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Evaluating Biometric System

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But what if the performance estimates of these systems are far more impressive than their actual performance? To measure the real-life performance of biometric systemsā€”and to understand their strengths and weaknesses betterā€”we must understand the elements that comprise an ideal biometric system. In an ideal system ā€¢ all members of the population possess the characteristic that the biometric identiļ¬es, like irises or ļ¬ngerprints; ā€¢ each biometric signature differs from all others in the controlled population; ā€¢ the biometric signatures donā€™t vary under the conditions in which they are collected; and ā€¢ the system resists countermeasures.

Biometric-system evaluation quantiļ¬es how well biometric systems accommodate these properties. Typically, biometric evaluations require that an independent party design the evaluation, collect the test data, administer the test, and analyze the results. We designed this article to provide you with sufļ¬cient information to know what questions to ask when evaluating a biometric system, and to assist you in determining if performance levels meet the requirements of your application. For example, if you plan to use a biometric to reduceā€”as opposed to eliminateā€” fraud, then a low-performance biometric system may be sufļ¬cient.

On the other hand, completely replacing an existing security system with a biometric-based one may require a high-performance biometric system, or the required performance may be beyond what current technology can provide. Here we focus on biometric applications that give the user some control over data acquisition. These applications recognize subjects from mug shots, passport photos, and scanned ļ¬ngerprints. Examples not covered include recognition from surveillance photos or from latent ļ¬ngerprints left at a crime scene. Of the biometrics that meet these constraints, voice, face, and ļ¬ngerprint systems have undergone the most study and testingā€”and therefore occupy the bulk of our discussion. While iris recognition has received much attention in the media lately, few independent evaluations of its effectiveness have been published.

There are two kinds of biometric systems: identiļ¬cation and veriļ¬cation. In identiļ¬cation systems, a biometric signature of an unknown person is presented to a system. The system compares the new biometric signature with a database of biometric signatures of known individuals. On the basis of the comparison, the system reports (or estimates) the identity of the unknown person from this database. Systems that rely on identiļ¬cation include those that the police use to identify people from ļ¬ngerprints and mug shots. Civilian applications include those that check for multiple applications by the same person for welfare beneļ¬ts and driverā€™s licenses. In veriļ¬cation systems, a user presents a biometric signature and a claim that a particular identity belongs to the biometric signature. The algorithm either accepts 0018-9162/00/$10.00 Ā© 2000 IEEE



or rejects the claim. Alternatively, the algorithm can return a conļ¬dence measurement of the claimā€™s validity. Veriļ¬cation applications include those that authenticate identity during point-of-sale transactions or that control access to computers or secure buildings. Performance statistics for veriļ¬cation applications differ substantially from those for identiļ¬cation systems. The main performance measure for identiļ¬cation systems is the systemā€™s ability to identify a biometric signatureā€™s owner. More
speciļ¬cally, the performance measure equals the percentage of queries in which the correct answer can be found in the top few matches. For example, law enforcement ofļ¬cers often use an electronic mug book to identify a suspect. The input to an electronic mug book is a mug shot of a suspect,

and the output is a list of the top matches. Ofļ¬cers may be willing to examine only the top twenty matches. For such an application, the important performance measure is the percentage of queries in which the correct answer resides in the top twenty matches. The performance of a veriļ¬cation system, on the other hand, is traditionally characterized by two error statistics: false-reject rate and false-alarm rate. These error rates come in pairs; for each false-reject rate there is a corresponding false alarm. A false reject occurs when a system rejects a valid identity; a false alarm occurs when a system incorrectly accepts an identity. In a perfect biometric system, both error rates would be zero. Unfortunately, biometric systems arenā€™t perfect, so you must determine what trade-offs

Biometric Organizations
Kirk L. Kroeker, Computer
Although poised for substantial growth as the marketplace begins to accept biometrics, recent events have demonstrated that the ļ¬‚edgling industryā€™s growth could be severely constricted by misinformation and a lack of public awareness. In particular, concerns about privacy can lead to ill-informed regulations that unreasonably restrict biometrics use. The lack of common and clearly articulated industry positions on issues such as safety, privacy, and standards further increase odds that governments will react inappropriately to uninformed and even unfounded assertions regarding biometric technologyā€™s function and use. Two organizations, the International Biometric Industry Association and the Biometric Consortium, aim to improve this situation.

