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Phillipine Literary Periods

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Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. Philippine literature is written in Spanish, English, Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine language.


The word literature is derived from the Latin term Litera which means letter. It has been defined by various writers. Because literature deals with ideas, thoughts and emotions of man, literature can be said to be the story of man. Man’s loves, griefs, thoughts, dreams, and aspirations coached in a beautiful language is Literature.

In order to know the history of a nation’s spirit, one must read its literature. Brother Azurin defines Literature that it expresses the feelings of people to society, to the government, to his surroundings, to his Fellowmen and to his Divine Creator.( Webster defines literature as anything that is printed, as long as it is related to the ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true, or just a product of one’s imagination.Salazar and Nazal says that true literature is a piece of written work which is undying.

In PANITIKANG PILIPINO written by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal, it says that true literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy n his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator. PERIODS OF PHILIPPINE LITERATURE

A. Characteristics
1. Based on oral traditions
2. Crude on ideology and phraseology
B. Literary Forms
1. Oral Literature
a. Riddles (bugtong) – battle of wits among participants Tigmo – CebuPaktakon – Ilonggo
Patotdon – Bicol
b. Proverbs (salawikain) – wise sayings that contain a metaphor used to teach as a food for thought c. Tanaga – a mono-riming heptasyllabic quatrain expressing insights and lessons on life is “more emotionally charged than the terse proverb and thus has affinities with the folk lyric.” 2. Folk Songs

It is a form of folk lyric which expresses the hopes and aspirations, the people’s lifestyles as well as their loves. These are often repetitive and sonorous, didactic and naive a. Hele or oyayi – lullaby

b. Ambahan (Mangyan) – 7-syllable per line poem that are about human relationships and social entertainment c. Kalusan (Ivatan) – work songs that depict the livelihood of the people d. Tagay (Cebuano and Waray) – drinking song

e. Kanogan (Cebuano) – song of lamentation for the dead 3. Folk Tales
a. Myths – explain how the world was created, how certain animals possess certain characteristics, why some places have waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna b. Legends – explain the origin of things

Why the Pineapple Has Eyes
The Legend of Maria Makiling
c. Fables – used animal characters and allegory
d. Fantastic stories – deal with underworld characters such as “tiyanak”, “aswang”, “kapre” and others 4. Epics
These are “narratives of sustained length based on oral tradition revolving around supernatural events or heroic deeds” (Arsenio Manuel) Examples: Lam-ang (Ilocano)Hinilawod (Panay)

Kudaman (Palawan)Darangen (Maranao)

A. Characteristics
1. It has two distinct classifications: religious and secular 2. It introduced Spanish as the medium of communication B. Literary Forms
1. Religious Literature – Religious lyrics written by ladino poets or those versed in both Spanish and Tagalog were included in early catechism and were used to teach Filipinos the Spanish language. a. Pasyon – long narrative poem about the passion and death of Christ. The most popular was “Ang Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Cristong Panignoon Natin” by Aguino de Belen b. Senakulo – dramatization of the pasyon, it shows the passion and death of Christ 2. Secular (non-religious) Literature

a. Awit – colorful tales of chivalry made for singing and chanting Example: Ibong Adarna
b. Korido – metrical tale written in octosyllabic quatrains Example: Florante at Laura by Francisco Baltazar c. Prose Narratives – written to prescribe proper decorum i. Dialogoiii. ejemplo

ii. Manual de Urbanidadiv. tratado
Examples: Modesto de Castro’s “Pagsusulatan ng Dalawang Binibini na si Urbana at si Feliza” and Joaquin Tuason’s “Ang Bagong Robinson” (The New Robinson) in 1879

(1864 – 1896)
A. Characteristics
1. Planted seeds of nationalism in Filipinos
2. Language shifted from Spanish to Tagalog
3. Addressed the masses instead of the “intelligentsia” B. Literary Forms
1. Propaganda Literature – Reformatory in objective
a. Political Essays – satires, editorials and news articles were
written to attack and expose the evils of Spanish rule i. Diariong Tagalog – founded by Marcelo del Pilar ii. La Solidaridad – whose editor-in-chief is Graciano Lopez-Jaena b. Political Novels

i. Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo – Jose Rizal’s masterpieces that paved the way to the revolution 2. Revolutionary Literature – more propagandistic than literary as it is more violent in nature and demanded complete independence for the country a. Political Essays – helped inflame the spirit of revolution i. Kalayaan – newspaper of the society, edited by Emilio Jacinto b. Poetry

i. True Decalogue – Apolinario Mabini
ii. Katapusang Hibik ng Pilipinas – Andres Bonifacio iii. Liwanag at Dilim – Emilio Jacinto

