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Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial intelligence (AI) is the human-made intelligence that is seen on machines able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making and translation between languages . Advancement in the technology of computers has created devices capable of perceiving their environment and independently taking actions achieving specific goals. AI was science fiction in the early years were people imagined the possibility of such devices, but with time, automated devices were created and become part of our daily lives. The study of the evolution of AI shows the stages that this technology has passed through, from the years of first discoveries, to the years of AI booming were now people depend on this devices to perform daily activities. Scientists believe that evolution of AI will affect business and social activities that we normally do.

The Evolution of Artificial Intelligence The concept of AI goes back to the years of Greek antiquity, where fictional figures were created in stories and artwork to show what human beings thought was impossible. Through science and technology research, these concepts moved from being fictional thoughts to the real-life possibility. In 1842, Charles Babbage created the first programmable calculator named the Difference engine. This machine was programmed to compile mathematical polynomial calculations. It memorized the formulas calculating the series of values and automatically printed the results. The Difference engine was consider a step towards AI due to relation between mathematical advances and modern science. In 1950, Alan Turning introduced the concept of devices or machines capable of thinking and perceiving their environment and also taking independent actions. His idea seemed impossible, and other technologists ridiculed him and put off his ideas. However, his ideas significantly helped in initiating AI practical concepts and possibilities. Later on, introduction of personal computers was around the 1980s creating more interest in AI development as people started seeing the possibility of such devices that could think . In the 1950s, John McCarthy flourished a computerized language known as standard AI programming dialect. After he was named the father of AI, since he invented the scientific term know as artificial intelligence. He argued that “one path to human-level AI uses the mathematical logic to formalize common-sense knowledge in such way that common-sense problems can be solved by logical reasoning” (McCarthy 1989) this meant that advance in AI will arise when device could know how to solve logical problem by reasoning and creating a logic response. In addition, Computer games like chess and checkers were installed in these computers with some programmed to challenge human players. AI is considered as the fourth industrial revolution after steam power, electricity and information technology. Cognitive science was fully incorporated as a discipline in the 1960s, setting the pace for research and inventions in AI. In 1965, an invention was made of a computer system called ELIZA that was capable of simulating a human conversation.

ELIZA was a programmed to conduct a conversation between a patient and a psychotherapist were the program would give useful advice to the client. The relationship between a patient and a machine helped advance in the AI research because technologists wanted to apply the concepts of human emotions when creating machines. The 1970s era saw creating incredible programs in computers capable of solving algebra problems, showing geometrical theorems and also assisting in speaking English. It revived people’s optimism about intelligent machines and also led to heavy investment in the field of AI. The reasoning as search concept was introduced in this research where the programmes installed in computers used a similar algorithm . The AI inventions being created in the 1970 and 1980s faced several challenges that limited the progress. First, the existing computers had very limited memory space and processing speed. Programs invented faced serious limitations as a result of this, causing an analogy that computer power was important in AI. Secondly, the problem of computer programs and systems interacting acted as a setback in AI discoveries . Furthermore, the systems were not capable of having common sense and reasoning knowledge as they required a lot of human input. The numerous challenges and lack of progress in this era resulted in research funding being cut, creating more problems. Criticism of this research discipline grew as arguments were being presented to oppose it and show that it is not practical. The negative perceptions about the AI technological developments and techniques seemed to slow its progress further. Expert systems were created and fully integrated into computers in the 1980s. They were computer programs with capabilities of providing answers to specific problems in several disciplines.

The system was controlled to only specific disciplines to avoid the problem of common sense. The XCON system developed in 1980 and incorporated in data generation and storage. The progress that was being witnessed led to investments being made by technology companies and also governments for further research and development. The true power and capabilities of AI were slowly exposing themselves to the world. Conversations began about the future of AI technology and its potential in human lives. Theories and arguments about how the technology will work and also its limitations were also generated in this era. Technologists in the AI research discovered that its success and full implementation depended on the ability of the devices to collect and store data. It was based on the same concept of human learning, where one learns through experience and obtaining data about their surroundings. As AI devices collected and analyzed more data using algorithms, they became better in making predictions and taking actions. Websites like Netflix and YouTube were programmed to suggest to viewers based on their viewing history . Google also developed a driverless car prototype capable of moving from one point to another without any human control. These developments were replicated in many other disciplines, impacting many elements of human life. AI technological development has resulted in the creation of software to generate natural language.

The AI devices convert available data into text and computers can communicate in a manner that human beings can understand. It is applied in customer service to show a summary of customer activities and customer feedback. Software companies like Attivio and SAS have used this AI technology successfully in their operations. Speech recognition software has also revolutionized AI discoveries. Applications like Siri and Cortana are capable of transcribing human voice and taking the necessary actions as commanded. Speech recognition has been vastly applied in mobile phone applications, showing the full potential of AI. Virtual agents have also been created, making it possible for human beings to interact with machines. They are mainly used in customer services and also installed in smart homes. A chatbot is one example of a virtual agent that has been applied. As opposed to early AI systems that required a lot of human input to work, there has been the development of machine learning platforms where computers are capable of learning. Algorithms and application program interfaces have been developed to help computers manage big data and training tools so that they can also acquire knowledge. Machine learning (ML) platforms are currently being sold to help in classifications and also predictions, which is very crucial in the business world. The development of biometrics in AI technology was also a rapid pace. These are systems capable of identifying and measuring human activities and also detecting physical features like the face and fingerprints.