ā€¢ limited conditions under which agencies of national security and law enforcement may acquire, access, store, and use biometric data; and ā€¢ controls to protect the conļ¬dentiality and integrity of databases containing biometric data. The IBIA is open to biometric manufacturers, integrators,
and end users (http://www.ibia.org).

International Biometric Industry Association A Washington, D.C.-based trade association, the IBIA seeks to give the young industry a seat at the table in the growing public debate on the use of biometric technology. The IBIA focuses on educating lawmakers and regulators about how biometrics can help deter identity theft and increase personal security. In addition to helping provide a lobbying voice for biometric companies, the IBIAā€™s board of directors has taken steps to establish a strong code of ethics for its members. In addition to certifying that the consortium will adhere to standards for product performance, each member must recognize the protection of personal privacy as a fundamental obligation of the biometric industry. Besides promoting a position on member ethics, the IBIA recommends ā€¢ safeguards to ensure that biometric data is not misused to compromise any information; ā€¢ policies that clearly set forth how biometric data will be collected, stored, accessed, and used;

Biometric Consortium On 7 December 1995, the Facilities Protection Committee (a committee of the Security Policy Board established by US President Bill Clinton) chartered the Biometric Consortium. With more than 500 members from government, industry, and academia, the BC serves as one of the US governmentā€™s focal points for research, development, testing, evaluation, and application of biometricbased systems. More than 60 different federal agencies and members from 80 other organizations participate in the BC. The BC cosponsors several biometric-related projects, including some of the activities at NISTā€™s Information Technology Laboratory and work at the National Biometric Test Center at San Jose State University. The BC also cosponsors NISTā€™s Biometrics and Smart Cards laboratory, which addresses a wide range of issues related to the interoperability, evaluation, and standardization of biometric technologies and smart cards, especially for authentication applications like e-commerce and enterprise-wide network access. In September 1999, the BC held its annual conference on the convergence of technologies for the next century. The conference highlighted and explored new applications in e-commerce, network security, wireless communications, and health services. It also addressed convergence of
biometrics and related technologies like smart cards and digital signatures. The BCā€™s Web site and its open listserv are two of the consortiumā€™s richest resources (http://www.biometrics.org). Kirk L. Kroeker is associate editor at Computer magazine. Contact him at [email protected].

February 2000


youā€™re willing to make. If you deny access to everyone, the false-reject rate will be one and the false-alarm rate will be zero. At the other extreme, if you grant everyone access, the false-reject rate will be zero and the false-alarm rate will be one. Clearly, systems operate between the two extremes. For most applications, you adjust a system parameter to achieve a desired false-alarm rate, which results in a corresponding false-reject rate. The parameter setting depends on the application. For a bankā€™s ATM, where the overriding concern may be to avoid irritating legitimate customers, the false-reject rate will be set low at the expense of the false-alarm rate. On the other hand, for systems that provide access to a secure area, the false-alarm rate will be the overriding concern. Because system parameters can be adjusted to achieve different false-alarm rates, it often becomes difļ¬cult to compare systems that provide performance measurements based on different false-alarm rates.1,2

An evaluation protocol determines how you test a system, select the data, and measure the performance. Successful evaluations are administered by independent groups and tested on biometric signatures not

previously seen by a system. If you donā€™t test with previously unseen biometric signatures, youā€™re only testing the ability to tune a system to a particular data set. For an evaluation to be accepted by the biometric community, the details of the evaluation procedure must be published along with the evaluation protocol, testing procedures, performance results, and representative examples of the data set. Also, the information on the
evaluation and data should be sufļ¬ciently detailed so that users, developers, and vendors can repeat the evaluation. The evaluation itself should not be too hard or too easy. If the evaluation is too easy, performance scores will be near 100 percent, which makes distinguishing between systems nearly impossible. If the evaluation is too hard, the test will be beyond the ability of existing biometric techniques. In both cases, the results will fail to produce an accurate assessment of existing capabilities. An evaluation is just right when it spreads the performance scores over a range that lets you distinguish among existing approaches and technologies. From the spread in the results, the best performers can be determined along with the strengths and weaknesses of the technology. The strengths and weaknesses

