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Period of Enlightenment in the Philippines (1872-1898)

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Historical Background – The Filipino Spirit reawakened when the three priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt. This was buttressed with the spirit of liberalism when the Philippines opened its doors to the world trade and with the coming of liberal leader in the person of Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre. Propaganda Movement – This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intellectual mid-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo Del Pilar, Garciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariono Ponce, Jose Ma. Panganiban and Pedro Paterno. The objectives of this movement were to seek reforms and changes like the following: 1. To get equal treatment for the Filipinos and the Spaniards under the law. 2. To make the Philippines colony of Spain. 3. To restore Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes. 4. To Filipinize the parishes.

5. To give the Filipinos freedom of speech, of the press, assembly and for redress of grievances. Dr. Jose P. Rizal – Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonzo y Realonda was born on June 19, 1961 at Calamba, Laguna. His first teacher was his mother Teodora Alonzo. He studied at the Ateneo de Manila, started medicine at UST and finished at the Universidad Central of Madrid. He also studied at the University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg. He died on December 30, 1896 . His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang.His books and writings: 1. NOLI ME TANGERE – This was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. The NOLI gave the Philippine literature the immortal characters Maria Clara, Juan Crisostomo Ibarra, Elias, Sisa, Pilosopong Tasio, Doña Victorina, Kapitana Maria, Basilio and Crispin. 2. EL FILIBUSTERISMO – This is the sequel to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the evils in the society, the FILI exposed those in the government and in the church.

3. MI ULTIMO ADIOS ( My Last Farewell ) – This is the poem by Rizal while he was incarcerated in at Fort Santiago and is one that can compare favorably with the best in the world. 4. SOBRE LA INDOCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS ( On The Indolence of the Filipinos ) – An essay on the so-called Filipino Indolence and the evaluation on the reason on such allegations. 5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CIEN AÑOS ( The Philippines within a Century ) – An essay predicting the increasing influence of the US in the Philippines and the decreasing interest of Europe here. 6. A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA ( To the Filipino Youth ) — A poem Rizal dedicated to the Filipino youth studying at UST 7. EL CONSEJO DE LOS DIOSES ( The Council of the Gods ) — An allegorical play manifesting admiration for the Cervantes. 8. JUNTO AL PASIG ( Beside the Pasig River ) — Written by Rizal when he was 14 years of age.

9. ME PIDEN VERSOS ( You Asked Me for Verses ) : 1882 and A LAS FLORES DE HEIDELBERG ( To the Flowers of Heidelberg ) — Two poems manifesting Rizal’s unusual depth of emotion. 10. NOTAS A LA OBRA SUCESOS DE LAS FILIPINAS FOR EL DR. ANTONIO DE MORGA ( Notes on Philippine Events by Dr. Antonio de Morga ) : 1889 11. P. JACINTO: MEMORIAS DE UN ESTUDIANTE DE MANILA ( P. Jacinto: Memoirs of a Student of Manila ) 1882. 12. DIARIO DE VIAJE DE NORTE AMERICA ( Diary of a Voyage to North America ) MARCELO H. DEL PILAR—Popularly known for his pen name of Plaridel, Pupdoh, Piping Dilat and Dolores Manapat. He started schooling at the school of Mr. Flores and then transferred to that of San Jose before UST to study Law. He is the founder of the Diariong Tagalog in 1882. He was assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in publishing a different Catechism and Passion Book wherein they made fun of the priests. He died of tuberculosis in Spain. His last words were to for his wife and children telling them how sorry he was for he wasn’t able to bid them goodbye; to tell others about the fate of our countrymen and to continue helping the country.

