The data collected were tabulated and analyzed. Analysis of data were guided by mean and percentage. Sloven’s formula
N = total population
e = margin of error
N = 100 first year BSIT students
E = 0.10%