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Leadership and Management

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Leadership can be defined in many different ways. Interpersonal influence, directed through communication toward goal attainment. Act that causes others to act or respond in a shared direction. The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do this. Leadership involves

(1) establishing a clear vision,
(2) sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly, (3) providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision, and (4) coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders. A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned and enhanced through coaching or mentoring. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Attributes vital for leadership:

1. Visionary: A leader brings a vision to it’s group. It’s a plan by which others can follow. This vision brings the followers the emotion of hope and something the followers can strive to achieve. The vision should be clear and the leader should stand up for what the leader believes in. 2. Reliable: You don’t want to follow someone that shows up late or doesn’t do what they say they are going to do. In a leader, you want someone that’s reliable, with a message that people can follow. If leaders aren’t consistent if their efforts and their actions, it causes followers to begin to doubt the dedication of the leader to the cause. 3. Audacity: It takes guts to be a leader. It’s not for everyone. Some people would prefer to tag along for the ride and that’s fine. Not everyone can or should be a leader. 4. Empowering People: Inherently, people want to do a good job.

They want to succeed and make others happy. As a leader, you need to allow people to succeed. By empowering people, the leader isn’t doing the task for the person following the leader, but instead gives them the tools necessary to succeed. 5. Motivating: If you don’t have the previous characteristics, it certainly isn’t very motivating for the follower to follow the leader let alone do a great job. A leader needs a vision; otherwise people don’t have a map and tend to get lost. 6. 5. Positive: Nobody wants to follow a person who is “doom and gloom.” A leader doesn’t need to be all about rainbows and sunshine, but there definitely needs to be a boost of positivity especially when tackling a difficult project or the “going gets tough.”

What is Management?
Management is the act or art of managing: the conducting or supervising of something (as a business). 1. The organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with? machines, materials, and money and it consists of the interlocking functions of creating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organization’s resources in order to achieve the objectives of that policy. 2. The directors and managers who have the power and responsibility to make decisions and oversee an enterprise.

The size of management can range from one person in a small organization to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large organizations, the board of directors defines the policy which is then carried out by the chief executive officer, or CEO. Some people agree that in order to evaluate a company’s current and future worth, the most important factors are the quality and experience of the managers. Management is an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run an organisation. They Plan, Organise, Direct and Control all the essential activities of the organisation. Management does not do the work themselves. They motivate others to do the work and co-ordinate (i.e. bring together) all the work for achieving the objectives of the organisation.

1. Management is a continuous and never-ending process.
2. It means getting work done through people.
3. It is a result-oriented science and art.
4. It accesses and uses knowledge from multiple disciplines.
5. It is a group (team) achievement and not an individual (personal) activity.
6. It follows established rules to problems of organization.
7. It is aided but not replaced by computers.

8. It acts, adapts or adjusts according to the situation it faces. 9. It is separate from and not same as ownership.
10. It is both a result-oriented art as well as research-oriented science. 11. It is all pervasive and essential in every activity.
12. It cannot be seen (is intangible), but its impact can be felt. 13. It uses a professional approach to accomplish its task. 14. It is dynamic in nature, i.e. it keeps changing and getting better. Management is a universal phenomenon. It is a very popular and widely used term. All organizations – business, political, cultural or social are involved in management because it is the management which helps and directs the various efforts towards a definite purpose. Management involves creating an internal environment: – It is the management which puts into use the various factors of production. Therefore, it is the responsibility of management to create such conditions which are conducive to maximum efforts so that people are able to perform their task efficiently and effectively.

The relationship between leadership and management Leadership and management are the terms that are often considered synonymous. It is essential to understand that leadership is an essential part of effective management. As a crucial component of management, remarkable leadership behaviour stresses upon building an environment in which each and every employee develops and excels. Leadership is defined as the potential to influence and drive the group efforts towards the accomplishment of goals. This influence may originate from formal sources, such as that provided by acquisition of managerial position in an organization. A manager must have traits of a leader, i.e., he must possess leadership qualities. Leaders develop and begin strategies that build and sustain competitive advantage. Organizations require robust leadership and robust management for optimal organizational efficiency. Leadership and managements are two words that people, especially those in the line of business, usually interchange the meaning. This fault is sometimes the cause of fall down of some enterprises.
Applications and approaches being used for each are distinct, that if you don’t to which one they should be assigned, chances are high that you will end so messed up.

