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Terms and Essays

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Terms and Essays:

1. Traditional paradigm- transplant of English institutions or English culture into North America

2. Atlantic System paradigm- the creation of the Atlantic Ocean as a system or network of exchange after the voyages of Columbus

3. Christopher Columbus- an Italian explorer and navigator from Genoa, who asked King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella for a grant to find India and its treasures. He landed in modern-day Bahamas and claimed he “discovered” America

4. 1492 Edict of Expulsion – what was it? How did it influence Columbus’ voyage? – issued by Catholic monarchy of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, which ousted the Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. This occurred at the same time of his voyage, decreasing possible sailors to accompany him, and Jews possibly wanting to leave with him.

5. Amerindians- any member of the peoples living in North or South America before the Europeans arrived.

6. “three sisters:” maize, squash, beans- the first crops to harvest founded by the Native Americans, moving towards a more agricultural society than hunting-gathering.

7. “semi-sedentary” societies- groups of people that stay in a certain area for some time to grow crops and such, then move to another area.

8. Matrilineal- of or based on kinship with the mother or the female line.

9. matrilocal- of or denoting a custom in marriage whereby the husband goes to live with the wife’s community.

10. Pueblo- a Native American people in the Southwestern United States consisting of many different language groups and two primary cultural divisions, one formed by matrilineal kinship systems and the other having a patrilineal system, which determine the clan membership of their offspring, and lines of inheritance and descent. Their original economy comprised of agriculture and trade.

11. Creek- a Native American tribe form the Southeastern United States. They are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples and were considered one of the “Five Civilized Tribes” by George Washington because they had integrated cultural and technological European practices. They were also in the War of 1812 against the U.S. and the Indian Removal of 1830 moved them to Indian reservations.

12. Choctaw- a Native American tribe from the Southeastern United States. They are descendants of the Hopewell and Mississippian tribes. They developed political and geographical divisions: eastern, western, and southern. They also became known as one of the “Five Civilized Tribes”.

13. Iroquois Confederacy- confederation of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora Native American tribes across upper present-day New York in the 17th and 18th centuries, which gave the British and French a hard time in their conquest of North America.

14. longhouse- a long communal dwelling of some North American Indians (as the Iroquois).

15. Aztecs- a Native American civilization in Central Mexico who was at their peak in the 16th century, but was overthrown by the Spaniard Hernan Cortes.

16. Hernan Cortés- a Spanish Conquistador who defeated the Aztec empire and brought large portions of the Americans under Spanish rule. 17. Francisco Pizarro- Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire of Native Americans in Peru.

18. Incas- largest empire prior to the expeditions of Columbus located in Peru. A Native American empire that used different methods to control a large part of western South America. They were overthrown by Spaniard Francisco Pizarro in the 1530’s.

19. Atahualpa- the last Incan emperor before the Spanish conquest. Francisco Pizarro captured him and used him to control the Incan Empire, the Spanish later executed him.

20. Massacre at Cajamarca – what was it? What did it signify the end of? Beginning of?- It is the ambush and capture of Atahualpa (leader of Incas) by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro killing thousands Atahualpa’s nobles and entourage who were unarmed at the plaza of Cajamarca. It signified the end of the great Incan Empire of South America. It marked the conquest of the pre-Columbian Inca civilization of Peru.

21. “Black Legend”- a phrase used to describe the anti-Spanish propaganda created by the powers rival to Spain.

22. St. Augustine- a city in Northeast Florida founded by the Spanish in 1565; oldest city in United States, changed hands constantly between the Spanish, English, and French.

23. New France- area colonized by France in North America, stretched from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from the Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.

24. Samuel de Champlain- is considered “The Father of New France”, when he found Quebec City on July 3, 1608.

25. Quebec- the place where French settlers founded New France; located in Canada.

26. coureurs de bois- a French Canadian woodsman or Métis who traded with Indians for furs.

27. voyageurs- boatmen employed by the fur companies in transporting goods and passengers to and from trading posts.

28. Jesuits- a male Christian religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540.

29. Algonquins- prominent Native American tribe located along the Atlantic Coast, around the Great Lakes area, and into the St. Lawrence River area. These tribes were based on language and created a high populous and widespread culture proving to be a huge obstacle for European colonial settlement.

30. Hurons- also called the Wyandot people or Wendat are indigenous peoples of North America. They traditionally spoke Wendat, an Iroquoian language. By the 15th century, they had assembled in the north shore area of present-day Lake Ontario, before migrating to Georgian Bay. It was in this location that they first encountered the French explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615.

31. Spain- were the first European country to make a major impact in the New World conquering most of it with the approval of their monarchy King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They conquered majority of the New World as well as the Philippines under Ferdinand Magellan, the first to circumnavigate the Earth, and other areas.

32. New Mexico- located in the Southwest United States. It was first inhabited by the Clovis culture of Paleo-Indians. It was explored by Francisco Navarez de Coronado when he was looking for the Seven Golden Cities of Cibola, and the first settlement was called Santa Fe.

33. Pueblo Indians- a Native American people in the Southwestern United States consisting of many different language groups and two primary cultural divisions, one formed by matrilineal kinship systems and the other having a patrilineal system, which determine the clan membership of their offspring, and lines of inheritance and descent. Original economy= comprised of
agriculture and trade

34. Santa Fe- First occupied by a number of Puebloan Indian villages. Don Juan de Onate was the first to try and colonize this area in 1598, creating Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico as a part of New Spain in the Americas.

35. Encomienda- legal system established by the Spanish royalty at the time of Spanish colonization of the Americas control Native American labor.

36. mission system- chain of missions established by Franciscan monks in the Spanish Southwest and California forcing the Native Americans into converting to Christianity and working as agricultural laborers.

