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In today’s society, having an education is already a great advantage or in most cases, a requirement to land on a job. Hence, people became very strict on choosing their educational institution to assure that they are competitive in any means possible. However, in the Philippine setting, if a student wants to be hired instantly after graduation or have what we commonly call a ‘competitive advantage’, they tend to go to Manila and pursue Higher education in the university belt of the country. This can be pointed out to the fact that these educational institutions provide an excellent training ground for their students to prepare them in entering the corporate world — a training ground derived from adapting the educational curriculum called Outcomes-Based Education (OBE).
Hence, rooting from the adaptation of such curriculum by Manila schools, Provincial universities who are still using the traditional approach are left in the dilemma of decreasing enrollees that continuously fluctuate as each year pass. Thus, University of Batangas, a provincial university using the traditional method in teaching, is faced with the same predicament. University of Batangas (UB) promised its students with quality education and it is what student’s are looking for — quality education that will prepare them to face the challenges of their chosen careers. However, is the university’s current curriculum still effective to provide quality education? Or is it the main reason that students are putting away the university in their list of prospect schools to attend? Will the adaptation of Outcomes-Based Education be the key to uplift the quality of education in the university and perhaps, attract students to choose UB? In line with all this, the researcher was totally intrigued and challenged with the possible effects of the use of OBE to the university, thus the conduct of this study was made.
The general objective of this study is to confirm the marketability of the University of Batangas if it adapts Outcomes-Based Education. Specifically, this aims to achieve the following objectives: 1. To identify the students and parents preferences for Education. 2. To identify if an Outcomes-Based Education system is favored by students. 3. To determine if an Outcomes-Based Education system will make the university more marketable. 4. To determine if the University of Batangas should adapt Outcomes-Based Education in teaching. 5. To gather suggestions about the university’s educational system that will attract students to go to University of Batangas. This study is significant as it will provide a better understanding on Outcomes-Based Education as well as its attributes that can be the catalyst of educational reform in the university as well as help UB adapt in the ever-changing educational environment.
It can also help create an innovative approach in teaching the student’s to make them more competitive. This study is beneficial to the researcher as he will gain knowledge on Outcomes-Based Education which he can use in his aim to learn more which he can use as a marketing professional. Moreover, the study will also be of great help to the university as it will provide them insights about an innovated teaching curriculum that may prove of great benefit to uplift the name of the university through creating an image of a university that is excellent in honing competitive and excellent graduates. This study can also help prove the marketability of an institution using the Outcomes-Based Education
. On the other hand, this study can also help Professors as well as educators so that they can come up with a new teaching style that will not only make the students know but also apply what they learn. This is also beneficial to the students as they will be enlightened to a new way of learning that it will increase their competency and most of all, this study will be of great assistance to future researchers where they can generate new ideas and perhaps make a research relative to education and marketing. As described in eurojournals, an online journal, Outcomes are ‘clear, observable demonstrations of student learning that occur after a significant set of learning experiences. They are not values, attitudes, feelings, beliefs, activities, assignments, goals, scores or averages, as many people believe. Typically these demonstrations reflect three things:
• What the student knows
• What the student can actually do with what he or she knows
• The student’s confidence and motivation in carrying out the demonstration.
They further state that Outcomes are what learners can actually do with what they know and have learnt. In other words they are the tangible application of what has been learnt. That assists the learners to know themselves. OBE compels educators to use action verbs like describe, explain, design or produce. These action verbs are preferred more than the vague and non-demonstration processes like know, understand, believe or think. It should be noted that since Outcomes occur at the end of a learning experience, they represent the ultimate result of the didactic situation. Hence, it can be said that any real attempt to introduce OBE requires a substantial overhaul of our traditional assessment techniques. Jansen (1998) describes this as “the most potent mechanism… militating against curriculum innovation.
Unsurprisingly, the international experience with OBE suggests that the assessment changes only moderately with Outcomes-based innovation.” Moreover, it is clear that OBE (in its original form) has much in common with Ralph Tyler’s objective model (Tyler 1949), which specifies that the curriculum for a course should be developed from a statement of principles (which became known as objectives) and describe how students’ behavior should change as a result of the learning experience. Prideaux suggests that narrow interpretation of Tyler’s original model resulted in objectives only being described in behavioral terms, which made them difficult to write [and sometimes difficult to understand if you’re not a behavioral psychologist] and limited the range of student skills and knowledge to that which could be expressed in behavioral terms.