His works were: 1. PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA : (LOVE OF COUNTRY): Translated from the Spanish AMOR PATRIA of Rizal, published on August 20, 1882 in Diariong Tagalog. 2. KAIINGAT KAYO (BE CAREFUL) : A humorous and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriguez in the novel NOLI ME TANGHERE of Rizal, 3. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN (PRAYERS AND JOKES : Similar to a catechism but sarcastically done against the parish priests. It was because of this, del Pilar was called a “Filibuster”. Done in an admirable tone of supplication and excellent use of Tagalog. 4. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS (GOD’S GOODNESS) : It was also like a catechism sarcastically aimed against the parish priests but also contains a philosophy of the power and intelligence of God and an appreciation for and love for nature.

5. SAGOT SA ESPANYA SA HIBIK NG PILIPINAS (ANSWER TO SPAIN ON THE PLEA OF THE FILIPINOS) : A poem pleasing for change from Spain but that Spain is already old and weak to grant any aid to the Philippines. 6. DUPLUHAN… DALIT.. MGA BUGTONG ( A POETICAL CONTEST IN NARRATIVE SEQUENCE, PSALMS, RIDDLES ) : A compilation of poems on the oppression by the priests in the Philippines. 7. LA SOBERANIA EN PILIPINAS ( SOVEREIGNTY IN THE PHILIPPINES ) : This shows the injustices of the friars to the Pilipinos. 8. POR TELEFONO (BY TELEPHONE)

9. PASIONG DAPAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NG TAONG BABASA ( PASSION THAT SHOULD AROUSE THE HEARTS OF THE READERS.) Graciano Lopez Jaena (1856 – 1896) – He was born on December 18, 1856. His pen name is Diego Laura. The most notable hero and genius of the Phillipines. Pride of Jaro, Iloilo. Known orator and writer in the Phillipines. He wrote 100 speeches published by Remigio Garcia. He left the Philippines in 1887 in order to escape punishment from his enemies and arrived at Valencia. He moved to Barcelona where he established the first magazine LA SOLIDARIDAD. He returned to the Philippines to ask for donations to continue a new government called EL LATIGO NACIONAL or PAMBANSANG LATIGO. He died in a charity hospital in Barcelona on January 20,1896 eleven months before his best friend Rizal was shot.The Works of Graciano Lopez Jaena: 1. ANG FRAY BOTOD (Friar Botod) – one of his works in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in the Philippines.

2. LA HIJA DEL FRAIL (The Child of the Friar) and EVERYTHING IS HAMBUG (Everything is mere how) – explains the tragedy of marrying Spaniards. 3. SA MGA PILIPINO….1891…. – a speech which aimed to improve the condition of the Filipinos to become free and progressive. 4. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY KOLUMBUS (An Oration to Commemorate Columbus) – a speech he delivered in Madrid on the 39th anniversary of the discovery of America. 5. EN HONOR DEL PRESIDENTE MORAYTA DE LA ASSOCIACION HISPANO FILIPINO 1884 – here he praised Gen. Morayta for his equal treatment of the Filipinos. 6. EN HONOR DE LOS ARTISTAS LUNA Y RESURRECCION HIDALGO 1884 – sincere expression of praise for the paintings of Hidalgo on the condition of the Filipinos under Spaniards. 7. AMOR A ESPANA O A LAS JOVENES DE MALOLOS (Love for Spain or To the Youth of Malolos) – the theme is about how girls were taught Spanish in schools and whose teachers were the governors- general of the place.

8. EL BANDOLERISMO EN PILIPINAS (Banditry in the Philippines) – he refuted the existence of banditry in the Philippines and of how there should be laws on robbery and other reforms. 9. HONOR EN PILIPINAS (Honor in the Philippines)- the triumphant exposition of Luna, Resurrecion and Pardo de Tavera of the thesis that intellect or knowledge gives honor to the Philippines. 10. PAG-ALIS SA BUWIS SA PILIPINAS (Abolition of Taxes in the Philippines) 11. INSTITUCION NG PILIPINAS (Sufferings of the Philippines) – refers here to the wrong management of education in the Philippines 1887. ANTONIO LUNA – was a pharmacist who was banished by the Spaniards to Spain. He joined the Propaganda Movement and contributed his writings to LA SOLIDARIDAD. His pen name was TAGAILOG. He died at the age of 33 in June 1899. He was put to death by the soldiers of Aguinaldo.

