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The Effect of Caffeine in Human Body

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Caffeine is the most widely consumed behaviorally active substance in the world. Almost all caffeine comes from dictrary sources (beverage and food), most of it from the coffee and tea. Acute and specially, chronic caffeine intake appear to have only minor negative consequences on health. For this reason and because for caffeine users report loose of control over their caffeine intake, governmental regulatory agencies impose no restriction on the use of caffeine. Ordinary caffeine use has generally not been considered to be case of drug abuse, and is indeed not so classified in (Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorder). However, some years ago it was pointed out that caffeine may be a potential drug of abuse, and more recently caffeine has been describe as “a model drug of abuse” and the possibility that caffeine abuse, dependence, and withdrawal should be added to diagnostic manuals has been seriously considered (Anghes et.al.;19922b;strain et.al 1994 Pickworth, 1995; Anghes et. Al.;1998).

In the present review we discuss the evidence regarding caffeine and dependence in light increasing knowledge regarding the action of caffeine or specific neuronal brain substances. Because the use of caffeine is probably related to its diverse effects on several brain functions, these are also briefly presented. Even though we have attempted to cover many of the aspects that are relevant to this complex issue, we are aware of several omissions and we also realize that the complex often somewhat contradictory – literature lends itself to more than one interpretation. In today’s fast-paced lives people need vigor to keep up with their demanding schedules and lifestyles. Often, they need some assistance in doing so. Caffeine is a naturally occurring chemical and is referred to as an “ancient wonder drug” for its potential to revive weary workaholics. It was discovered in the coffee bean (Coffea arabica) in Arabia, the tea leaf (Thea sinensis) in China, the kola nut (Cola nitida) in West Africa, and the cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao) in Mexico Caffeine products are so widely distributed these days that abuse of the substance may be unnoticed.

In fact, caffeine is the world’s most widely consumed stimulant, with 54% of adults in America consuming on average three cups of coffee a day. Aside from occurring organically in tea and coffee, caffeine is now an additive in soft drinks, energy drinks, chocolates, bottled water, chewing gum, and medication .The aim of this paper is to elicit an awareness of the neurophysiologic effects of caffeine. This article emphasizes caffeine’s potential effects on the nervous system within the context of increased caffeinated energy drink consumption around the world. Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline alkaloid. It is in the family of chemicals called xanthenes, which are often used as mild stimulants, and has a chemical formula of C8H10N4O2. As caffeine enters an organism, either through human consumption or absorption through a plant’s roots, it serves as a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors. Caffeine is a competitive inhibitor of adenosine receptors with a molecular structure designed to mimic that of adenosine. In the human brain, adenosine’s binding to receptors reduces neural activity, causing sleepiness. Background Information

Caffeine is a mild stimulant and one of the popular chemicals in the world, it consumed by up to 90 percent of the world’s population, according Brown University, most people consume caffeine in the form of food products like coffee, tea soft drinks and chocolate, after you taking caffeine, it reaches peek concentrations in your blood within 45 to 60 minutes, and you may begin to feel the physiological effects. When caffeine inhibits the action of adenosine in the brain by binding to adenosine receptors, it has the reverse effect, increasing alertness and neural activity.¹ Plants, however, the subject of interest in this experiment, do not experience increased alertness and “stimulation” from caffeine as presumed by some, for plants lack the nervous system responsible for producing such effects. Nonetheless, aside from neural activity, plants and humans experience similar effects from caffeine, most significantly the disruption of cellular calcium regulation. Caffeine interferes with a cell’s calcium regulation.

Adenosine receptors play an important role in controlling calcium levels, and when they are inhibited by caffeine, cells release large amounts of their internal calcium.² Calcium is extremely important in plant cells, and decreasing its normal concentrations in the cells could have many effects on plants. First, calcium controls the structure and permeability of cell membranes. It is also extremely important in proper cell division and cell wall development. Furthermore, calcium must be present for the proper functioning of alpha-amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch. When caffeine causes the cell to release internal calcium, it could greatly hamper all of these functions of calcium. Watering the radish, soybean, and spinach seeds with caffeine will most likely inhibit cellular mitosis, hydrolysis of starch, and the proper functioning of cell membranes.