“Higher order thinking, problem solving, and processes for acquiring values may be excluded because they cannot be simply stated in behavioral terms.” (Prideaux 2003) On the other hand, Spady and Marshall used the term traditional OBE for OBE programs in which the Outcomes are defined as mastery of traditional subject matter: English, mathematics, science, and so on (Spady and Marshall 1991). Programs with content Outcomes but also higher order Outcomes such as being able to work with others are transitional. Spady and Marshall advocate transformational OBE, in which Outcomes are derived from careful analysis of what students must be able to do to succeed in the future. These transformational Outcomes are demonstrations of life “performance roles” such as problem solver and teacher (Spady 1994).
A well-established example of OBE in actual use is the Johnson City, New York, schools (Vickery 1990). The Johnson City program, called by its developers the Outcomes-Driven Developmental Model or ODDM, was launched by John Champlain in the early 1970s. The program was originally described as a mastery learning program (the term Outcomes-based was not in use at that time). Al Mamary, former superintendent, says the major difference between mastery learning and ODDM is that ODDM puts increased emphasis on the student’s role. In a mastery learning program, teachers take responsibility for making sure that most students learn. Under ODDM, students are informed of the Outcomes and expected to assume responsibility for achieving them (Brandt 1994).
ODDM is described as having a strong philosophical and psychological base as well as a technical one. An approach complementary to OBE that many educators have found to be helpful is the performance assessment system developed by Bob Marzano and associates at the Midcontinent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL). Responding to educators whose school systems have adopted transitional Outcomes and who need a valid way to assess them, the model involves writing performance tasks that specifically include elements of several different Outcomes in one challenging task (Marzano, Pickering, and McTighe 1993). Because assessment of student performance is an essential part of OBE, the Marzano model is a useful supplement to transitional OBE programs.
Educators who accept the OBE philosophy begin by involving teachers, parents, citizens, and students in establishing the Outcomes students are to demonstrate. These Outcomes may be traditional—in terms of subject matter—or may include other Outcomes, such as ability to communicate in a variety of forms, or the ability to perform life roles, such as “creators and producers.” When Outcomes have been established, educators should design curriculum to give students the knowledge and skills they need to demonstrate the Outcomes. In many cases the Outcomes will be such that they can be assessed only with performance assessment, not conventional tests, so the school’s assessment processes will need to be different. Finally, educators need to examine every other aspect of the school’s operation to determine what changes are needed—in grading policies, for example—to insure that larger numbers of students will in fact be prepared to demonstrate the Outcomes.
The researcher used the survey method as a research design which involves collecting data through a questionnaire as an instrument complemented with interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The survey method is a tool that uses questionnaires in collecting data; however it is already very common for researchers like me to directly interview subjects while doing the survey. Surveys can be qualitative in approach by asking open-ended questions or quantitative by using forced-choice questions measures. There are two basic types of surveys: cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal surveys. Cross-sectional surveys are used to gather information on a population at a single point in time. Profile of the participants: The table shows the distribution of the survey among the selected 150 fourth year high school students interviewed from public and private high schools in the city.
The primary tools used by the researchers for gathering data needed pertinent for the success and accuracy of the research were questionnaires, interview, and Focus Group Discussion. The questionnaire is chosen because of its feasibility, convenience and speed in terms of gathering information necessary in the accomplishment of this study. Interview on the other hand is used widely to supplement and extend knowledge about individuals who are the focus of the research. Interviews can also give both quantitative and qualitative information about participants’ thoughts, feelings and behaviors that can supplement the survey made. Focus Group Discussion is also used to come up with direct and useful information since it is done by a small group selected to represent the generic population. FGD’s are made through open discussion to the samples in order to evaluate their opinions and emotional responses to a particular subject or area.
2.3 Data Collection Procedure
The researcher conducted the study using the research proposal as the framework that will unite the information gathered in the course of the study. The researcher also used books located in the university’s Learning Resource Center and online journals and education books borrowed from other universities and students to gather enough information. The data collected were organized to come up with the related literature and the methodology. Through these documents and learning’s of the researcher as a marketing student, questions used for the survey-questionnaire were then generated to help guide the study.