Leadership and management are both skills that an organisation should possess, courtesy of a chosen leader, with the support of its personnel. Good leadership can be attained through practice while effective management is learned through a course. Some good leaders are born; managements is achieved by consulting management consultants. See, it is not just in dictionary that the two terms differ.

Leadership is when you guide the organisation into a result that your group has agreed upon. You and the rest of the team have a defined understanding to determine the ability and to articulate visions and goals. Leadership is said seen just as a facet of successful manager. It usually works on precedence for strategic planning and management and long-term success. On the other hand, management is the planning and organizing of projects and operations, allocating resources to minimize costs and maximize benefits, directing practices and procedures, establishing controls to measure the effectiveness and efficiencies, and motivating subordinates. Management is concerned with present activities and the immediate results of those activities. Generally, the task of management is a lot heavier than that of leadership. A leader is the spearhead of the group going to a direction. And once they’ve found the direction, manager will take over to have consistency and make the group prosper after being established. Managers are incremental, while leaders are radical. Manager’s decisions are usually based on the book or ethics that every member constructed but leaders decide based on their intuitions.

Good Leadership styles

Four of the most basic leadership styles are:
* Autocratic
* Bureaucratic
* Laissez-faire
* Democratic
Autocratic Leadership Style
This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organisations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations. Certainly Gen X employees have proven to be highly resistant to this management style. These studies say that autocratic leaders: Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees

* Do not trust employees
* Do not allow for employee input
Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include: New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow * Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions * Employees do not respond to any other leadership style * There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis * There is limited time in which to make a decision

* A manager’s power is challenged by an employee
* The area was poorly managed
* Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization
* The autocratic leadership style should not be used when:
* Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful
* Employees expect to have their opinions heard
* Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions
* There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage Bureaucratic Leadership Style

Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages “by the book¨ everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isn’t covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader. He or she enforces the rules.

This style can be effective when:

* Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.

* Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures.

* Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of procedures to operate.

* Safety or security training is being conducted.

* Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash.

* This style is ineffective when:

* Work habits forms that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful.

* Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.

* Employees do only what is expected of them and no more.

Democratic Leadership Style
The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader: * Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance * Allows employees to establish goals

* Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted * Recognizes and encourages achievement.
Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. The democratic leadership style is most effective when:

* The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them. * The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. * The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. * There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve. * Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees. * You want to encourage team building and participation. Democratic leadership should not be used when:

* There is not enough time to get everyone’s input.
* It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision.
* The business can’t afford mistakes.
* The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership.
* Employee safety is a critical concern.

Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the “hands-off¨ style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. This is an effective style to use when:

* Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.
* Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.
* Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used * Employees are trustworthy and experienced.

* This style should not be used when:
* It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager. * The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing. * Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work. * The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her.

Good Management Functions

1. Planning
It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action ; deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving ; decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways ; means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human ; non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc. 2. Organising

It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. To organize a business involves determining ; providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves: * Identification of activities.

* Classification of grouping of activities.
* Assignment of duties.
* Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. * Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships. 3. Staffing
It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. Staffing involves: * Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place). * Recruitment, selection ; placement.

* Training ; development.
* Remuneration.
* Performance appraisal.
* Promotions ; transfer.
4. Directing
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements: * Supervision

* Motivation
* Leadership
* Communication
Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching ; directing work ; workers. Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose. Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction. Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding. 5. Controlling

It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. Therefore controlling has following steps: * Establishment of standard performance.

* Measurement of actual performance.
* Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
* Corrective action.


* http://www.essortment.com/styles-leadership-36149.html
* http://www.managementstudyguide.com/management_functions.htm * http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_relationship_between_strategic_management_and_leadership * http://www.managementstudyguide.com/leadership-management.htm * http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/management.html * http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/what-is-management-definitions-meaning.html * http://www.managementstudyguide.com/what_is_management.htm * http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/leadership.html * http://happinessisbetter.com/2009/05/22/what-is-leadership/

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