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Newspapers During the Revolution

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Journalism started in the Philippines during the late 1800’s, an age when the internet, radio and television were still non-existent. The emergence of several publications was intended to inform and awaken the people about the abuses and atrocities committed by the Spaniards and eventually by the Americans. It encourages the people to become aware of the social and political circumstances at that time.

Periodicals are the most accessible and affordable sources of daily information because of their availability. For more than a century, print media in the Philippines has been instrumental not only in promoting the government but also in voicing out the grievances of a populace in dilemma.

In the effort of the Revolutionists to spread to the world their longings for their country, many newspapers were put up during the Revolutionary period. They were:

-“The Herald of the Revolution” (in English), “Ang Tagapagpauna ng Himagsikan” (in Filipino) -The El Heraldo de la Revolucion was the official newspaper of the Filipino republic founded by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo on July 14, 1898; published, and edited by General Antonio Luna. It printed the decrees of the Revolutionary Government, news and works in Tagalog that aroused nationalism. It was the official publication of the revolutionary government. On September 29, 1898, El Heraldo de la Revolucion was published in Malolos, Bulacan for the first time.

-“Independence”, was established on September 3, 1898, by General Antonio Luna, whose aim was for Philippine Independence. -The story of La Independencia is one of the most thrilling episodes of the revolution. As the Americans carried the war to the provinces, the newspaper had to move from one place to another. It was the most widely read newspaper of the revolution. -It used the same press that La Libertad had used, and quickly gained support from the educated class. La Independencia had four pages, with one page fully devoted to ads. But it was La Independencia’s editorials and essays which put it head and shoulders above the other papers. The “refined expression and literary finesse” of the paper attracted readership and even caused some Spaniards to believe that traitorous Spaniards were writing and editing the paper. -The national anthem remained without words until Jose Palma, a young poet-soldier thought of writing a poem to accompany the national anthem. The poem, entitled Filipinas, was published for the first time on September 3, 1899 in La Independencia, a revolutionary newspaper where Palma was a staff member.

-“The Philippine Republic”, on September 15, 1898, an independent and nationalist newspaper was published in Mandaluyong and was founded by Pedro A. Paterno that was later on succeeded by Leon Ma. Guerrero. The said newspaper hoped to achieve national unity under a democratic Philippine Republic. It ceased publication in early 1899.

-“Liberty”, was a nationalistic paper which was published on June 20, 1898 and edited by Clemente Jose Zulueta. He was an enterprising writer, an enterprising writer and bibliophile, who decided to exercise the freedom of the press that the revolution had fought for. -The first issue of La Libertad was dedicated to a certain Colonel Pacheco. After its first issue, the newspaper was seized by the Revolutionary government and Zulueta transferred to the newspaper La Independencia.

Through the various phases of our history, the print media has contributed substantially to our emancipation from being colonial subordinates. It has guided us in discerning the deceptions of dictatorship. It records daily our defeats and victories as people. The print media continues to be an agent of change in the continuing socio-political transformation of our nation.

These periodicals, does not only prove that we don’t want to be subordinates by foreign people, but does also imply that we, Filipinos are definitely rich of our own literature.

IV. References

http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=La_Republica_Filipina http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=3&i=221 http://philippineculture.ph/filer/philippineliterature-091020093804-phpapp01.pdf http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=El_Heraldo_de_la_Revolucion http://www.nhcp.gov.ph/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=770

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