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Review of the Related Literature

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The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. The plant is a creeping vine which bears cylindrical edible fruit when ripe. There are three main varieties of cucumber: “slicing”, “pickling”, and “burpless”. Within these varieties, several different cultivars have emerged. The cucumber is originally from India, but is now grown on most continents. Many different varieties are traded on the global market. The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruit. The fruit of the cucumber is roughly cylindrical, elongated with tapered ends, and may be as large as 60 centimeters (24 in) long and 10 centimeters (3.9 in) in diameter. Having an enclosed seed and developing from a flower, botanically speaking, and cucumber are classified as fruits.

However, much likes tomatoes and squash they are often perceived, prepared and eaten as vegetables. Cucumbers are usually more than 90% water. There appears to be variability in the human olfactory response to cucumbers, with the majority of people reporting a mild, almost watery flavor or a light melon taste, while a small but vocal minority report a highly repugnant taste, some say almost perfume-like. Various practices have arisen with regard to how bitterness may be removed from cucumbers. Among these a very common practice popular in India includes slicing off the ends of a cucumber, sprinkling some salt, and rubbing the now-exposed ends of said cucumber with the sliced-off ends until it appears to froth. Another such urban legend states that one ought to peel a cucumber away from the end that was once attached to a vine; otherwise one risked spreading the bitterness throughout the cucumber. Cucumber is a good source of vitamins A & C. Varieties of cucumber:

Slicing cucumber
Cucumbers which are grown to be eaten fresh are called slicing cucumbers. They are mainly eaten in the unripe, green form. The ripe, yellow form normally becomes too bitter and sour. These cucumbers can also be harvested for pickling when they are smaller. Slicers grown commercially for the North American market are generally longer, smoother, more uniform in color, and have a much tougher skin. Slicers in other countries are smaller and have a thinner, more delicate skin.

Pickling cucumber
Pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in Australia, Canada, and the United States or generically as gherkins in the UK) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation. Cucumbers can be pickled for flavor and longer shelf-life. Although any cucumber can be pickled, commercial pickles are made from cucumbers specially bred for uniformity of length-to-diameter ratio and lack of voids in the flesh. Those cucumbers intended for pickling, called picklers, grow to about 7 centimeters (2.8 in) to 10 centimeters (3.9 in) long and 2.5 centimeters (0.98 in) wide. As compared to slicers, picklers tend to be shorter, thicker, less regularly shaped, and have bumpy skin with tiny white or black-dotted spines. They are never waxed. Color can vary from creamy yellow to pale or dark green.

Burpless cucumbers
Some varieties of cucumber are marketed as burpless, because the seeds and skin of other varieties of cucumbers are said to give some people gas. The burpless variety is reputed to be easy to digest and have a pleasant taste. They can grow as long as 2 feet (0.61 m). They are nearly seedless, and have a delicate skin which is pleasant to eat. Most commonly grown in greenhouses, these parthenocarpic cucumbers are often found in grocery markets, shrink-wrapped in plastic. Filipinos are complaining of food shortage but we just don’t realize how we waste precious vegetable like cucumbers, which we can see spoiling in the market with no buyers at all. In hotel and restaurants we can see cucumbers as a decorative for the main dish. If we just know how useful cucumber is in our daily lives.

However, latest finding shows the mainly benefits we can derived from cucumbers. It has medicinal value that can cure other form of illness such as cucumber is best diuretic known, secreting and promoting the flow if urine. It also helps in kidney and urinary bladder disease. Liver disease, pancreatic disease it is also good for treatment of low or high blood pressure due to potassium content, good for revitalizing the skin as it is widely use in health spa nowadays. Also, good for treatment of Rheumatism, diabetes, and for better eyesight. Prevent splitting of nails in the legs or toes.

Varieties of cucumber:

1. Burpless cucumber

2. Pickling cucumber

In this experiment, vinegar is the control. Vinegar is a liquid substance consisting mainly of acetic acid and water, the acetic acid being produced through the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. Slow methods generally are used with traditional vinegars, and fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of weeks or months. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add mother of vinegar (i.e., bacterial culture) to the source liquid before adding air using a venturi pump system or a turbine to promote oxygenation to obtain the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in a period ranging from 20 hours to three days. Varieties of vinegar:

Malt vinegar is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It is typically light brown in color. In the United Kingdom, salt and malt vinegar is a traditional seasoning for chips and crisps. Wine

Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Mediterranean countries and Central Europe. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years, and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than that of white or cider vinegars. More expensive wine vinegars are made from individual varieties of wine, such as Champagne, sherry, or pinot grigio. Sherry vinegar

Production of sherry vinegar is linked to the production of wines of Jerez. The vinegar is made exclusively from the acetic fermentation of Sherry wines; the taste of this vinegar is stronger than wine. The resulting color of this vinegar is dark mahogany, it’s concentrated and has generous aromas; the nose will notice the hue of wood. Sherry vinegar is ideal for vinaigrettes and salad dressings and for flavoring various foods.

Apple cider
Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known simply as cider vinegar or ACV, is made from cider or apple must, and has a brownish-yellow color. It often is sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present, as a natural product. Because of its acidity, apple cider vinegar may be very harsh, even burning, to the throat. If taken straight, it can be diluted before drinking. It is also sometimes sweetened with sugar or honey. There have been reports of acid chemical burns of the throat from apple cider vinegar tablets, but doubt remains as to whether apple cider vinegar was in fact an ingredient in the evaluated products. Fruit

Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines, usually without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, blackcurrant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product. There are more varieties of vinegar, aside from these.