Caffeine is also easily oxidized into uric acid when in water; therefore, when the seeds in this experiment are watered with the caffeine solutions, their surrounding soil will become acidic and possibly inapt for germination. It is expected that the seeds watered with high concentrations of caffeine solution will not be able to germinate, as their cells will be unable to divide and the environment will be too acidic. Seeds watered with middle to low concentration of caffeine solution will probably experience little germination and, if they do germinate, will grow at a very slow rate. Overall, this experiment will test if the predicted calcium deficiency and acidic environment caused by caffeine will significantly hinder the germination and growth of plant seeds. The results may parallel the effects of caffeine on the human body, other than those related to the central nervous system.

This can provide insight into the health hazards of consuming caffeine. Caffeine is a substance present in coffee, chocolate, and many more foods. While it is known to induce alertness in the human brain, caffeine’s effects on plants are less commonly known. This experiment monitored the germination and growth of three plant seeds: radish seeds, soybean seeds, and spinach seeds. The seeds were each watered with a caffeine solution of varying concentration upon the initial planting. After that, no more caffeine was provided to the seeds. The results indicated that as the seeds were watered with an increasing concentration of caffeine solution, they either failed to germinate or grew at a much slower pace than the control seeds. Such results may parallel the effects that caffeine has in the human body when consumed. Statement of the Problem

1. What is caffeine?
2. What are the causes and effect of caffeine in human body?
3. How to prevent caffeine in causing health problems?
Significant of the Study
The researcher studied about “the effect of caffeine on human body” for us to know the different information as our bases on avoiding this kind of problem. This study can informed as if caffeine is a dangerous stimulant or not. Scope and Limitation

This work brings the researcher into focused only on studying about effect of caffeine in human body. The researcher determined the causes and affect of caffeine furthermore, the researcher explains also the treatment and how would people avoid this kind of problem. And this study only limited to the effect of caffeine on human body.

Definition of Terms
Caffeine – is a naturally occurring chemical that has stimulant and mild diuretic (increasing urination) properties. It is a bitter alkaloid that acts on the central nervous system to increase alertness and vigilance, as well as to extend wakefulness. This is accomplished by binding certain receptors in the brain, which inhibits the sleep- promoting actions that normally increase with prolonged wakefulness. Is a drug that Stimulates the central nervous system.

Metabolic neuropathies are nerve disorders that occur with diseases that disrupt the chemical processes in the body. Arrhythmia — Abnormal heart rhythm.
Central nervous system — The brain and spinal cord.
Fetus — A developing baby inside the womb.
Palpitation — Rapid, forceful, throbbing, or fluttering heartbeat. Withdrawal symptoms — A group of physical or mental symptoms that may occur when a person suddenly stops using a drug to which he or she has become dependent. indications It is prescribed to counteract migraine, drowsiness, and mental fatigue. contraindications It is used with caution in patients with heart disease and peptic ulcer. Known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.

Presentation of Data

Caffeine is a drug that is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of many plants. It’s also produced artificially and added to certain foods. Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system, causing increased alertness. Caffeine gives most people a temporary energy boost and elevates mood. Caffeine is in tea, coffee, chocolate, many soft drinks, and pain relievers and other over-the-counter medications. In its natural form, caffeine tastes very bitter. But most caffeinated drinks have gone through enough processing to camouflage the bitter taste. Teens usually get most of their caffeine from soft drinks and energy drinks. (In addition to caffeine, these also can have added sugar and artificial flavors.) Caffeine is not stored in the body, but you may feel its effects for up to 6 hours. It is a potent and quick-acting drug which produces an effect similar to the stress response in our bodies.

Caffeine affects each person differently, depending on individual circumstances such as weight, build, etc. It has an almost instant effect on your mind-body which will continue to influence your state for 6-8 hours afterwards. Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted.

