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How far do you agree that the consolidation of fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-1929 was mainly due to the use of force and intimidation?

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How far do you agree that the consolidation of fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-1929 was mainly due to the use of force and intimidation?

Mussolini consolidation of fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-1929 could have been mainly due to the use of force and intimidation. However this was not a straightforward process, since fascism was a new thing. In the years 1922 to January 1925 marked the transition from the liberal parliamentary system to the fascist state. Like many political transitions, it was an untidy and complicated process. Although from the start Mussolini’s intentions were quite difficult to establish, however it could be that Mussolini wanted to set up from the beginning a totalitarian one party state.

The first consolidation of fascist power was to strengthen his position in certain aspects. Such as he had to strengthen his position in the government, he still continued his threats of violence to opposition such as the socialists who were very popular since they believed in helping the working class and setting up trade unions to help people improve their work/life conditions each other, so many Italians were on their side. Mussolini’s position as prime minister in October 1922 was by no means secure, the king was still able to at any time dismiss him if any opposition to the fascist party was high and people wanted an alternative government. From the start Mussolini intimidated his opponents and rivals.

In 1922 November the 16th he held his first speech as prime minister, he claimed he could with 300,00 black shirts behind him create a fascist government if he wanted to, the parliament responded to his disguised threat by giving the government new votes of confidence. Ex prime ministers Giolitti and facta voted in favour, and he was granted emergency powers. He also had to strengthen his position in the party he created a fascist grand council to consolidate only fascist ideas in December 1922. He also made squads into MSVN, which reduced RAS influence and gave him a private paid for by the state. He also finally had to strengthen his position with the elite such as; the churches by promising to ban contraception make R.E compulsory in state schools, also by offering to aid the church financially. The confindustria and the landowners by destroying socialism, his economic policies suited them and he allowed them to water down fascist syndicalism. With the nationalists because of the strength shown in Corfu incident 1923 and finally negotiate in for the Fiume in 1924.

Another step in consolidation of fascist power was by reforming the electoral system. In February 1923, Mussolini and the Fascist Grand Council introduced the Acerbo Law. This law changed the election system, so now if one party got just 25% or more of the votes they would automatically get 66% of the seats. Many politicians agreed to vote for the acerbo law to be put in place a decision they had to make if they didn’t want their political careers to be over if they were not fascists. They mostly all agreed to this law because the place where all the politicians were was armed with fascists thugs who had a good view of everyone also were ready at anytime out number someone who didn’t agree with the acerbo law, so if they voted yes they would be fine but if they didn’t then they would definitely be in danger from fascists thugs.

Another step in consolidation of fascist power was because of the Mateotti crisis in June 1924. Mussolini was in a strong position and could use his illegal powers within state for his interests however he did not have dictatorial powers and Mateotti was his turning point. Mussolini position in the start of the crisis was weak. 30 of may 1924 Mateotti stood to his feet in the Italian chambers and exposed the fascists violence towards the parliamentary election and demanded them to be annulled however during his speech he was interrupted many times however he still continued 2 hours later with his speech, he knew the cost for his outbreak and knew he would have to pay for going against the fascist but he didn’t care he even said when he was leaving the chambers ‘now you can prepare my funeral oration’, shows that he knows that he is going to die but he doesn’t care because he knows what he has done is right. And Mateotti was right 11 days later he was abducted into a car bundled and stabbed to death and left naked in a shallow grave 23 kilometers form Rome.

It soon emerged many fascist leaders such as filipelli who owned the car and Mussolini himself was implicated to the murder. 6 months later Mussolini said a speech taking responsibility for fascist violence however he denied ordering murdering matteotti’s murder, this speech was followed with a number of arrest and repressive actions that marked the beginning of dictatorship and decrees where made gradually over the next 2 years. The most important of these decrees was granted Mussolini head of government was not passed until December 1925 eighteen months after matteotti’s murder.

The final step in consolidation of fascist power was dictatorship, under which freedoms and safeguards were replaced by a system concentrated on the power of one man, to do so arrest had to be done, OVRA was set up which is a volunteering organisation for the repression of anti-fascist; secret police, abolishing elected local governments, abolishing trade unions and removing opponents.

The consolidation of fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-1929 was mainly due to the use of force and intimidation, because from all his steps to consolidate power force and intimidation played a major role in order for people to do what he wants so he gets his way. Force and intimidation was the only tactic the fascist knew that was easy to establish they knew with this tactic which is violence would bring fear and with fear brings control and with control brings power and this was what the fascist hoped to achieve which they did.

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