Cola contains carbonated water, sugar, caffeine, phosphoric acid, caramel colour, high fructose corn syrup, citrus oils, tamarind, cinnamon, vanilla, acidic flavouring, and artificial flavouring. Cola is a carbonated beverage that was typically flavored by the kola nut as well as vanilla and other flavorings; however, some cola are now flavored artificially. It became popular worldwide after druggist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886. His non-alcoholic version of the recipe was inspired by the Coca Wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863; it still contained cocaine. Coca-Cola is a major international brand, and is associated with the United States. It usually contains caramel color, caffeine and sweeteners such as sugar or high fructose corn syrup.

A 2007 study found that consumption of colas, both those with natural sweetening and those with artificial sweetening, was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The phosphoric acid used in colas was thought to be a possible cause. Flavorings

Despite the name, the primary flavoring ingredients in a cola drink are sugar, citrus oils, cinnamon, vanilla, and an acidic flavorant. Manufacturers of cola drinks add trace ingredients to create distinctively different tastes for each brand. Trace flavorings may include nutmeg and a wide variety of ingredients, but the base flavorings that most people identify with a cola taste remain vanilla and cinnamon. Acidity is often provided by phosphoric acid, sometimes accompanied by citric or other isolated acids. Many cola drink recipes are maintained as corporate trade secrets, notably Coca-Cola. A variety of different sweeteners may be added to cola, with the common sweetener often being dependent on local agricultural policy.

High-fructose corn syrup is predominantly used in the United States and Canada due to the lower cost of government subsidized corn. In Europe, however, HFCS is subject to production quotas designed to encourage the production of sugar; sugar is thus typically used to sweeten sodas. In addition, stevia or an artificial sweetener may be used; “sugar-free” or “diet” colas typically contain artificial sweeteners only. Some consumers prefer the taste of soda manufactured with sugar. As a result of this, there is demand in the United States for imported Mexican Coca-Cola. Kosher for Passover Coca-Cola sold in the U.S. around the Jewish holiday also uses sucrose rather than HFCS and is also highly sought after by people who prefer the original taste. In addition, PepsiCo occasionally markets a version of its Pepsi and Mountain Dew sodas that are sweetened with sugar instead of HFCS. These are marketed under the name Throwback and became permanent products on the lineup.

Carbonated Water
Carbonated water (also known as club soda, soda water, sparkling water, seltzer, or fizzy water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved, a process that causes the water to become effervescent. Carbonated water is the defining ingredient of carbonated soft drinks. The process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water is called carbonation. Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide and water form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which gives the water a slightly sour taste with a pH between 3 and 4. An alkaline salt, such as sodium bicarbonate, may be added to soda water to reduce its acidity. Carbon dioxide dissolved in water at a low concentration (0.2%–1.0%) cannot be tasted by humans, but the sour flavor of carbonic acid can be. The addition of a sodium or potassium salt can neutralize some of the acidic flavor of drinks that are made with soda water.

Carbonated water is often drunk plain or mixed with fruit juice. It is also mixed with alcoholic beverages to make cocktails, such as whisky and soda or Campari and soda. Flavored carbonated water is also commercially available. It differs from sodas in that it contains flavors (usually sour fruit flavors such as lemon, lime, cherry, orange, or raspberry) but no sweetener. Carbonated water is a diluent. It works well in short drinks made with whiskey, brandy, and Campari and in long drinks such as those made with vermouth. Soda water may be used to dilute drinks based on cordials such as orange squash. Soda water is a necessary ingredient in many cocktails, where it is used to top-off the drink and provide a degree of ‘fizz’. Adding soda water to ‘short’ drinks such as spirits dilutes them and makes them ‘long’. One report states that the presence of carbon dioxide in a cocktail may accelerate the uptake of alcohol in the blood, making both the inebriation and recovery phases more rapid.

The addition of carbonated water to dilute spirits was especially popular in hot climates and seen as a somewhat “British” habit. Adding soda water to quality Scotch whiskey has been deprecated by whiskey lovers, but was a popular lunchtime drink or early evening pre-dinner or pre-theater drink until the late part of the 20th century. Pre-filled glass soda-siphons were sold at many liquor stores, a deposit was charged on the siphon, to encourage the return of the relatively expensive siphon for re-filling. Carbonated water is a negligible cause of dental erosion; also known as acid erosion. While the dissolution potential of sparkling water is greater than that of still water, it is quite low. In comparison, carbonated soft drinks cause tooth decay at a rate several hundred times that of sparkling water.

The de-gassing of carbonated water only slightly reduces its dissolution potential, which suggests that the addition of sugar to water, not the carbonation of water, is the main cause of tooth decay. Intake of carbonated beverages has not been associated with increased bone fracture risk in observational studies, and the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on the amount of calcium in the body is negligible. Carbonated water eases the symptoms of indigestion (dyspepsia) and constipation, according to a study in the European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

A 2004 article in the Journal of Nutrition found that fizzy waters with higher sodium levels reduced cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular problems in postmenopausal women.

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