Some of his works were: NOCHE BUENA (Christmas Eve): It pictured true Filipino life. SE DEVIERTEN (How They Diverted Themselves): A dig at a dance of the Spaniards where the people were very crowded. LA TERTULIA FILIPINA( A Filipino Conference or Feast): Depicts a Filipino custom which he believed was much better than Spanish. POR MADRID (For Madrid): A denouncement of Spaniards who claim that the Philippines is a colony of Spain but who think of Filipinos as foreigners when it comes to collecting taxes for stamps. LA CASA DE HUESPEDES (The Landlady’s House): Depicts a landlady who looks for boarders not for money but in order to get a husband for her child. MARIANO PONCE (March 23, 1863 – May 23, 1918) – He was born in Baliwag, Bulacan where he completed his primary education. He later enrolled at the Colegio de San Jose de Letran and took up medicine at the University of Santo Tomas.

In 1881, Ponce became an active member of the Propaganda Movement, working shoulder to shoulder with outstanding Filipino patriots like Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar. He was, in fact, a close friend of Jose Rizal. He helped Graciano Lopez Jaena found La Solidaridad. In 1896, he was arrested and imprisoned in Barcelona on suspicion of being somehow involved in the uprising. He became an editor-in-chief, biographer, and researcher of the Propaganda Movement and used Tikbalang, Kalipulako, and Naning as pennames. He also wrote about how the Filipinos were oppressed by the foreigners and of the problems of his countrymen. Among his writings were:

1. MGA ALAMAT NG BULACAN (Legend of Bulacan) – contains legends, and folklores of his native town.
2 . PAGPUGOT KAY LONGINOS (The Beheading of Longinus) – play shown at the plaza of Malolos, Bulacan. The theme of the play was about the resentment of the Filipinos int the hands of the Spaniards.
3. SOBRE FILIPINOS (About the Filipinos)

4. ANG MGA PILIPINO SA INDO-TSINA (The Filipinos in Indo-China) PEDRO PATERNO (February 17, 1857 – April 26, 1911) – Pedro Alejandro Paterno y de Vera Ignacio, was a Filipino politician who has been called “the greatest turncoat in Philippine history”. He finished Bachiller en Artes in Ateneo de Manila and continued his studies at University of Salamanca. Here he took courses Philosophy and Theology, then he moved to the Central University of Madrid where he also graduated expertise in law in 1880. Paterno was a scholar, dramatic, researcher and novelist of the Propaganda Movement.

He also joined the Confraternity of Masons and the Asociacion Hispano-Pilipino in order to further the aims of the Movement. He was the first Filipino writer who escaped censorship of the press during the last day of the Spanish colonization. His Writings: 1. NINAY – the first novel authored by a native Filipino. This novel marked the beginning of the awakening of national consciousness among the Ilustrados. 2. A MI MADRE (To My Mother) – shows the importance of a mother. 3. SAMPAGUITA Y POESIAS VARIAS (Sampaguitas and Varied Poems) – a collection of his poems.

This book of poetry had five successive editions. The book contains poems those are religious, filial, and about love. The lead poem was La Cruz, meaning “The Cross”. JOSE MA PANGANIBAN (February 1, 1863 – August 19, 1890) – Jose Ma. Panganiban y Enverga was a Bicolano propagandist, linguist and essayist. He is one of the main writer and contributor for La Solidaridad, writing under the pen names “Jormapa” and “J.M.P.”. He was also known for having a photographic mind. He was a member of number movements for the country such as the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina and La Solidaridad because he believed in instituting reforms in the Philippines. Being one of the writers of the La Solidaridad, he called the attention of the Spaniards on the freedom of the press and criticized the educational system in the Philippines. Some of his writings were: 1. ANG LUPANG TINUBUAN (My Native Land)

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