A. Period of Apprenticeship (1910-1930)
1. Filipino Writers imitated English and American models 2. Poems written were amateurish and mushy, which phrasing and diction is awkward and artificial a. Short Stories
i. Dead Stars – Paz Marquez Benitez
ii. The Key – Paz Latorena
iii. Footnote to Youth – Jose Garcia Villa
b. Novels
i. Childe of Sorrow – first novel in English, by Zoilo Galang B. Period of Emergence (1920-1930)
1. Highly influenced by Western literary trends like Romanticism and Realism. a. Short Stories – most prevalent literary form i. Jose Garcia Villa – earned the international title “Poet of the Century”

A. War Years (1942-1944)
1. Tagalog poets broke away from the Balagtas tradition and instead wrote in simple language and free verse 2. Fiction prevailed over poetry
a. 25 Pinakamabuting Maikling Kthang Pilipino (1943) – compilation of the short story contest by the military government i. Suyuan sa Tubigan – Macario Pineda
ii. Lupang Tinubuan – Narciso Reyes
iii. Uhaw ang Tigang na Lupa – Liwayway Arceo B. Period of Maturity and Originality (1945-1960)
1. Bountiful harvest in poetry, fiction, drama and essay 2. Filipino writers mastered English and familiarized themselves iwht diverse techniques 3. Literary “giants” appeared

a. Palanca Awards for Literature
i. Jose Garcia Villa
ii. Nick Joaquin
iii. NVM Gonzales
iv. Bienvenido Santos
v. Gregorio Brillantes
vi. Gilda Cordero Fernando
b. National Artist Awards
i. Jose Garcia Villaii. Nick Joaquin

A. Characteristics
1. Martial Law repressed and curtailed human rights, including freedom of the press 2. Writers used symbolisms and allegories to drive home their message, at the face of heavy censorship 3. Theater was used as a vehicle for protest, such as the PETA (Phil. Educational Theater Association) and UP Theater. 4. From the eighties onwards, writers continue to show dynamism and innovation TYPES OF LITERATURE


-Refers to those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has a more melodious tone.

· Narrative poetry describes important events in life real or imaginary.

· Lyric poetry refers to that king of poetry meant to be song to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and fillings of the poet.

· Dramatic

An extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control. It may deal with heroes and gods.

Narrative, which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or as a metrical romance. Ex. Bayani ng Bukid

Of the narrative poems, this is the shortest and simplest. It has a simple structure and tells of a single incident.


These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow.

a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling of an idea.

This is a lyric poem, which express feelings of grief and melancholy and whose themr is death.

A poem of noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza.

A sound praising god or the Virgin Mary and containing a philosophy of life.

Measures of a 12 (do decasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or Banduria. Ex. Florante at Laura

Have measure of eight (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat.


Comes from the greek “komos” meaning festivity or revelry. This is usually light and written with the purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending.

Usually used in musical plays with opera. It arouses immediate and intense emotions and is usually sad but there is a happy ending for the principal character.

Involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces; he meets death or ruin without success and satisfaction obtained by the protagonist in a comedy.

Exaggerated comedy, situations are too ridiculous to be true; and the characters seem to be caricatures and the motives undignified and absurd.

-A short story is a brief work of literature, usually written in narrative prose.Emerging from earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of named characters, and focuses on a self-contained incident with the intent of evoking a “single effect” or mood.In so doing, short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, yet to a far lesser degree than a novel. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.



-An essay is a short piece of writing. It is often written from an author’s personal point of view. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story.

•Expository Essay

-Gives directions or instructions about how to complete a task, or how something is done. •Cause/Effect Essay
-Focuses on a condition or situation and asks either why? (cause) or what is the result? (effect). •Definition Essay
-Defines a topic both concretely (dictionary def.)and abstractly (extended def.). A dictionary often defines a word three ways: 1. the term
2. the class to which it belongs
3. the characteristics that distinguish it.
-Shows the differences and/or similarities between two persons, places, things, ideas, etc. – Two friends or relatives who could be compared.

•Argumentative or Pro/Con Essay
-Your opinion on a subject is argued based on reasoning and understanding. •Literary Analysis Essay
-Focuses on your observations about a book, story, poem, or play •Character Analysis Essay
-Focuses on your observations about a character in literature. Your evaluation of the character is based on what that character says, does, and/or what other characters say about him/her.