Practical Systems for Personal Fingerprint Authentication
Lawrence Oā€™Gorman, Veridicom Inc.
Before the mid-1990s, optical fingerprint-capture devices were bulky (about the size of half a loaf of bread) and expensive (costing anywhere from $1,000 to $2,000). Technological advances have brought the size and cost down dramatically; the new solid-state sensors cost less than $100 and occupy the surface area of a postage stamp. Previously used primarily for government applications, fingerprint authentication technology is now steadily progressing into the private sector for the many applications requiring both convenience and security. The small size and cost of these devices can provide secure access to desktop PCs, laptops (as shown in Figure A), the Web, and most recently, to mobile phones and palm computers. Automobile manufacturers are building prototype cars with access and personalization (of seat position, radio channels, and so on) that are controlled by fingerprint authentication devices. Someday soon, when the sensor is small, inexpensive, and low power enough to build into a key fob, many of us will carry a universal key to facilitate secure access to everything from front doors to car doors, computers, and bank machines.

Fingerprint sensors The companies developing this technology have used different means for ļ¬ngerprint capture, including electrical, thermal, or other means. For example, a capacitivesensing chip measures the varying
electrical-ļ¬eld strength between the ridges and valleys of a ļ¬ngerprint, as shown in Figure B. A thermal sensor measures temperature differences in a ļ¬nger swipe, the friction of the ridges generating more heat than the nontouching valleys as they slide along the chip surface. Some companies are working on optical and hybrid optical/electrical capture devices whose optics have shrunk to about 1.5 cubic inches. Portable computing One of the ļ¬rst widespread applications of personal authentication will be for portable computing. In terms of ļ¬nancial losses for corporate computing, laptop theft in 1999 ranked third at $13 million

Figure A. Fingerprint authentication devices will ļ¬nd increasing application in securing laptops. The ļ¬ngerprint sensor is the small rectangle to the bottom right of the keyboard.



detected during the evaluation indicate which applications the technology can address adequately.

tors determine the scenarios, they decide upon the performance measures, design the evaluation protocol, and then collect the data.

The most general type of evaluation tests the technology itself. You usually perform this kind of evaluation on laboratory or prototype algorithms to measure the state of the art, to determine technological progress, and to identify the most promising approaches. This evaluation class includes the Feret (face recognition technology) series of face recognition evaluations and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) speaker recognition evaluations. The best technology evaluations are open competitions conducted by independent groups. In these evaluations, test participants familiarize themselves with a database of biometric signatures in advance of the test. They then test algorithms on a sequestered portion
of the database. This practice allows systems to be tested on data that the participants havenā€™t seen previously. The use of test sets allows the exact same test to be given to all participants. Evaluations typically move from the general to the speciļ¬c. The ļ¬rst step is to decide which scenarios or applications need to be evaluated. Once the evalua-

Scenario and operational
Scenario evaluations measure overall system performance for a prototype scenario that models an application domain. An example is face recognition systems that verify the identity of a person entering a secure room. The primary purpose of this evaluation type is to determine whether a biometric technology is sufficiently mature to meet performance requirements for a class of applications. Scenario evaluations test complete biometric systems under conditions that model real-world applications. Because each system has its own data acquisition sensor, each system is tested with slightly different data. One scenario evaluation objective is to test combinations of sensors and algorithms. Creating a well-designed test, which evaluates systems under the same conditions, requires that you collect biometric data as closely as possible in time. To compensate for small differences in biometric signature readings taken over a given period, you can use multiple queries per person. Because scenario eval-

behind ļ¬nancial fraud ($39 million) and theft of proprietary information ($42 million). However, the problem goes far beyond loss of the computer; compromised information security may incur far greater business cost. Furthermore, laptops frequently provide access to a corporate network via software connections (complete with stored passwords on the laptop). The solid-state ļ¬ngerprint sensorā€”small, inexpensive, and low powerā€”solves these problems. With appropriate software, this device authenticates the four entries to laptop contents: login, screen-saver, boot-up, and ļ¬le decryption.

break, the Achilles heel in many encryption schemes is ensuring secure storage of the encryption key (or private key). Frequently, a 128-bit or higher key is safeguarded only by a 6-character (48-bit) password. A fingerprint provides much better security andā€”unlike a passwordā€” is never
forgotten. In the same way, a ļ¬n-

gerprint-secured lockbox can contain digital certificates or more secure passwordsā€”ones that are much longer and more random than those commonly chosenā€”for safeguarding e-commerce and other Internet transactions. These schemes assure a user both security of electronic transactions as well as personal privacy.