The questionnaire used has been approved by the research adviser as well as a letter of request to allow them to disseminate questionnaire at the same time to conduct interview to their respondents. The researchers assured that all information gathered would be kept confidential and would be used for academic purposes only. After which, the answer of the respondents were evaluated and tabulated. On the other hand, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) method was also made as well as interviews in order to know the true nature of the focus of the research in order to provide meaningful and straightforward information.
2.4 Data Analysis
All gathered information through the survey-questionnaire were analyzed, tabulated and interpreted by the researcher before using the percentage formula in order to know knowing the marketability of University of Batangas if Outcomes-Based Education is adapted. Frequency distribution and ranking were used to analyze and interpret the data gathered from the questionnaires. The formula herein were use to be able to get the percentage. Frequency Distribution. These presents the tabular arrangement of data based on the answers of all the participants. Percentage. This was used to determine the total percentage of all the participants on the study.
P=F/n x 100
N- Total number of respondents
3.0 Discussion and Results
This chapter shows the analysis and interpretation of the collected data by the researcher from selected graduating high school students in private and public schools, all in connection with the impact of Outcomes-based Education and its potential marketability for the University of Batangas. All information is based on the objectives of the study that serves as an organizing structure in presentations. Table1
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Participants as to Profile (Fourth year High School students)
Table 1 shows the profile of the participants. It can be seen that majority of the students interviewed were female comprising 58% of the total selected population while Male interviewees just form part with 63 in total or 42% overall. On the other hand, as can be seen, the researcher assured that equal sample population will be given a survey both in private and public high schools in the city to ensure objectivity and to prevent the possible biasesthat would occur if one target is only chosen.
3.1 Preferred Attributes of an Educational system
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the
Preferences of students in an Educational system
Focused on the input of students
Focused on the Outcomes/work of students
Grades based on what you learn on the past
Grades based on performance by level
General basis of learning
Learning based on the ability of each individual
No definite timetable
Table 2 indicates the attributes of a traditional educational approach and that of an Outcomes-Based Education from which students choose on what characteristic of a learning environment they prefer more to learn and be competitive. Hence, after evaluation, the results were tabulated. On the first attribute, 142 or a total of 94.67% of the students surveyed answered that they prefer the practical approach in learning compared to the traditional approach on which only 8 students favored. The result can be attributed to the fact that students find it more interesting when they themselves are actually doing and applying what they learn, finding it not only interactive but also as an addition to their experience compared to a theoretical approach wherein they have to memorize a lot of theories.
Looking at the second attribute that students prefer, 60.67% favored that Education should be focused on the Outcomess or output of the students including the process the way they do it while 59 of them preferred that input should be focus. Students say that Outcomes should be the focus as students can do the exact same things and results but through different ways. Thus, in an input-focused approach, students need to learn a standard way o do things which can be hard for others. The third attribute shows the stand of students in their preferred grading system, the survey shows that students want a grading system that is based on performance by level which related to Outcomess and output, thus is more practical.
Students favored such grading system with 98% or a total of 147 recommendations while 2% only suggest grading system based on learning’s on the past which related to the theoretical approach. Moreover, on the fourth attribute, among the students surveyed, 86 favored the type of education in which learning is based on the ability of each individual while 64 say that learning should be generalized. Majority of the students say that it should be based on individual abilities as most students cannot easily adapt in the general based approach in learning thus making some students be left behind in terms of speed of learning. However, the other contend that general basis is more effective as there is the tendency that teaching and learning will be fair and students who learn in a different manner will be motivated or drove to cope up and be competitive.
Lastly, in terms of time, 87 students or 58% chose that the educational system should really be time bound while 63 or 42% of them says it should not be. Most of the students defended the learning should be time bound to encourage students to learn faster and work under pressure. For them, this situation will not only make them learn faster but also be competitive as they can work fast. The other 42% who disapproved on the other hand shared that working without time pressure can help motivate them to learn things slowly but surely and learn things clearly. Also they added that not all students can learn and adapt that quick, thus, there is a possibility that many will be left behind.