The development has facilitated more human-machine interactions regarding touching, speech, recognizing body language and many other interactions. Companies like Agnitio, and Synqera have heavily invested in this discipline to make human-machine interaction even better. Why People Fear AI Regardless of the numerous applications and smart technologies in the development of AI, people have had mix feelings about the technology and its adaptation to our daily lives. Back in 1989 John Haugeland conducted a profound research into AI were he first realizes that there are two groups of people, the sceptics, and the believers. For the sceptics the idea of artificial intelligence is equivalent to the idea of the tooth fairy, unrealistic. For the believers, artificial intelligence is an inevitable course of action. Furthermore, he reveals the relationship between the natural minds to artificial intelligence. Nowadays the fear has not jet conquer .The biggest fear that people have about AI is the possibility of machines replacing human beings. People feel that AI technology has come to replace them by doing activities that were traditionally done by human beings. Machines are now doing activities like packing and unpacking of goods in factories, assembling vehicles, solving mathematical calculations and many others. Human beings feel that AI devices like robots will take over all aspects of their lives and leave them without anything to do. This explains why people fear their development with some wishing that research in this field should be stopped. There have been myths that AI will result in the creation of devices that are capable of thinking autonomously and end up taking over power from human beings.

People fear that is developing very fast and the possibility of their taking over is becoming real. Some believe that human beings may end up being colonized by robots as they become intelligent and autonomous. The development of talking robots like Sophia has further raised people’s fears about AI and the future that it holds . They feel that such robots are emotionless and if in the future they take over from human beings, then they may end up destroying the human race. However, technologists and scientists in the field of AI have disputed these myths by arguing that AI devices do not have human characteristics like emotions and thoughts, meaning that it is impossible for them to control human beings. Education and enlightenment concerning this technology is necessary for people to see this fact as true and stop fearing AI. How People Use AI Today AI has been applied in very many disciples of human life. In healthcare, AI is being used to analyze reports and patient notes, generate information about clinical expertise and conduct research and analysis to help in determining the best approach to treating patients. Medical consultation has also been automated using AI where people input their symptoms, and the AI device comes up with a diagnosis.

Management of medication through features like reminders for patients to take medicine have successfully helped in this field. Robotics has been applied in surgery to help in improving accuracy and precision by eliminating the human error factors. They have also been applied in helping patients recover from physical injuries and enhanced them in improving their recovery time. AI has also been applied in different aspects of education. There has been the development of some devices and software to facilitate the learning process by helping in skill development and also evaluation. Mobile applications developed help young children learn the alphabet, simple mathematical problems and also grammar and pronunciation. Its application has resulted in the creation of a teacher and AI collaboration where the AI devices and applications drive efficiency while teachers provide understanding and adaptability. It has also been applied in providing individualized learning where learning content is provided at different levels to students based on their capabilities. Its application in translation and storing learning content has helped students who speak different languages still get content that has been taught. The technology has helped in the administration of learning institution through storing and processing of important data concerning students, teachers and the learning environment.

The Future of AI Scholars have predicted that AI will impact all aspects of our everyday lives in the future as advancement in this field is continuing. First, automated transportation is a possible future application where private and public vehicles will self-drive from one point to another without human control. There has already been the development of self-driving cars for example the Tesla, but this technology has not been fully developed. There is also a possibility of the development of cyborg technology, where human beings will be able to augment with machines and perform unnatural tasks. It is already being applied where artificial arms and legs are being attached on people with amputations, and the brain communicates with the robotic limb. AI robots will take over some tasks that are dangerous to human beings. Robots will be used in the future for firefighting missions where they will be sent to rescue people in fire accidents. Additionally, they will be used fully in the military where they will be sent as foot soldiers in the battlefield. The solution to climate change problems in the future is also with AI technology. The capability of AI devices and software to store big data about the environment, climate change and other factors affecting the environment will make this possible as the human limitation is eliminated. Moreover, it is predicted that robots will be used in the future as friends and pets. The development of AI devices that can communicate with people like the Sophia robot and the C-3PO robot has made the possibility of this application real.

Elderly care will also significantly improve in the future through the application of AI devices. Development of robots targeting elderly care will help them in doing basic tasks like bringing them medication, reminding them when to take medication and also transporting them from one point to another. Finally, it is expected that AI will increase the accuracy of medical procedures like brain and heart surgeries. It will be possible to identify the specific organs that need surgery through AI and also perform excellent tasks. Conclusion In conclusion, it is clear that AI has revolutionized human lives in different aspects as it finds applications in many human disciplines. The evolution of AI started with science fiction thoughts about its possibility to its full and practical application. The progressive development of this technology started with the development of computers, which set the pace for AI research. Scientists first started by studying the human brain and how it can communicate with other body parts. Development of simple software like AI games that could challenge human beings in games like chess also significantly contributed to this success. People have had different fears about AI, with some fears based on myths and others on the possibility of AI making people lose their jobs. The current application of AI in different areas like education, healthcare, military, and finance disciplines have made life easy for people. The future of AI promises a lot of development that will completely change the world as we know it today. 

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