Distance to valley Skin

Distance to ridge

Cryptography Personal authentication also can come into play in cryptography, in the form of a private-key lockbox, which provides access to a private key only to the true private-key owner via his fingerprint. The owner can then use his private key to encrypt information relayed on private networks and the Internet. Although good encryption methods are very difficult to

Sensor chip

Capacitor plates

Figure B. Capacitive sensing is one way devices distinguish between ļ¬ngerprint patterns. Fingerprint ridges and valleys touch the sensorā€™s surface. The sensor measures the distances to the skin to capture an image of the ļ¬ngerprint.

February 2000


uations test complete systems under ļ¬eld conditions, they cannot be repeated. You can only attempt to retest under similar conditions. An operational evaluation is similar to a scenario evaluation. While a scenario test evaluates a class of applications, an operational test measures
performance for a speciļ¬c algorithm for a speciļ¬c application. For example, an operational test would measure the performance of system X on verifying the identity of people as they enter secure building Y. The primary goal of an operational evaluation is to determine if a biometric system meets the requirements of a speciļ¬c application.

Although you can choose from several general strategies for evaluating biometric systems, each type of biometric has its own unique properties. This uniqueness means that each biometric must be addressed individually when interpreting test results and selecting an appropriate biometric for a particular application. In the 1990s, automatic-face-recognition technology moved from the laboratory to the commercial world largely because of the rapid development of the technology, and now many applications use face recognition.3 These applications include everything

from controlling access to secure areas to verifying the identity on a passport. The most recent major evaluations of this technology took place between September 1996 and March 1997 with the Feret.4,5 The Feret tests were technology evaluations of emerging approaches to face recognition. Research groups were given a set of facial images to develop and improve their systems. These groups were tested on a sequestered set of images, which required the participantsā€™ systems to process 3,816 images. The Feret evaluation measured performance for both identiļ¬cation and veriļ¬cation, and provided performance statistics for different image categories. The ļ¬rst category consisted of images taken on the same day under the same incandescent lighting. This category represented a scenario with the potential for achieving the best possible performance with face recognition algorithms. Each of the following three categories became progressively more difļ¬cult, with the ļ¬nal category consisting of images taken at least a year and a half apart. Table 1 summarizes the veriļ¬cation performance results for the best algorithms in each category. The results are from a database of 1,196 people. The results in Table 1 show that illumination and time between acquisition of each image can signiļ¬cantly affect face recognition performance.

Automotive A third application is for automobiles. A sensor, located either in the car door handle or in a key fob, could unlock the car, and another in the dashboard could control the ignition. Reliability is a concern, however, because automobile sensors must function under extreme weather conditions on the car door and high temperature in the passenger compartment. And a key fob sensor must be scratch-, impact-, and spill-resistant. It also must be able to sustain an electrostatic discharge of greater than 25 kVā€”no small dose of voltage for a chip. Despite these concerns, automotive parts manufacturers are forging ahead. Safeguards, such as protecting the sensor within an enclosure or placing it in a protected location on the car, are under consideration. Pioneers in practical ļ¬ngerprint authentication Recognizing the potential of small and inexpensive ļ¬ngerprint sensors, several companies have developed technologies for this purpose. Among these are the following: ā€¢ Authentec (http://www.authentec.com) makes FingerLoc, a biometric identiļ¬cation subsystem. It uses CMOS and electric-ļ¬eld imaging. ā€¢ Veridicom (http://www.veridicom.com), STMicroelectronics (http://us.st.com), and Inļ¬neon (http://www.inļ¬neon.com) all have products that use CMOS and capacitive imaging (5thSense, TouchChip, and FingerTIP, respectively).