This review focuses on the neurophysiologic impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body. Caffeine can have temporary but dramatic effects on blood pressure. As MayoClinic.com explains, your systolic pressure can rise 3 to 14 millimeters of mercury, or mm Hg, and your diastolic pressure can rise 4 to 13 mm Hg after drinking two to three cups of coffee, or 300 to 450 mg of caffeine. This rapid rise may be particularly harmful if you already suffer from high blood pressure. Although the exact mechanism behind the blood pressure spike remains unknown, MayoClinic.com notes that caffeine may block an artery-widening hormone in the body or trigger a release of adrenaline–two events that raise blood pressure. Consuming caffeine–particularly in non-liquid forms such as chocolate–can contribute to water loss and dehydration.

Because caffeine is a diuretic, it increases urination and forces your body to excrete more water than normal, Brown University Health Education explains. Although caffeinated beverages like coffee and soft drinks replenish some of the water your body loses, dehydration can still occur if you are exercising, sweating excessively or consuming few additional liquids in your diet. For every cup of coffee you drink during the day, Brown University Health Education recommends consuming 8 oz. of water to replace lost fluids and prevent dehydration. Although the link between caffeine and bone health remains ambiguous, large amounts of caffeine may reduce bone density and contribute to osteoporosis.

As Health Services at Columbia University explains, caffeine’s diuretic properties force you to excrete minerals along with water, and your body loses 5 mg of calcium in urine with every 150 mg of caffeine you consume–the approximate amount in one 8-oz. cup of coffee. If you eat a low-calcium diet, you may be at heightened risk for bone density loss and osteoporosis from caffeine. Caffeine speeds up our metabolism (it can be found as a main ingredient in most weight-loss products). It also increases the breakdown of fat, freeing fatty acids, which are used in energy production during exercise. Conversion of fat to energy is about 30% more efficient when caffeine is consumed prior to exercise.

Positive effects
* High long-term consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. * Research is beginning to suggest that caffeine minimizes the cognitive decline associated with aging. * Caffeine increases levels of neurotransmitters such as nor adrenaline, acetylcholine, dopamine, and epinephrine. * Acetylcholine is associated with attention, concentration, learning, and memory but there is no conclusive evidence yet that caffeine has any effect on memory and cognitive function. * Low doses of caffeine show increased alertness and decreased fatigue. * Caffeine has been shown to increase the metabolic rate. * Caffeine may reduce the risk of developing cancer and produce a delay in the average onset of cancer. * Caffeine may be associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease * Caffeine may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes * Caffeine may reduce certain kind of hepatic cancers.

In these studies, the greatest benefits were observed in those who drank coffee for a long period in their lifetime. Negative effects
* Caffeine can increase vasoconstriction and blood pressure. * High blood pressure is associated with an increase in strokes, and cerebral vascular disease, which in turn increase the risk of multi-infarct dementia. * Caffeine may reduce control of fine motor movements (e.g., producing shaky hands) * Caffeine can stimulate urination.

* Caffeine can increase cortisol secretion, some tolerance is developed.
* Caffeine can contribute to increased insomnia and sleep latency.
* Caffeine withdrawal produces headache, fatigue and decreased alertness. * Caffeine is addictive.

* High doses of caffeine (300 mg or higher) can cause anxiety. * High caffeine consumption has been linked to an increase in the likelihood of experiencing auditory hallucinations. A study conducted by the La Trobe University School of Psychological Sciences revealed that as few as five cups of coffee a day could trigger the phenomenon. Disadvantage of caffeine on human body

As previously stated, caffeine could have detrimental effects on a hypertensive that is stressed and consumes caffeine as ultimately caffeine is a stimulant and as with as all stimulants and substance’s abuse or overuse has negative effects. This review looks at some of the detriments of caffeine on the nervous system. Caffeine speeds up our metabolism (it can be found as a main ingredient in most weight-loss products). It also increases the breakdown of fat, freeing fatty acids, which are used in energy production during exercise. Conversion of fat to energy is about 30% more efficient when caffeine is consumed prior to exercise. Caffeine Consumption

Aside from being added to beverages, caffeine is now being added to food products such as potato chips, chocolates, and bottled water, which confirms its growing popularity (Temple, 2009). Since the introduction of Red Bull in 1987, the energy drink market has grown extensively, with hundreds of different brands of varying caffeine content now available (Reissig et al., 2009). There has been an increase in reports of caffeine-intoxication since 1982, with 41 cases of caffeine abuse reported in the United States from 2002 to 2004 (Reissig et al., 2009). This could be an indicator of an increase in caffeine dependence and withdrawal symptoms (Reissig et al., 2009). European and North American statistics report that 90% of adults consume caffeine on a daily basis, with an average intake of 227mg (Reissig et al., 2009; Temple,2009).