37. mestizos- a person of mixed racial ancestry, especially the offspring of a Spanish American and an American Indian.

38. Pope’s Rebellion (Pueblo Revolt), 1680- Pueblo Indians revolted against the Spanish settlers in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pueblos killed 400 Spaniards and drove 2,000 Spaniards out of the province.

39. English colonies- began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, which later became the Thirteen Colonies stretching from Georgia present-day Maine along the Atlantic Coast.

40. Plymouth- a colony located in Massachusetts formed by the English Puritans when they landed on Plymouth Rock in 1620, then brought into Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.

41. Pilgrims- member of the English Puritans fleeing religious persecution in England who sailed on the Mayflower and founded the colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1621.

42. Wampanoags- a member of the Algonquian people of Rhode Island and Massachusetts who greeted the Pilgrims.

43. Squanto- (c.1585–1622) Tisquantum, also known as Squanto, was the Native American who assisted the Pilgrims after their first winter in the New World and was integral to their survival. He was a member of the Patuxet tribe, a tributary of the Wampanoag Confederacy.

44. Thanksgiving- feast in 1621 shared between the Plymouth colonists and the Wapanoag Native Americans that lasted for several days, and include Massasoit, the Wampanoag Indian chief.

45. Pequot War- an armed conflict between the Pequot Native Americans and a union of English colonists in the Massachussets Bay Colony, Saybrook, and Plymouth colonies along with their Native allies from 1634-1638. 700 Pequots had been killed or taken captive.

46. New England Confederation- military alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven in 1643 to bring together the Puritan colonies in favor of the church and for defense against the Dutch colonies and Native American tribes.

47. King Philip’s War- armed conflict in 1675 to 1678, with English colonists and their Native American allies against Native Americans in the New England area. Leader of the Native Americans was Metacomet, which the English called “King Philip”. It was the single greatest catastrophe of 17th century Puritan New England.

48. Quakers, pacifism- from the religious movement known as the Religious Society of Friends, their main point is priesthood to all believers. They broke away from the Church of England and religious persecution in England and moved to the only two colonies they were accepted in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. They also believe in pacifism, which is opposition to war and violence.

49. Chesapeake- located in Virginia and contains the largest estuary in the United States, Chesapeake Bay. Captain John Smith mapped out and explored the whole area between 1607 and 1609 of England. A mass migration of English
Cavaliers to the Chesapeake area occurred from 1640 to 1675.

50. John Smith- an explorer was the Admiral of New England. He was the leader of the English Jamestown colony and led expeditions into the Virginia rivers and Chesapeake Bay. He once said “He who shall not work, shall not eat”. He is famous for his encounter with Pocahontas and Powhatan tribe of Native Americans.

51. Powhatans- Virginia Indian confederation of tribes located in modern-day Virginia and Maryland. The English were the first to built settlements in their lands causing many Powhatans to die of infectious diseases.

52. Anglo-Powhatan Wars- three wars fought in the early 17th century between the Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy and the English settlers of the Virginia Colony.

53. Bacon’s Rebellion- a rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers, who were led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. Berkeley failed to address the colonist’s demands regarding their safety.

54. Carolinas- areas of modern-day North and South Carolina. Known for its “lost” colony of Roanoke. It contained other settlements such as Charleston, Clarendon, Albermarle, and others.

55. Tuscarora- a Native American peoples of the Iroquois language, and came together around the Great Lakes area, but migrated south to Eastern Carolina on arrival of the Europeans. They migrated to Pennsylvania after the Tuscarora War, and backed the colonists in the American Revolution.

56. Yamasee- multiethnic confederation of Native Americans that lived in the Southeastern United States. Hernando de Soto explored their territory establishing missions. In 1727, most of them were slaughtered by the English, when the Yamasee allied the Spanish, so most of them later joined the Seminole tribe.

57. Dutch- formed colonies in the New World called New Netherlands with a capital city of New Amsterdam in the modern-day New York area.

58. New Netherlands- a 17th century colonial province of the Dutch Republic stretching from the Delmarva Peninsula to southwestern Cape Cod. It was established as a private business to capitalize on the North American fur trade.

59. New Amsterdam- Served as the capital city of New Netherland; and was a 17th century Dutch colonial settlement located on the southern tip of Manhattan. Then, it renamed New York after the English Duke of York when their forces seized the entire Dutch colony.

60. Dutch East India Company- chartered company created in 1602, carrying out colonial activities and Asia; the first multinational corporation and the first company to issue stock.

61. Peter Minuit- leader of the Dutch colony in New Netherlands (1626-1633) and founded the Swedish colony of New Sweden in 1638; and purchased Manhattan from the Native Americans.

62. Manhattan- the Dutch bought it from the Native Americans and named it New Amsterdam, then the British took control and renamed it New York.

63. Columbian Exchange- widespread exchanges of animals, plants, slaves, cultures, ideas, and diseases between America, Africa, and Europe.

Essay Q’s:

1. How did Amerindian society and culture differ from that of European authorities and settlers in the New World?
2. Analyze the relationship between Amerindians and the
• English
• Spanish
• French

3. Analyze the relationship between Amerindians and Europeans in the following regions: • Spanish Southwest
• New England
• New France
• New Netherlands
• Chesapeake
• Carolinas

4. Compare the cultures that could be found in the New World prior to the arrival of Europeans. Why were some Native American groups more advanced than others in the same region?
5. Describe the Spanish conquest of Central and South America. How did this conquest transform Native American cultures?
6. Describe the Spanish conquest of Central and South America. How did this conquest transform Native American cultures?
7. How did the British come to govern New Amsterdam?

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