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Self-Esteem and Self-Concept

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Self-Esteem is the way we view ourselves, and the acceptance of our own worth. It is the reason we compare each other, and try to be better than others. We judge every little action we do and thought counts. Self-Esteem is linked to the feelings of pride and discouragement. Self-consciousness is associated with self-esteem as self-consciousness is a sense of awareness. Self-confidence is a feeling of personal capacity and self-respect, which is a feeling of personal worth, and adds up to create self-esteem. Self-esteem is important as it can progress ones life such as academic achievement as one feels better about them selves so they feel better about what they are doing. Self-worth, self-regard, self-respect and self-integrity are all forms of self-esteem. Self-esteem is considered the trait we call motivation, there are two types of self-esteem the need for respect from others and the respect held within ourselves.

Respect from others gives us feelings of being recognized, accepted and appreciated. Self-esteem is linked to the reason we set high standards for are self as we try to become accepted in our own social groups. Self-esteem reduces anxiety from life and death situations. Self-esteem is important as it is the concern of ourselves, and our value. Self-esteem is responsible for the way we act and how we act towards each other. It plays a role in the way we think, feel, decide and act. Humans have a need for esteem as esteem for self-love, self-confidence, skill aptitude and respect received from other people. Many problems people occur comes from within as they may consider themselves to be unworthy or non-valuable. “Every human being, with no exception, for the mere fact to be it, is worthy of unconditional respect of everybody else; he deserves to esteem himself and to be esteemed.[15]” José-Vicente Bonet. Sé amigo de ti mismo: manual de autoestima. 1997. Ed. Sal Terrae. Maliaño (Cantabria, España). ISBN 978-84-293-1133-4.

The events we experience in life are the reason of the development in self-esteem. The positive and negative results in life creates an attitude we carry along with our self worth based off favorable or unfavorable feelings. Children are easily influenced by their parents and the parent is responsible for the positive and negative experiences a child will have. It is important to develop a child sense of being cared for and respected as it will develop their own self-esteem. Academic achievement plays a major role in self-esteem as a student that achieves success or one that fails strongly affects their self-esteem. Social experiences also affects ones’s self-esteem as children compare their selves to their classmates and recognize a difference. Children use social comparisons to determine if they did better or worse then their other classmates. As they compare them selves this evolves the child’s self-esteem in a positive or negative way.

During the adolescent stage children become more influenced by their Peers. Children evaluate their self-appraisal based off their friends. Successful relationships produces positive outcomes as it creates higher self-esteem as oppose to having no friends and becoming lonely will result in low self-esteem. The style of parenting is also important as students who parents show that they care and support the child turns out to have higher self-esteem than others. Children that are listened to, and paid attention too along with affection. Also acknowledge their accomplishments and accept their failures. “Self-Esteem.” Self-Esteem. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012.

The history of self-esteem comes from a man name William James from the 19th century, he studied the global self, knower self and known self. José-Vicente Bonet. Sé amigo de ti mismo: manual de autoestima. 1997. Ed. Sal Terrae. Maliaño (Cantabria, España). ISBN 978-84-293-1133-4. Over time others such as Carl Rogers and Robert B. Burns developed their own research of self-esteem by theorizing self-acceptance and individual’s attitude towards their self.

Self-concept also known as self-construction, self-identity, or self-structure is known to be what one knows about their self. This maybe performance from academics, the role they play such as sexuality and ethnicity. “Who am I?” is an equivalent meaning of self-concept. Myers, David G. (2009). Social psychology (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 0073370665. Self-concept maybe distinguished from self-knowledge as self-knowledge is ones attitude and dispositions. Self concept is different from self-esteem as self-concept is knowing of one self as self-esteem is what one thinks of them self. Self-concept interacts with self-esteem and self-knowledge, it includes the past present and future view of oneself. Self-concept is the thought of what one might become, what one would like to become or what one is afraid of becoming.

The way we think of ourselves is based on our future and past selves, we maintain positivity by separating or negativity from our positivity. We tend not to favor the past self and highly praise our future self. Wilson, Anne E.; Buehler, Roger; Lawford, Heather; Schmidt, Colin; Yong, An Gie (2012). “Basking in projected glory: The role of subjective temporal distance in future self-appraisal”. European Journal of Social Psychology 42 (3): 342–353. Doi:10.1002/ejsp.1863. ISSN 1099-0992. The history of self-concept comes from two phycologist Carl Rogers andAbraham Maslow as they were the creators of the idea of self-concept. Roger says “everyone strive to reach an ideal self.” Some people that are neurotic doesn’t allow their past experiences to determine their self-concept. Aronson, E.; Wilson, T.; Akert, R. (2007). Social Psychology. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall. P. 113. ISBN 9780132382458. Self-concept was found to have two levels, personal identity and a social identity. The way we evaluate are selfs is based off the way we perceive ourselves. The start of self-concept begins in grade school as we add social identity to our self-concept.

The development of self-concept is set by our parents at the age of three as or parents set expectations for us. Tiedemann, Joachim (2000). “Parents’ gender stereotypes and teachers’ beliefs as predictors of children’s concept of their mathematical ability in elementary school”. Journal of Educational Psychology 92 (1): 144–151. Doi:10.1037/0022-0663.92.1.144. ISSN 1939-2176. Self-concept is also developed at later ages such as seven or eight, as these ages is the start of us experiencing feelings and abilities, and the attention we receive from others such as; parents, teachers and peers. Although there are many ideals of self-concept it is agreed that ones self-concept influences the behavior and emotions of their self. Happiness, social life, anxiety and self-esteem is also produced from self-concept. Academic self-concept is the belief we have about our academic skills and where we stand compared to others. Academic self-concept is developed at younger ages as we are influenced by are parents and our teachers.

As we get older we start to compare our skills to our peers. Rubie-Davies, Christine M. (May 2006). “Teacher Expectations and Student Self-Perceptions: Exploring Relationships”. Psychology in the Schools 43 (5): 537–552. Doi:10.1002/pits.20169. ISSN 0033-3085. To increase one’s academic self-concept one has to receive specific feedback from others they look up too.Also working with others will increase one’s self-concept as they can learn abilities from others and increase their social concept and support their own self-concept. Self-concept and the meaning of varies depending on the culture type and the gender of one. Cross, Susan E.; Madson, Laura (1 January 1997). “Models of the self: Self-construals and gender”. Psychological Bulletin 122 (1): 5–37. Doi:10.1037/0033-2909.122.1.5. PMID 9204777.

Bibliography References

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-esteem\
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-concept
3. dictionary.reference.com/browse/self-concept
4. education-portal.com/…/what-is-self-concept-in-psychology-definition-le… 5. psychologytoday.tests.psychtests.com/take_test.php?idRegTest=320 6. cmhc.utexas.edu/selfesteem.html

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