The South African Food Based Dietary guidelines recommend that adults limit their daily intake of caffeine drinks to no more than four cups of coffee per day or eight cups of tea per day, which is in line with the US Food and Drug Administration reporting a moderate caffeine use as safe (a moderate daily dose being 300mg and below and high daily doses being 500–2000mg1; Temple, 2009). Unfortunately, the statistics on South African consumptions are not readily available2, so European and North American statistics are described instead: The top three sources of caffeine are coffee (70%), cold drinks (16%), and tea (12%) in the United States. How Caffeine Effects the Human Body

Caffeine effects the human body in a number of ways but most habitual coffee drinkers don’t know how and even gym rats aren’t sure why they supplement with it. This article answers these questions and looks at the effects of caffeine and determines if you should consider supplementing with caffeine. Here’s a list of the commonly accepted benefits of caffeine:

* Mental alertness
* Improves exercise performance
* Delayed muscle fatigue
* Improves post-exercise recovery
* Speeds up metabolism
Let’s find out if science proves caffeine’s effects on the human body can live up to its billing as a cheap, natural weight loss aid and energy enhancer! Is Taking Caffeine safe?

Caffeine is most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world with 90% of adults in North America consuming it daily. It is recognized as safe for consumption and is unregulated in most countries. The majority of studies on caffeine effects upon the human body demonstrate the safety with only minor ailments being reported in a few studies: Insomnia, sleep disruption and anxiety – If you’re sensitive to stimulants caffeine may keep you awake so avoid it at least 4-6 hours before bed. Also, those sensitive to it may wish to limit the amount they consume to avoid any adverse effects.

Increased stomach acid – Caffeine increases stomach acid production so if you suffer from stomach ulcers or reflux it can exacerbate the problem. There is no data to suggest that caffeine causes stomach ulcers, but if you already have them it could make it worse. Chronic caffeine use and diseases – Chronic caffeine use has been linked to diseases in multiple studies, however, these studies have not been able to say for certain that caffeine was the culprit. The studies couldn’t be sure of the cause for the following reasons: 1. Lifestyle variability – The subjects studies will all have lead different lives with varying quantities of smoking, drinking and exercise which would have an impact

2. Genetics – Some people are prone to develop hereditary diseases and the studies didn’t account for this

3. Various forms of caffeine (tea, coffee, energy drinks etc) were consumed, all of which have varying ingredients in the final product e.g. sugar, taurine etc

Dehydration – Caffeine is a mild diuretic, which simply means it is slightly dehydrating. Provided you consume adequate water (see water make you lose weight ) this isn’t an issue but athletes consuming lots of caffeine coupled with lots of exercise and little water have been known to get abdominal cramps. Drink water throughout the day, more when you exercise and there is little to worry about. Does Science Support Caffeine Effects Upon The Human Body?

There have been many studies looking at how caffeine effects the human body, let’s see what they say about each of the suggested benefits: Mental alertness

There are a number of studies indicating that caffeine doesn’t actually improve cognitive function or mental alertness. A recent study published in the journal of Neuron psychopharmacology indicated that habitual caffeine users develop a tolerance to caffeine which means they don’t feel the stimulatory effects. The feeling they get when consuming caffeine is in fact the response to caffeine withdrawal rather than the effects of the caffeine itself. Ever feel fatigued a few hours after drinking coffee? Feel more alert after that cup of coffee? The reason is that a few hours after that first cup you enter caffeine withdrawal which makes you feel fatigued, drinking another cup reverses this effect and you feel more alert.