ā€¢ Thomson-CSF (http://www.tcs.thomson-csf.com) has developed FingerChip, which also uses CMOS, but utilizes thermal imaging. ā€¢ Who?Visionā€™s TactileSense (http://www.whovision.com) images via an optoelectrical polymer mounted on a thinļ¬lm transistor. ā€¢ Identix (http://www.identix.com) makes optical ļ¬ngerprint readers. The small size and low cost of these new ļ¬ngerprint sensors make them an ideal human interface to secure systems. These and many more applications will soon incorporate personal biometric authentication. If the current trends continue, the public sector can expect to see such devices increasingly incorporated into everyday life. y Reference 1. CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey, Computer Security Institute, San Francisco, 1999.

Lawrence Oā€™Gorman is chief scientist for Veridicom Inc. His research interests include image processing and pattern recognition. Oā€™Gorman has a PhD from Carnegie Mellon University, an MS from the University of
Washington, and a BASc from the University of Ottawa, all in electrical engineering. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and of the International Association for Pattern Recognition. Contact him at [email protected].



Compared with previous Feret tests between August 1994 and August 1996, these results show signiļ¬cant improvement in face recognition technology.4,5 However, there are still areas which require further research, though progress has been made in these areas since March 1997. The majority of face recognition algorithms appear to be sensitive to variations in illumination, such as those caused by the change in sunlight intensities throughout the day. In the majority of algorithms evaluated under Feret, changing the illumination resulted in a signiļ¬cant performance drop. For some algorithms, this drop was equivalent to comparing images taken over the course of a year and a half apart. Changing facial position can also have an effect on performance. A 15-degree difference in position between the query image and the database image will adversely affect performance. At a difference of 45 degrees, recognition becomes ineffective. Many face veriļ¬cation applications make it mandatory to acquire images with the same camera. However, some applications, particularly those used in law enforcement, allow image acquisition with many camera types. This variation has the potential to affect algorithm performance as severely as changing illumination. But, unlike the effects of changing illumination, the effects on performance of using multiple camera types has not been quantiļ¬ed.

Table 1. Face recognition veriļ¬cation performance. Category Same day, same illumination Same day, different illumination Different days Different days over 1.5 years apart

False alarm rate (percentage)
2 2 2 2

False reject rate (percentage)
0.4 9 11 43

Despite the inherent technological challenges, voice recognition technologyā€™s most popular applications will likely provide access to secure data over telephone lines. Voice recognition has already been used to replace number entry on certain Sprint systems. This kind of voice recognition is related to (yet different from) speech recognition. While speech recognition technology interprets what the speaker says, speaker recognition technology veriļ¬es the speakerā€™s identity. Speaker recognition systems fall into two basic types: text-dependent and text-independent. In text-dependent recognition, the speaker says a predetermined phrase. This technique inherently enhances recognition performance, but requires a cooperative user. In textindependent recognition, the speaker need not say a

predetermined phrase and need not cooperate or even be aware of the recognition system. Speaker recognition suffers from several limitations. Different people can have similar voices, and anybodyā€™s voice can vary over time because of changes in health, emotional state, and age. Furthermore, variation in handsets or in the quality of a telephone connection can greatly complicate recognition. Current NIST speaker-recognition evaluations measure verification performance for conversational speech over telephone lines.6 In a recent NIST evaluation, the data we used consisted of speech segments for several hundred speakers. We tested recognition systems by attempting to verify speaker identities from the speech segments. To measure performance under different conditions, we recorded several samples on many lines. Not surprisingly, we found that differences among telephone handsets can severely affect performance. Handset microphones come in two types, either carbon-button or electret (a dielectric in an induced state of electric polarization). We also found that performance is better when the training and testing handsets are of the same type. Table 2 lists false-reject rates for three different categories we tested. We computed the false-alarm rates from sample sizes of 9,000 to 17,000 and the falsereject rates from sample sizes of 500 to 1,000. The ļ¬gures in the table describe
rates for three test categories: ā€¢ the same telephone number and presumably the same handset, ā€¢ different telephone numbers but handsets of the same type, and

Table 2. Speaker recognition performance for various phone numbers and handsets. False-alarm Same phone number, rate (percentage) same handset 10 5 1 1 2 7

False-reject rateā€”(percentage) Different phone number, same type of handset 7 11 21

Different phone number, different handset
25 38 63 February 2000


The ļ¬nal decision about putting biometric systems to work depends almost entirely on the applicationā€™s purpose.