3.2 Marketability of Outcomes-Based Education
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the choice of students between Outcomes-Based Education and the traditional approach
Agree (Pro Outcomes-Based Education)
Disagree (Pro Traditional Approach)
Table 3 shows what do students prefer between traditional type of learning and Outcomes-Based Education. In the question in which they are asked if they prefer OBE rather than the traditional approach, 128 or 85.33% of them answered yes. Meanwhile, 22 say that they do not prefer OBE and will stick on the traditional approach as they say that OBE will dissolve or totally extinguish the traditional learning system and it will be hard for the students as well as the schools to adapt to such change as it will not only take time but also cost a lot.
Table 4 shows the stand of the participants if University of Batangas should implement OBE. Majority of the students approved that UB should implement OBE. According to 98% of them, OBE is a key for the university to re-build its image and align its name with well respected schools. Meanwhile, the other 8% suggested that UB should not yet implement OBE. They say that the cost and effectiveness of such program is not yet sure. Thus, they defended that it should be evaluated and tested more.
Table 5 shows the marketability of the university in the view of the participants in circumstances that it implements OBE. A total of 144 or 96% of the students say that they find it interesting if the university will be implementing OBE. They also say that they are considering the university to be an institution where they can pursue their career if OBE will be implemented properly. The other 6 students or 4% say that they will still no consider UB yet as their institution of choice as long as there are no concrete proof that OBE is really a better approach and if UB can handle the change.
3.5 Suggestions offered by Students and Parents for Educational improvement Table 6
List of suggestions for UB’s Educational system offered by the respondents of the study Suggestions
Adding practical-approach subjects
In order to make studying easier while developing better competitiveness for students Expose the students in a professional environment
This will make the students learn about their course easier and prepare them for the corporate world Facility improvement
This will encourage a better, faster and productive learning environment Removal of unnecessary subjects for a student’s course
This will make the students focus on the subjects they really need to learn for their profession Strict College acceptance policy
This will create trust from its students that the university only accepts the best Table 6 shows the top five suggestion of parents and students on what the University of Batangas can still do to improve its Educational system. The suggestions include adding practical-approach subjects, exposing the students in a professional environment, removing unnecessary and unrelated subjects, improvement and facelift of facilities and finally, a strict college acceptance policy. According to the interviewed students, their suggestions rooted from the fact that education is now diverted to unnecessary things instead from what should really be taught. Moreover, parents also suggest that the university should establish itself as an institution who is training elite students instead of easily accepting students regardless of affiliations. According to them, this lowers the value of the university and is not attractive to them
4.0 Conclusions and Directions for Future Use
This part presents the conclusion drawn from the findings and the recommendations based on conclusions. 1. Most students and their parents prefer an Outcomes-Based Education system of learning. 2. Most graduating students nowadays want a school where they know they will be trained to be competitive and prepared in the corporate world. 3. The adaptation of the Outcomes-Based Education curriculum will make University of Batangas more marketable. 4. Outcomes-Based Education should be implemented in the University of Batangas to cater the needs of the students. 5. Students and parents as well want an institution where there is a strict learning policy while teaching is focused on subjects related to the courses of students.
4.2 Directions for Future Use
These recommendations are drawn based on the conclusions.
1. Authorities of University of Batangas should start evaluating and planning on changing the curriculum of the institution into Outcomes-Based Education.
2. The university should hire professors who have an actual experience in practicing their profession to develop practical approach in teaching.
3. The university should strengthen its public image by making a strict policy in accepting enrollees where only the best pass.
4. The University and other authorities should put more investment in educational improvement plans rather than spending in marketing and activities.
Lorraine A. Ozar, Ph.D (1994) “Creating a Curriculum That Works: A Guide to Outcomess-Centered Curriculum Decision-Making.”
Vickery, T. R. (1990). “ODDM: A Workable Model for Total School Improvement.” Educational Leadership 47, 7: 67–71
Brandt, R. (1994). “On Creating an Environment Where All Students Learn: A Conversation with Al Mamary.” Educational Leadership 51, 5: 18–23.
Survey Research Methods, by Earl R. Babbie, 2009.
B. Online books
Spady, W., and K. Marshall (1991). “Beyond Traditional Outcomes-Based Education.” Educational Leadership 49, 2: 67–72
Prideaux, D. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: curriculum design. British Medical Journal, Vol.326, pp268-270. (2003)
Jansen, JD. Curriculum reform in South Africa: a critical analysis of Outcomess-based education. Cambridge Journal of Education, Vol 28, No. 3 (1998)
C. Electronic Reference