-Drama is a literary composition involving conflict, action crisis and atmosphere designed to be acted by players on a stage before an audience. This definition may be applied to motion picture drama as well as to the traditional stage. TYPES OF DRAMA

•Tragedy — In general, tragedy involves the ruin of the leading characters. To the Greeks, it meant the destruction of some noble person through fate, To the Elizabethans, it meant in the first place death and in the second place the destruction of some noble person through a flaw in his character. Today it may not involve death so much as a dismal life, Modern tragedy often shows the tragedy not of the strong and noble but of the weak and mean, •Comedy — is lighter drama in which the leading characters overcome the difficulties which temporarily beset them •Problem Play — Drama of social criticism discusses social, economic, or political problems by means of a play. •Farce — When comedy involves ridiculous or hilarious complications without regard for human values, it becomes farce. •Comedy of Manners — Comedy which wittily portrays fashionable life. •Fantasy — A play sometimes, but not always, in comic spirit in which the author gives free reign to his fantasy, allowing things to happen without regard to reality. •Melodrama — Like farce, melodrama pays almost no attention to human values, but its object is to give a thrill instead of a laugh. Often good entertainment, never any literary value.


[pic]Jose Garcia Villa
Jose Garcia Villa (5 August 1908 – 12 June 1973) is a Filipino poet and a National Artist for Literature. He is known for introducing the “reversed consonance rime scheme,” as well as for “comma poems” that made full use of the punctuation mark in an innovative way. Villa is also a short story writer, critic, and painter.

[pic]Nick Joaquin
Poet, fictionist, essayist, biographer, playwright, and National Artist, decided to quit after three years of secondary education at the Mapa High School. Classroom work simply bored him. He thought his teachers didn’t know enough. He discovered that he could learn more by reading books on his own, and his father’s library had many of the books he cared to read. He read all the fiction he could lay his hands on, plus the lives of saints, medieval and ancient history, the poems of Walter de la Mare and Ruben Dario. He is one of the most renowned, well-respected, and highly admired writer in the Philippines. In fact he was considered as the most important Filipino writer in English and in general the third most important after Jose Rizal and Claro M. Recto. Nick Joaquin, also known by his pen name Quijano de Manila, was a writer, historian, and journalist who used the English language in his works. He received so many awards and recognition both local and international due to his brilliance in writing. As a journalist he was both intellectual and provocative—which pave the way to increase the level of reportage in the country—something that is unknown to the Philippines at that time. In 1976, he received the National Artist of the Philippines for Literature, among any others.

[pic]Francisco Sionil Jose
He has been called a Philippine national treasure. Born on December 4, 1924 in Rosales, Philippines, he was introduced to literature in public school and later at the University of Santo Tomas. While working as a journalist in Manila, he moonlighted writing short stories and eventually novels. In the late fifties Jose founded the Philippine branch of PEN, an international organization of poets, playwrights, and novelists. In 1965 he started his own publishing house SOLIDARIDAD, and a year later he began publishing the remarkable Solidarity, a journal of current affairs, ideas, and arts, still going strong today. Jose wrote in English rather than in his national language Tagalog, or his native language Illocano. In 1962 he published his first novel The Pretenders. Today his publications include ten novels, five books of short stories, and a book of verse. His works are available in 24 languages and some have recently been published in North America by Random House.

•Carlo J. Caparas
He was the man responsible for the creation of the undying story of Ang Panday (The Blacksmith). In addition to that, he also created other great stories who later turned to movies and/or TV series such as Gagambino, Bakekang, Totoy Bato, and Joaquin Bordado to name a few. Caparas was originally a comic strip writer who later ventured in to film directing and producing. In July 2009, he was proclaimed as a National Artist of the Philippines in the category of Visual Arts and Film. •Mars Ravelo

Like Caparas, Mars Ravelo is also a comic strip writer and creator who rose to popularity because of his works such as Darna (a local version of America’s wonderwoman), Dysabel (a mermaid whose fate is a little similar to Ariel of “The Little Mermaid”), and Captain Barbel (a local version of Superman) to name a few. As you may have observed, Ravelo’s works are so much alike to some American fictional stories. This is because he was born at the time when Philippines was still an American Territory. Thus, it’s understandable that his writing is heavily influenced by the American literature. Ravelo started out as a cartoonist who worked his way up until he became an editor-in-chief for several publications and film companies before establishing his own company. During his time, he was the highest
paid comic writer. •Gilda Olvidado

Sinasamba kita, Babangon ako at Dudurugin kita, and Saan Nagtatago ang Pag-ibig are some of the works done by Gilda Olvidado which made her popular. In fact, the screenplay Saan Nagtatago ang Pag-ibig, became a blockbuster and was awarded Best Story during the 36th FAMAS Awards Ceremonies in 1987. Currently, Olivado is an in-house writer of GMA network, a popular broadcasting company in the Philippines. •Lualhati Bautista