So in summary, caffeine doesn’t appear to improve mental alertness but it can reverse the effects of caffeine withdrawal. The bottom line appears to be consume caffeine consistently or not at all.Improves exercise performance Caffeine does improve exercise performance and multiple studies confirm this to be a fact. Here are a few examples: Elite distance runners – When given 10mg caffeine per kg of weight before a treadmill run to exhaustion, they outperformed the group not consuming caffeine. Exercise feels easier – As caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant it makes it easier for your body to recruit the muscles needed to perform a task. This reduced the perceived level of effort during exercise. Delayed muscle fatigue/Improves post-exercise recovery

Depending on the intensity of the exercise you do, your body can use either fat or carbs for fuel. Low intensity exercise (walking, light jogging/cycling etc) mainly uses fat for fuel and higher intensity exercise (sprinting, weight lifting etc) uses mainly carbs. For fat to become available for fuel it needs to be released from fat cells, this is called mobilization. Caffeine is able to do this and it extracts free fatty acids into your blood stream which can then be burned off for energy, this is called fat oxidation. As your body is using fat for fuel it spares the stored carbs in your system (glycogen) which means your muscles don’t fatigue as quickly. In addition to this, post exercise recovery involves refilling glycogen levels so your energy levels return to normal. Ingesting caffeine with carbs post workout increases glycogen storage by more than 60% compared to consuming carbs alone. Speeds up metabolism

Caffeine increases your metabolic rate which means that your body burns more calories while at rest; this is why caffeine is touted as a weight loss aid. In reality, the amount of calories burned by supplementing caffeine is negligible so consuming caffeine alone won’t do much. However, following a calorie controlled diet and supplementing with caffeine could have positive effects on total weight loss. Biochemical Characteristics

Caffeine has a chemical structure of is 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (Figure ​(Figure1).1). Methylxanthine has a similar structure to purines, adenosine, xanthine, and uric acid (Chou, 1992). | Figure 1Chemical structure of caffeine (Deng et al., 2008).| In nature, caffeine is found in a diversity of plants, kola nuts, cherries, and cocoa beans and is presumed to offer protection to plants by acting as an anti-herbivory and allelopathic agent (Chen et al., 2008). In humans, caffeine is quickly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Caffeine from coffee is absorbed faster than caffeine from cold drinks. Some reasons for this could be: the lower temperature of the beverage may decrease the rate of blood flow within the intestines; phosphoric acid in cold drinks could decrease gastric emptying; absorption rate could increase with caffeine dose; sugar in cold drinks could inhibit gastric emptying of caffeine and delay absorption (Ligouri et al., 1997). In fact, 99% of the orally ingested chemical is taken up within 45min (Chou, 1992).

Caffeine disperses throughout the body and penetrates the biological membranes, the blood brain barrier and placenta, however it does not accumulate in the tissues or organs (Chou, 1992; Temple, 2009). Just 15–20min after oral ingestion, peak plasma concentration is reached. The half-life in adult males is decreased by 30–50% in smokers and is doubled in women taking oral contraceptives and extended further in the last trimester of pregnancy and in patients with chronic liver disease (Chou, 1992). This means that there is increased caffeine metabolism in conjunction with cigarets while oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and chronic liver disease delay metabolism of caffeine in the body. This can be accounted for by examining caffeine’s metabolism which is species-specific. In Camellia (tea) species caffeine is degraded via theophylline into primary metabolites. In coffea (coffee) species caffeine is also degraded via theophylline but through a different route (Ashihara et al., 2008). Caffeine is converted into dimethylxanthines, dimethyl and monomethyl uric acids, trimethyl and dimethyl-allantoin and uracil derivatives in the liver. Only 2–3% of caffeine is excreted in urine unchanged (Chou, 1992; Nehlig, 1998). While caffeine itself is eliminated overnight from the body, some primary metabolites such as theobromine and theophylline have longer half-lives.

Caffeine is a naturally occurring drug belonging to a group of compounds called alkaloids. It has a molecular weight of 194.19 and is composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. It is found in tea leaves, coffee beans, guarana paste, and cola nuts. Caffeine is the most widely used, non-medicinal stimulant worldwide and has been a staple of the human diet for centuries. While some studies have indicated that caffeine may have deleterious health effects, no definitive conclusions have suggested moderate amounts are harmful.

