Police History Paper
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The first patrols did not have cars or two-way radio communication, but they started off always evolving policing and law enforcement organizations. In our current time the government has a direct relationship with law enforcement which affects policing practices. Federal, State, and local governments all play a role in policing practice. Although the law enforcement industry is ever-changing, sometimes it is important to understand where it came from and where it is going. Sir Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel is sometimes referred to as the father of modern policing, (Walker Katz, 2011). He was a political leader in England in the 1800s who fought for many years to improve law enforcement in his country. Peel formed the first police organization and was a pioneer in policing because of three core elements. The three core elements involve the mission, strategy, and organizational structure of the police (Walker Katz, 2011). Peels mission was focused on preventing crime rather than reacting to the crimes. Peels strategy for implementing the mission of crime prevention was preventive patrol (Walker Katz, 2011). The structure he adopted resembles military structure and a quasi-military structure is still in place for American policing today, (Walker Katz, 2011).
When colonial America established their law enforcement agencies, naturally, they adopted ideals from their homeland of England. This is how Peel impacted the law enforcement of the United States right from the start of policing organizations in this country. Policing and the Government in the United States Essentially, the government creates the laws the police and other law enforcement personnel are trying to enforce. However, American policing is highly fragmented. There is no formal, centralized system for coordinating or regulating all the different agencies (Walker Katz, 2011). The responsibility of police protection primarily resonates with local governments. Because of this, it is very difficult to generalize the interaction between policing and the government. The interaction is different depending on the local government. In addition to the local police agencies, there are also state, federal, and military police organizations. The Role of the Federal Government is to set standards that can be used across the United States. The most important set of national standards are the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court related to police procedures (Walker Katz, 2011).
In addition, Congress has also passed laws that affect state and local agencies. This means, that although the different agencies function independently, they still have to answer to the national standards that have been set forth by the government. The State Government sets the standard for what police can or cannot do. This varies from state to state. The most important role of state governments has been to require the licensing or certification of all sworn officers (Walker Katz, 2011). The relationship between the government and police organizations affects police practices on a daily basis and at all levels, local and national. The Federal Government sets standard that need to be followed. An example of a Federal ruling regarding policing has much to do with the Miranda Rights.
A criminal named Ernesto Miranda was let free based on Supreme Court Rule. In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Court overturned his conviction and ruled that police officers had to advise suspects of their right to remain silent and their right to an attorney before being interrogated (Walker Katz, 2011). Since then, the Miranda Rights have been a national standard that affect policing on a day to day basis. Conclusion In conclusion, the history of policing has evolved in an interesting way to the law enforcement we have in place today. Sir Robert Peel led the way for law enforcement in England. His theory and practice naturally followed into the United States during colonial America. In this day and age, police has taken a different role, but Peels core strategies are still in place. Once of his most prevalence strategies that is still used is crime prevention. The government plays an important role in the day to day practice of policing today. Police organizations are government by an intricate framework that is conducted at the Federal, State and, local levels which are all important to efficient functioning. All in all, law enforcement is an ever-changing industry and will continue to evolve as needed.
Walker, S. Katz, C.M. 2011. The Police in America An Introduction, 7th ed. New York, NY. McGraw-Hill. POLICE HISTORY PAGE 2 POLICE HISTORY PAGE 1 Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9 xrxwrTZaGy8IjbRcXI
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