Phenomenal novels such as Dekada ‘70, Bata, Bata, Pa’no ka Ginawa?, and Gapo are all written by the multi-awarded Lualhati Bautista. She was one of the primary female writers in the history of contemporary Philippine literature. Although a college dropout, her writing ability is praised and admired by many. As a writer, she was highly commended for her honest realism and fearless exploration of Philippine Women’s and Political issues. Bautista earned several Palanca Awards for her novels that exposed injustices and portrays women activism during the Martial Law Period. Aside from being known locally, works by Lualhati are also being recognized abroad. In fact, she was the only Filipino who got included in a book on Foremost International Women Writers published in Japan in 1991. Lastly, excerpts from her novels have been anthologized in a book of short stories written by Filipino women which was published in Finland by the Finnish-Philippine Society. •Francisco Balagtas

Francisco Baltazar, also known as Francisco Balagtas is a legendary as well as a historical figure in Philippine Literature. In fact, the Filipino Poetic Debate is termed as Balagtasan, a name taken in honor of him. He was like a Filipino version of William Shakespeare. His life and works has even been incorporated in the high school curriculum. His most famous work was the epic entitled Florante and Laura, whose story was said to be taken after his personal tragic love relationship with Maria Asuncion Rivera. To further signify his vast contribution to the Philippine Literature, an elementary school in Santa Cruz, Manila and a city in Bulacan where he was born were named after him. •Bob Ong

Bob Ong is the most doted contemporary authors by the Filipino people of the recent times. He uses conversational Filipino as his writing style to provide humor to his reader and to make his books more interesting than others. Bob Ong is just a pseudonym of someone whose identity is left as a mystery to the public. It was even stated in one of his books that he/she prefers his/her identity remained unknown so he/she can still have a normal life and not be stereotyped according to his manner of writing. ABNKKBSNLAko?, Bakit Baligtad Magbasa ng Libro ang mga Pilipino?, and Alamat ng Gubat, are just some of his best-selling books. He was one of the few authors whose release of next books are being anticipated by many and to some being reserved in advance.

•Jose Rizal
The country’s national hero is also known to be one of the greatest writers Philippines was blessed to have. His writing caused the Filipino people to have the courage to fight for their Freedom against the hands of the Spaniards. He was the man behind brilliant literary outputs such as Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo which are considered to be precious treasures of the Philippine Literature.

•Claro M. Recto
was a Filipino politician, jurist, poet and one of the foremost statesmen of his generation. He is remembered mainly for his nationalism, for “the impact of his patriotic convictions on modern political thought”.[He was born in Tiáong, Tayabas (now known as Quezon province), Philippines, Spain (The Philippines was not yet independent) of educated, upper middle-class parents, namely Claro Recto [Sr.] of Rosario, Batangas, and Micaela Mayo of Lipa, Batangas. He studied Latin at the Instituto de Rizal in Lipa, Batangas from 1900 to 1901. Further schooling was at the Colegio del Sagrado Corazón of Don Sebastián Virrey. He moved to Manila to study at the Ateneo de Manila where he consistently obtained outstanding scholastic grades, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree maxima cum laude. He received a Masters of Laws degree from the University of Santo Tomás.


•Noli Me Tangere
•El Filibusterismo
•Mi Ultimo Adios

•Alamat ng Gubat
•Bakit Baligtad Magbasa ng Libro ang mga Pilipino?

•Florante at Laura
•Orosman at Zafira
•Don Nuño at Selinda

•Dekada ‘70
•Bata,Bata… Pa’no ka Ginawa?
•Tatlong Kuwento ng Buhay ni Juan Candelabra

• May Day Eve (1947)
•Prose and Poems (1952)
•La Naval de Manila and Other Essays (1964)
•Tropical Gothic (1972)
•A Question of Heroes (1977)

• Sinasamba kita
• Babangon ako
• Dudurugin kita

Mars Ravelo
• Captain Barbell

Carlo J. Caparas

• Two Filipino Women
• Platinum
• “In Search of the Word Manila”
• The Pretenders

• Philippine Short Stories: Best 25 Short Stories of 1928
• Poems in Praise of Love
• The Anchored Angel: Selected Writings
• The Emperor’s New Sonnet

• Bajos los cocoteros (Under the Coconut Trees, 1911)
• La ruta de Damasco (The Route to Damascus, 1918)
• Primeras Cuartillas


http://www.commapress.co.uk/?section=books&page=Resource1ThreeTypes www.scribd.com/doc/61601276/chap1-11
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/General_types_of_philippine_literature http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/engramja/essaytyp.html
http://www.scribd.com/doc/36510088/Philippine-Literary-Periods http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/Drama.htm
http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Mars_Ravelo#Works\ http://www.filipinoshortstories.com/10-most-popular-filipino-writers-of-all-time/ http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=F._Sionil_Jose


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