The first evidence of caffeine use is from Aztec records during the time of the leader Montezuma. This civilization consumed caffeine in a hot drink made from cacao leaves. Later cultures drank caffeine in the form of coffee. Coffee was first introduced as a medicine in England, but it became a fashionable beverage between 1670 and 1730. While humans have consumed caffeine for thousands of years, it was not until the early 1800s that the chemical was isolated and characterized. During the 1820s, the stimulating agents in coffee, tea, and chocolate were identified. At the time scientists did not realize that they had found the same ingredient. In 1840, two researchers, T. Martins and D. Berthemot, working independently showed that all of these active agents were chemically identical to caffeine isolated from coffee beans. During the rest of the century, the chemical characterization of caffeine was worked out. In 1848, Edward Nicholson published important research on the constitution of caffeine. The German chemist Emil Fischer (1852-1919) worked out the molecular structure of caffeine during the 1890s. He first synthesized caffeine from basic raw materials in 1895. Two years later he ascertained its structural formula.

Caffeine is classified as an alkaloid. Alkaloids are nitrogen-containing molecules that have a slightly bitter taste and are physiologically active. The specific effect on the body varies greatly depending on the alkaloid. Caffeine is a mild stimulant and is found in food products like coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate. The chemical name for caffeine is 1,3,7- trimethylxanthine,1,3,7, trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine or methyltheobromine. It is represented by the molecular formula C8H10N4O2H2O. The composite elements are arranged in a bicyclic fashion which is a derivative of a purine ring system (Figure 1). When isolated and purified, caffeine is a white, crystalline powder. It is composed of long hexagonal prisms. It ultimately melts at 458.2 °F (236.8°C), losing water at 176°F (80°C) and subliming at 352.4°F (178°C). It is odorless and has a bitter taste. It is slightly soluble in water and alcohol and is typically heated when incorporated into beverages. Aqueous solutions of caffeine have a neutral pH.

Guarana paste which is made from the Paullinia tree has the highest concentration of caffeine (about 4%). Tea leaves contain about 3.5% caffeine. Coffee beans 1-2.2%, and kola nuts have about 1.5%. Another source of caffeine is mate leaves. When added to food products, caffeine is isolated from these sources and refined. It is then incorporated into the product at a specific dose. For example, the average cup of coffee contains about 100 mg of caffeine. A can of soda contains about 55 mg, while a cup of tea has about 60 mg of the compound. A chocolate candy bar contains about 20 mg. During the late 1990s it became fashionable to add caffeine to other types of products such as bottled water and chewing gum. These products are designed to help keep the users alert. There are a variety of physiological effects that caffeine has on the human body. It is a mild stimulant to the central nervous system. It is thought to work by binding to select neurotransmitter receptor sites on nerve cells, causing them produce a continual signal.

These signals are responsible for the effects of caffeine consumption such as alertness, excitability, increased mental awareness, and restlessness. Caffeine is also used to treat migraine headaches because it constricts dilated blood vessels. It is also put into aspirin products. Additionally, it is thought to relieve asthma attacks because it can widen bronchial airways. In large amounts, caffeine can produce undesirable side effects such as nervousness, insomnia, rapid and irregular heartbeats, excess stomach acid, heartburn, and elevated blood sugar levels. It is possible to overdose on caffeine; the fatal dose estimated at 10 g. This would be the equivalent of the rapid consumption of 100 cups of coffee. While the health risks of too much caffeine are well established, the effects of long term exposure to lower dosages are unknown. Caffeine is known to be a teratogen which means it can produce birth defects. When a pregnant woman ingests caffeine the fetus is exposed and more effected by the drug because of its smaller size. Some studies have also suggested that caffeine has a mutagenic effect in large doses. However, no study has ever indicated that the average coffee or tea drinker is in danger from caffeine.

Base on the result of this study the researcher conclude that they are required to better define both the short- and long-term roles of caffeine in the neurological and cardiovascular systems. The massive popularity of caffeine has created a need to discover the possible inflictions on the human body. By delving into the biochemical characteristics of caffeine, findings on its structure and chemical properties have led to findings on its function, absorption in the body and metabolism. The neurophysiological benefits of caffeine are brief and ironically could lead to health disadvantages. Therefore in order to obtain the benefits consumption should be limited to moderate doses. The neurophysiologic health disadvantages of caffeine include anxiety and panic attacks and hallucinations brought about by above moderate doses of caffeine. In addition to this caffeine may impair learning and memory.

