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Pathophysiology Review

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1. PKU – happens to children (kidney disease) due to improper dietary management. Results in mental retardation. 2. Fragile Fontanele- (Hydrosefalis) Increase intracranial pressure/sutures area become separated. 3. Retinal Detachement- painless, floaters, particles, blurred vision, flashes of light. 4. Pericarditis- Inflammation of the pericardia, chest pain, high fever, wbc elevated, pericardial friction rub. 5. Thyroid Gland- Metabolism responsible of the metabolic process of cells in the entire body. 6. Silent Myochardial Infarction- Diabetes mellitus, Males ( Heart Attack). 7. Fatal Stroke- Hemorhage

8. Open-Angle Glaucoma- African-American, Hallow around light, no peripheral vision, tunnel vision, decreased color distinguishing. 9. Complications in circulation due to diabetes- Neuropathy, hypertension, poor circulation, retinal neuropathy, blindness, stroke, silent myocardial infarction, erectile disfunction (males). 10. Epiglotis- Critical condition in children, fatal blockage of the airway, swollen epiglottis is fatal, severe hypoxia, not able to breathe. 11. Respiratory Alkalosis- Blow up bag

12. Patient stage of homeostasis- (everything is normal) assessment vital signs, abq, electrolytes 13. Rheumatoid Arthritis- Auto immune disease that affects the nodules, joints, inflammatory condition. Sign and symptoms: Joints disfigured, pain, fever, fatigue, inflamed nodules, limited range of motion. 14. Hemoglobin HBA1C- 2-3 months test of glucose in red blood cells. It lasts up to 3 months. 15. COPD patient- respiratory acidosis

16. Buffer- Biocarbonate to bring to normal levels.
17. Patient with a stroke on the left side of the body- Weakness on left side, teach patient in small frequent sessions. 18. Signs and symptoms of diabetes- Pilluria(urination), Polyphasia (hungry), Polidasia (thirst-dehydration). 19. Objective data- What you observe

20. Subjective data- What patient tells you.
21. Strabismus- cross eyed(diplopia)
22. Infection of the menenges- inflammation of the menenges ( meningitis). 23. Karotitis- HSV1 herpes simplex, virus 1
24. HSV1- viral infection, cold sores, over exposure to sun, stress. 25. Rickets- Vitamin D deficiency, brittle bones, happens to children. 26. Systic fibrosis- Past on from parents, pancreas lungs. 27. Tia- not permanent, temporary weakness

28. Stroke – it can be permanent (cva)
29. Spinal Bifida- malformation of spinal cord in the mothers woumb, worst case of spinal bifida is myomeningosia. 30. Machula-degeneration- Wet and Dry, it happens to older patient, acus- front fluid, vacu back fluid. 31. Thrombus development-Immobility (blood clot) viscosity blood thickened. 32. Emboli- moving clot

33. Primary Tuberculosis (TB)- Airborne, lies dormant in the system, carrier, not active, transported in the blood stream, symptoms: lies in lungs and major organs, cough, night sweats, malase, fever, it can also lie dormant in the spine. 34. Red Stemberg cells- Hodgkins disease

35. Intake- what goes in the body such as water, electrolytes, food etc. 36. Output- gastric fluid, emesis, bowl movement, ostomy bag, urine, illionostomy bag, vomiting, blood, (suck towels, drain drapes) NG drainage. (measurable liquids and outcomes). 37. Hyperkalemia- potassium high, cardiac dysrrhytmia, normal potassium levels, 3.5 to 5.5 38. Patient with pain, burning sensation in lower back, severe rash- has shingles or herpes soster 39. Nursing process- assessment, diagnostic, implementation, plan of care, evaluation 40. Aldosterone- produced in the Adrenal cortex gland

41. Gestational diabetes- develops during pregnancy
42. COPD- Risk smokers, older patients.
43. Primary Hyperthyroidism- symptoms: bulging eyes, goiters, increase appetite, increase heart rate. 44. Hypothyroidism- decreased appetite, decreased heart rate, decreased energy levels, always lethardy 45.
Motor-vehicle accident patient cannot remember- assess for concussion, brain injury. 46. Diabetes type 2- obesity, inactivity, family history, oral hypoglacemic medications. 47. Diabetes type 1- Beta cells of pancreas dead, juveniles, take injectable insulin for life. 48. Otomic hyper-reflexia- pre disposing factor, spinal cord injury, seizures, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure. 49. Communative fracture- crushed bone into small pieces

50. Compound fracture (open) bone broken in 2 pieces, tissues exposed bone not broken thru skin. 51. Syphilis- Child can be born blind, deaf. (c-section patient). 52. Resources for nurses- NANDA

53. Small parasites- scabies leaves trail marks in the skin 54. Reinforcement types for small children- positive, negative, material, social, activities 55. Seizures- patient blinks, looks spaced out (complex focal seizure). 56. Prior Pizime- overdose viagara, sico-cell patient, long painfull erection 57. Nurse initiated intervension- nurse practice act, without doctors order. 58. Right sided heart failure- edema, weight gain, padal-edema 59. Deficit of all four types of blood cells- Pansitopenia 60. Nurse getting the information from the parents instead of the child who is the patient- Secondary 61. Epstein side Bar Virus- Monocleusis, lymphosites type b 62. Dry macula degeneration- Central vision lost (suddenly) 63. Wet Macula degeneration- Progressive central vision lost 64. Pain abdomen- visceral sharp pain ( internal organ)

65. Somatic
66. Psychosomatic- phantom pain
67. Phantom pain- amputation
68. Influenza- symptoms fevers, chills, malease, cough produce mucous 69. Cold – symptoms, runny nose, watery eyes
70. Nursing process- patient is 5 feet tall (objective) planning( set goals) assessment ( collection of data) Goals met- evaluation phase 71. Patient who has excessive amount of urine output- diabetes insipidus, decrease anti-diuretic hormone 72. HIV- destroys T helper cells

73. Nursing diagnosis ( Patient with shortness of breath) Goals statements, breathing to be unelaborated, normal respiratory rate between 14-20 8 breaths, must be met by end of shift. 74. Patient who has eye problems, brothers and sisters have the same problems ( use of eye drops) Open angle glaucoma ( family inherited) 75. Patient who has diabetes lost central vision suddenly- Wet macula degeneration 76. Patient suffered a stroke- Nurse assess what type of stroke is it? Hemarrage, or ischemic . Do not use anticoagulants . Uses coagulants. 77. Blood pressure, vitals- assessment

78. EKG- qrs- ventricular depolarization, P wave- Atrial depolarization,T-wave ventricular repolarization 79. Pain perception- affective behavior, anticipation, sensory, psychologic factor 80. Otosclerosis- pregnancy, difficulty hearing, tinnitus 81. Diabetes type 2- insulin resistance, increase glucose in blood 82. Nurse patient relationship- empathy, respect, symphaty 83. Cushing syndrome- moon face, edema, hump look, abdomen big, increased blood pressure, buffalo hump. 84. Get information from patient- open ( just tell what do you feel, where does it hurt) 85. Patient walked in the er with head injury, lucid, looses consciousness at times what type of injury is it? Epidural hematoma ( bleeding between the dura and skull) 86. 5 steps of teaching learning process from nurse to patient- assess readiness to learn, develop learning objective, plan and implement patient teaching, document patient teaching, evaluate patient teaching.

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