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The Peace Treaties Between 1919 and 1923

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In order to restore peace after World War I, peace negotiations were held and a number of treaties were signed between 1919 -1923. To what extent were the peace treaties fair/unfair? After the World War I most countries were destroyed and were left broke, so In order to restore peace after World War I, peace negotiations were held and a number of treaties were signed between 1919 -1923. Some of the treaties were the Saint-Germain which was the Treaty with Austria in 1919 The peace settlement dealt with the two parts of Austria-Hungary in separate peace treaties.

The agreement with Austria was known as the Treaty of St Germain and was signed in September 1919. The Terms of the treaty were that Austria lost the South Tyrol and Istria to Italy and huge areas of land to three new states: Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia. It was fair because the lands given to Czechoslovakia included some of Austria’s wealthiest territories and over 3 million German speakers were placed in the new state. Austria was reduced to a small mountainous country of 6.5 million people. A third of the population lived in the great city of Vienna.Austria was forbidden from ever seeking unification or ‘Anschluss’ with Germany.The Austrian army was limited to 30,000 men. This treaty is very fair in my eyes because all the damage that happened due to Austrians as they were the one’s who started the war. The treaty makes it fair and square for all countries and all new countries benifit from this treaty.

The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919 and consisted of 440 Articles setting out the terms for Germany’s punishment. The treaty was greeted with shock and disbelief in Germany. The Terms of the treaty were, Germany was not allowed to join, the Covenant of the League of Nations. The Rhineland was demilitarized – the German army was not allowed to go there. The Saar, with its rich coalfields, given to France for 15 years. Alsace-Lorraine returned to France. Germany forbidden to unite with Austria. Lands in eastern Germany – the rich farmlands of Posen and the Polish corridor between Germany and East Prussia – given to Poland.

All Germany’s colonies taken and given to France and Britain as ‘mandates’. The German army restricted to 100,000 men. The German navy restricted to six battleships and no submarines. Germany not allowed having an air force. Germany was responsible Germany would have to pay reparations, to be decided later – eventually set at 132 billion gold mark or causing all the loss and damage caused by the war. This treaty is very unfair for the country of Germany and very beneficial to all its opposing counties. The treaty limits Germany from everything it took pride apoun and makes it give all its land to France causing France to take advantage from the land while Germany as it is broke, stays that way and has no way to support its land and to secure its people. As all the security forces have been taken away from it.

The treaty of Neuillywas the Treaty with Bulgaria 1919, Bulgaria had also fought on the losing side,so that is why thi treaty was signed. The Treaty of Neuilly was signed in November 1919. The Terms of the treaty wereLand was taken from Bulgaria and given to Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania.The Bulgarian army was restricted to no more than 20,000 men.This treaty is fair and as Bulgaria lost the war it desrved to loose some land and had to lose some of its army to make it fair for the winning side, but fortunatly they had no economic loses.

The treaty of Trianon, was The Treaty with Hungary in 1920. While the peace talks were taking place, Hungarian communists seized power in Budapest led by Bela Kun. The signing of a peace treaty was delayed until Bela Kun had been overthrown and a right-wing government took over. The new ruler of Hungary, Admiral Horthy, was forced to sign the Treaty of Trianon in March 1920. The idea of self-determination led to the carving up of the old Hungary. The Terms of the treaty were that Two thirds of Hungarian territory was given to Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania.The population of Hungary was reduced by these changes from 18 million to 7 million people.The Hungarian army was limited to 35,000. This treaty is not fair to me as i think,that they were forced to sign the treaty, that they took too much of hungary’s land away and limited its army when it needed alot of protection as Austria and Hungary had just seperated and also due to what had happened with Bela Kun and his ways, they needed as much protection as they could get. Hungary also had alot of economical losses as most of its land was given away

The treaty of Sevres was, The Treaty with Turkey in the 1920 The Ottoman family had ruled over a powerful Turkish Empire for many centuries. The Ottoman Empire had been in decline in the years before the First World War. The Turks fought on the losing side in the war.Terms of the treaty were that Turkey lost nearly all its land in Europe to Greece. The lands of the Turkish Empire in the Arab Middle East were confiscated: France took charge in Syria and Britain took control in Palestine, Jordan and Iraq. Turkey was to pay reparations. This treaty was very unfair to country of Turkey because most of their land was taken away from them which cost them alot and all their income and outcome of products must have become less. The counttry of turkey also had to pay reperations causing it to lose more wealth than it already had lost. Also many countries of its had been taken away like the middleeast which must have cost alot to turkey making it hard to cope and destroying it and its people after the war.

The treaty of Lausanne was when the Turkish Treaty was revised and written again with diffrent terms in the 1923. Many Turkish people were outraged by the treaty. A general known as Ataturk led a revolution and overthrew the Ottoman family in 1921. Once in power Ataturk used his armies to overturn the Treaty of Sevres by force. As a result a new agreement, the treaty of Lausanne, was signed in 1923.The Terms of the treaty were that Turkey regained much of the land lost to Greece, even though it looks very less but the treaty must have helped the turkish people alot and must have helped their economy to build up and regain its old position.

The peace treaties of 1919 and 1923 were made to bring peace to the world and balance out the effects of war. In my opinion some teeaties excelled at this goal given while others were below expectations and did not do fair to countries, its people and its territories. These unfair treaties cost many lives, familys and nations. They made nations lose all their money, and their pride and they made some nations gain all of these qualities, some nations became broke while otheres became rich , this does not only include money but it also includes land, people and territories. And these treaties may be the reason why the second world war and its ideas were devolped.

Bibliography-:

* BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Key terms. (n.d.). BBC – Homepage. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize * Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (1999). Prentice Hall world history connections to today. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. * GERMAN HISTORY SINCE WORLD WAR I. (Main). (1990, March 19). Albany Times Union, p. 2. * Terms of the Treaty of Versailles. (n.d.). GCSE Modern World History. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.johndclare.net/peace_treaties4.htm * The Treaty of Versailles. (n.d.). History Learning Site. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_

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