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Biology Project

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More than 2,000 years ago, Aristotle began grouping plants and animals into various categories. Although he did not consider the idea that different organisms were related by descent, he devised a system that placed these organisms in a hierarchy. Through classification systems, scientist have found it easier to find answers to important questions.

This way things are broken down more and easier to learn.

Classification is the systematic grouping of organisms into catagories on the basis of evolutionary or structural relationships between them. The benefit of classifying organism is it makes the study of a wide variety of organisms easy. It helps the placement of different organisms in a definite taxonomic group chich is the basic requirement of biological sciences. It helps to understand relations between different organisms. Aristotle was a famous greek philosopher, scientist and educator. He also went to school at plato’s academy. Aristotle wrote several biological works laying the foundations for comparatieve anatomy, taxonomy, and embryology. The two catagories used to classify organisms were blood and without blood.

Taxonomy is the science of naming, describing and classifying organisms and includes all plants, animal and microorganisms of the world. The father of taxonomy is Aristotle. Linnaeus differed from Arostotle because he used five kingdoms to classify instead of two. A taxon is a taxonomic category or group, such as phylum, order, family, genus, or species. The broadest taxon is kingdom and and the most specific taxon is species. Binomial nomenclature is a system for naming plants and animals by means of two latin names. The first indicationg the genus and the second being the specific epithet. The language used was Latin, the two taxons used were genus and species. It is written genus first, then species. The scientist use the naming system to identify the different types of species and to successfully group the species according to their family or genus.

Archaebacteria belong to the archae domain. Another name that scientist use to classify these organisms is archae. Archae bacteria are a type of prokaryote cell, that are a unicellular organism without a cell nucleus. It is a prokaryote cell with a cell wall made out of isoprenyl ether. Archaebateria are single celled and obtains nutrition through chemosynthesis. They live in extreme conditions such as hot and acidic environments and are asexuall organisms. There are three categories of archaebateria which include, halophile, thermoacidophiles and methanogens. Some examples of those are methanobacterium, haloferax and thermo plasma.

Eubacteria belong to the bacteria domain. They are a domain of living organisms. Which are spherical or rod-shaped single celled microorganisms that have a rigid cell wall, and may have whiplike tails or flagella for motion. Their cells do not possess a nucleus. It’s cell type is prokaryote . Eubacteria is single celled and its walls are made of peptidoglycan. They obtain nutrition by consuming things already dead and live anywhere without extreme temperatures . They reproduce by binary fission and can be found in these three shapes: bacillius, spirillus, and cocci. They are not all harmful. Some examples include samonella, clostridium tetani, clostridium outline and clostridium perfringens.

Protista belong to eukarya domain. It has a eukaryotic cell type and its wall is made of living planktonic micro organisms and their fossils. They are both unicellular and multicultural. They ingest their food by photosynthesis, and live in any environment that contains water.It can reproduce by mitosis, meiosis, or fertilization. Three categories include, protozoa(amoeba), algae(plankton) and fungus(slime molds). Protista are mobile and move by celia, flagella, and pseudopodia. Animal like protist are called prtozoans.

Fungi belong to the eukarya domain and are eukaryotic cell type. Its cell wall is made of chitin. It is multi cellular and must obtain its nutrition from its surroundings. It lives on either dead or living organisms and it can reproduce sexually or asexually. Some examples are hyphae, mycelium, and symbiosis. They are commonly known to cause athletes foot and ringworm.

Plantae belong to the eukarya domain and are eukaryotic cell type. Its cell wall is made of cellulose. It is multi cellular and obtains its nutrition through photosynthesis. It lives in land and water and it reproduces both sexually and asexually. Some specific types of plantae are ferns, mosses, and flowering plants. They use their root system to absorb water . Plantae are mobile because they can grow toward the sunlight.

Animalia belong to eukarya domain and are protest cell type. They do not have a cell wall and are multi cellular. Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity. They mostly reproduce sexually by means of differentiated eggs and sperm. They are mobile because they have muscles. Two categories are invertebrates and vertebrates. An example of each are redworms and cows. They can be found living in water or on land.

The natural system was initially created by carl Linnaeus in 1735. It was originally based upon two kingdoms. Then in the second half of the 19th century, Charles Darwin created the theory of natural selection which is based on five kingdoms. Although they both placed humans with other animals, Linnaeus believed God created all plants and animals where Charles Darwin believed in common ancestry. Darwin also made orderly lists where Linnaeus made trees. Although Aristotle is known as the father of taxonomy for his concepts of hierarchy and classification , it was Darwin who was the most influential figure in taxonomy because he showed the relationships between different species where others like Linnaeus only focused on the animal’s features.

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