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1. What global forces have contributed to the growth of the cruise industry?
Two major factors that have contributed to the growth of the cruise industry are the change in the competitive environment brought about by the advent of transoceanic airline service and increasing discretionary incomes. As demand for liner travel declined in response to the development of less expensive and much faster air service, shipping lines were forced to respond to the new market conditions by developing sea travel for the middle class, i.e., cruises. In addition, all-inclusive prices, a wide range of on-board and on-shore offerings, and the additional safety and security measures provided by the cruise industry have proven very attractive in light of recent political and socio-economic events.
2. What specific steps have Carnival Cruise Lines taken to benefit from global societal changes?
Carnival has responded to global environmental changes in a variety of ways. Because a ship is highly vulnerable to terrorist acts, Carnival has instituted very strict security measures. It has also implemented strict health and safety measures. Carnival has dealt with economic recessions by offering shorter cruises that embark closer to home and with times of economic prosperity by offering longer cruises that incorporate more exotic destinations. It minimizes staffing costs by sourcing employees on a global basis. In addition, across its various lines, Carnival offers a wide variety of themes, classes of service, and destinations. 3. What are some of the differences by country that affect the operations of cruise lines?
Political/legal, geographic, economic, and sociocultural differences all affect the operations of cruise lines, which are truly international in nature. For example, most shipping lines choose to flag their vessels in countries such as Liberia, Mongolia, or Panama because of the lower taxes and less..