First Propaganda Movement
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Varela would then retire from politics but his nationalism was carried on by another Creole, one Pedro Peláez, who campaigned for the rights of Filipino priests (Creoles, Mestizos and Indios) and pressed for secularization of Philippine parishes. He reasoned out the same point Sancho had, friars are for missions on areas that are still pagan. The Latin American revolutions and decline of friar influence in Spain resulted in the increase of the regular clergy (Peninsular friars) in the Philippines. Filipino priests (Creoles, Mestizos and Indios) were being replaced by Spanish friars (Peninsulares) and Peláez demanded explanation as to the legality of replacing a secular with regulars—which is in contradiction to theExponi nobis. Peláez brought the case to the Vatican and almost succeeded if not for an earthquake that cut his career short.
The earthquake struck on June 3, 1863, during the feast of Corpus Christi. The ideology would be carried by his more militant disciple, José Burgos. Demonstrations became a norm in Manila during the 1860s. One of the first of a series of demonstrations was during the transfer of the remains of former Governor-General Simón de Anda y Salazar from the Manila Cathedral after the 1863 earthquake. Anda was a hero for the natives because he fought friar power during his term, and he established a separate government in Bacolor during the British occupation of Manila. On the day of the transfer, a young Indio priest approached the coffin and laid a laurel wreath dedicated by “The Secular Clergy of the Philippines” to Don Simón de Anda. Then, a young Indio student went to the coffin and offered a crown of flowers. Lastly, a number of gobernadorcillos went to do their own salutations for Don Simón de Anda. Since none of those acts were in the program, the Spanish saw that it was a secretly planned demonstration.
Though no one told who the mastermind was, there were rumors that it was Padre Burgos. The demonstrations got more frequent and more influential during the liberal regime of Governor-GeneralCarlos María de la Torre (1869–1871). Only two weeks after the arrival of de la Torre as Governor-General, Burgos and Joaquin Pardo de Tavera led a demonstration at the Plaza de Santa Potenciana. Among the demonstrators were Jose Icaza, Jacobo Zobel, Ignacio Rocha, Manuel Genato and Maximo Paterno. The demo cry was “Viva Filipinas para los Filipinos!”. In November 1870, a student movement, denounced as a riot or motin, at the University of Santo Tomas formed a committee to demand reforms on the school and its curricula. It later announced support of Philippine autonomy and recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain. The committee was headed by Felipe Buencamino.
Carlos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada, the 91st Governor-General of the Philippines During this period, a secret society of reformists met in a cistern under a well at the house of Father Mariano Gómez. The society, headed by Jose Maria Basa, worked mainly on a Madrid journal called the Eco de Filipinas (not to be confused with the El Eco de Filipinas that was published much later, in September 1890). The journal exposed problems in the Philippines and pressed on reforms that they seek for the country. Among the members were Burgos, Maximo Paterno, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, and Father Agustin Mendoza. It served as a precursor to La Solidaridad. However, Burgos died after the infamous Cavite Mutiny, which was pinned on Burgos as his attempt to start a Creole Revolution and make himself president of the Philippines or Rey Indio.
The death of José Burgos, and the other alleged conspirators, Mariano Gómez and Jacinto Zamora on February 17, 1872, seemingly ended the entire Creole movement. Governor-General Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutiérrez unleashed his reign of terror in order to prevent the spread of the Creole ideology—Filipino nationalism. Another event in history created an impact on Filipino nationalism during this period. Before 1869, the route through the Cape of Good Hope proved to be a shortest available journey to Europe by Indios and Creoles alike. The journey takes 3 months travel by sea. On November 17, 1869, the Suez Canal opened after 10 years of construction work. At its advent, the journey from the Philippines to Spain was further reduced to one month. This allowed a much faster spread of European ideology and an increase of Filipino presence in Europe itself. The Propaganda Movement would later benefit from the Suez Canal for the shorter route it provided. Second Propaganda Movement (1872–1892)
Main article: Propaganda Movement
Filipino expatriates in Europe formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in Madrid, Spain in 1890. The events of 1872 however invited the other colored section of the Ilustrados (Intellectually Enlightened Class), the growing middle-class natives, to at least do something to preserve the Creole ideals. Seeing the impossibility of a revolution against Izquierdo and the Governor-General’s brutal reign convinced the Ilustrados to get out of the Philippines and continue propaganda in Europe. This massive propaganda upheaval from 1872 to 1892 is now known as the Second Propaganda Movement. Through their writings and orations, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano López Jaena and José Rizal sounded the trumpets of Filipino nationalism and brought it to the level of the masses. The propagandists mainly aimed for representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, secularization of the clergy, legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality, among others.
Their main work was the newspaper called La Solidaridad (Solidarity), which was first published at Barcelona on December 13, 1888. Rizal, the foremost figure of the propagandists, created the Noli Me Tángere (published 1887) and El filibusterismo (published 1891). It rode the increasing anti-Spanish (anti-Peninsulares) sentiments in the islands and pushed the people towards revolution, rather than discourage them that a revolution was not the solution for independence. Post-propaganda era
By July 1892, Rizal returned to the Philippines and established a progressive organization he called the La Liga Filipina (The Philippine League). However, the organization collapsed after Rizal’s arrest and deportation to Dapitan on July 7. At the same day, a Philippine revolutionary society was founded by Ilustrados led by Andrés Bonifacio, Deodato Arellano, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata and Valentín Díaz. The main aim of the organization, named Katipunan, was to win Philippine independence through a revolution and establish a republic thereafter. The rise of the Katipunan signaled the end of peaceful propaganda for reforms.