However, most alarming is the similarity of caffeine to other drugs such as morphine, heroin, ethanol, and most importantly to cocaine. Caffeine shows the most similarity to cocaine and reinforces cocaine-seeking behavior after elimination of the drug. This finding strengthens the argument that the potential of caffeine dependence is high and awareness of this should be created. Regarding caffeine in energy drinks, a number of questions arise out of this review. For example, should such aggressive marketing be allowed for a substance that serves as a portal to other forms of drug dependence? With energy drinks decreasing the perceived depressant effects of alcohol individuals may consume more alcohol and therefore jeopardize their perception and hence safety. The purpose of this experiment was to see how caffeine would affect the germination and growth of plant seeds.

In doing so, three different types of plant seeds were planted in twenty-four pots, eight pots used for each seed type. A control pot was set-up for each seed type, and that control pot was watered with no caffeine solution (distilled water only). All of the other pots were watered with a caffeine solution with a concentrationbetween.17-1.19M. Results indicate that watering plant seeds with a caffeine solution greater than .3 M, depending on seed type, inhibited the germination of the seeds. If the seeds were in fact able to germinate in the presence of caffeine, caffeine appeared to minimize the sprouts’ final height, disrupt the phenotype of the sprout, and slow the sprouts’ rate of growth in comparison with the control pot. This signifies that caffeine has a harmful effect on plants, a result from the calcium deficiency that caffeine induces within cells. A few sources of error were possible in this experiment. First of all, soil is a heterogeneous substance with a non-uniform composition.

Some pots may have had more nutritious soil than others, depending on how many nutrients and minerals were in that specific portion of soil used. To avoid this error in future experiments, hydroponics, or growing plants in mineral solutions without soil, may be a better alternative. In addition, every seed contains a different germination and height potential before they are even planted, largely based upon the predetermined genetic characteristics of each particular seed. For example, twenty healthy soybean seeds planted in a uniform environment may not germinate at the same time nor grow to the same height. This is an unavoidable error, but its effects could be reduced by using a larger sample size possibly consisting of ten different seed types planted in a few hundred pots.

When taken in a broader context, a purpose of this experiment was to analyze the effects of caffeine on plants to provide insight into caffeine’s harmful effects in the human body. If caffeine prevents plants from growing and carrying out their normal cellular processes, it may do so within the human body as well. However, caffeine’s cellular effects, such as causing calcium deficiency, likely occur on a much smaller scale in humans than in the sprouts of this experiment. That is because caffeinated beverages and food made for human consumption contain a “watered down” caffeine solution that is far less concentrated than the solutions used in this experiment. Nonetheless, the results of this experiment suggest that if humans consume a large amount of caffeine without supplementing their diet with calcium-rich foods, a noticeable calcium deficiency will result. Recommendation

The basis finding of this study the researcher hereby presented the different recommendations: People or a certain individual should…
If you are interested in receiving of some information about a proper dieting, exercising, taking It contains the following facts and recommendations: * the way you should determine your calorie intake (making notes, creating a calorie count, consulting the doctor) * reducing and cutting out some food from your menu (which food is better to eat and which not) * Which food you should substitute and what to take instead of eat (the questions of tastiness, side dishes, the importance of breakfast etc.) * creating your own menu

* the size of portion you eat
* snakes and what they should be like
* the amount of fiber in your food
* the importance of water
* what about exercises (aerobic exercise and weight training)
* your rest
* setting realistic goals
* a healthy way of life forever
* the importance of confidence and self-discipline
* the use of supplements
* important tips about weight loss
* the way you should make your own exercising plan
* The warnings and risks of unhealthy dieting.
All these in details and much more important facts you’ll find here-weight loss tips we hope this information will help you and you’ll reach weight loss goals. The process of losing weight is rather easy to describe in several words. You reduce the number of calories you consume a day, increase your activity and therefore a net loss of calories is caused by burning a certain amount of calories and your body has to use its own stores of fat.

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