ā€¢ different telephone numbers and handsets of different types. The ļ¬gures noted in Table 2, even for the ļ¬rst category, illustrate the inherent difļ¬culties of speaker recognition with conversational telephone speech. Since voice by itself does not currently provide sufļ¬cient accuracy, you can combine voice with another biometric, like face or ļ¬ngerprint recognition.

est image quality error rate had the highest false-reject error rate. Testing systems for false-alarm errors in the one-ina-thousand range is relatively easy. A small number of users can perform enough tests in a relatively short time; average test time was one to two hours to check this ļ¬ngerprint system. If you need higher security levels, you can increase the number of users and the test time.

For most commercial off-the-shelf biometric systems, you must evaluate the system under operational conditions for each application. But doing so can
be expensive and time-consuming. Before embarking on such evaluations, you should perform preliminary tests to determine which, if any, system has the potential to meet your performance requirements. The kind of evaluation we describe here for ļ¬ngerprint systems can be done just about anywhere,7 and similar methods can be developed for other biometrics. Commonly, fingerprint biometric technology replaces password-based security.7 Most systems use a single ļ¬ngerprint that the account holder actively provides to the system. To log on, you type in a username and place your ļ¬nger on a scanner. The system then veriļ¬es your identity. To test one such system, we set up computer accounts for 40 users, with each account corresponding to a different ļ¬ngerprint. The 40 ļ¬ngerprints came from four individuals (a personā€™s 10 ļ¬ngerprints are independent). After we set up the accounts, we instructed each registered user to attempt to gain access to each account: Each ļ¬ngerprint attempted to gain access to all 40 accounts in a kind of round-robin test. Doing so produced 1,600 test queries, of which 40 test queries should have been granted access and 1,560 denied. We measured three types of errors. The first two were the traditional false-reject and false-alarm rates. The false-reject range was zero to 44 percent, while the false-alarm range was zero to 0.4 percent. The third type of error came from ļ¬ngerprint image quality. Upon scanning, the system generates a quality score for each ļ¬ngerprint. If a scan doesnā€™t meet a certain preset quality, the system returns an error. The image quality error ranged from 0.5 to 37 percent. We found that the most variable results were associated with the systemā€™s failure to acquire images of adequate quality. Such failures resulted in high image quality error rates that can be directly correlated to the false-reject rates. These errors, we discovered, depend on both time and the test subject. The test subject with the lowest image-quality error rate had the lowest false-reject rate. The test subject with the high62 Computer


valuations in generalā€”and technology evaluations in particularā€”have been instrumental in advancing biometric technology. By continuously raising the performance bar, evaluations encourage progress. Although improving
biometric technologies can improve performance, inherent performance limitations remain that are nearly impossible to work around, except perhaps by combining multiple biometric techniques. These limitations are unique to each kind of biometric technology. The biometric community, for example, has not yet established upper limits for face and voice biometrics. How many distinguishable faces or voices are there? What is the probability that two peopleā€™s faces look the same? One limitation to face uniqueness is the identical twin rate of one in 10,000. Although identical twins might have slight facial differences, we canā€™t expect a face biometric system to recognize those differences. Even if we handle identical twins as a special case, family resemblance can still create complications. These or similar concerns apply to the majority of biometrics currently being investigated. The ļ¬nal decision about putting biometric systems to work depends almost entirely on the applicationā€™s purpose. Do the advantages and beneļ¬ts outweigh the disadvantages and costs? The performance level of a biometric system designed to detect fraud in insurance claims, for example, isnā€™t nearly as critical as the performance level of a biometric system that entirely replaces an existing security system used by an airline. In the near future, weā€™ll likely all have more effective ways of determining the difference between the advertised and actual performance of biometric systems. Meanwhile, avoid accepting the hype about each new biometric method until you can test it thoroughly. In cases where you donā€™t have access to test results, ask the vendors pointed questions about the performance of their products. As with any emerging technology, itā€™s prudent to err on the side of caution. y

References 1. J.P. Egan, Signal Detection Theory and ROC Analysis, Academic Press, New York, 1975. 2. A. Martin et al., ā€œThe DET Curve Assessment of Detection Task Performance,ā€ Proc. EuroSpeech 97, IEEE CS

Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997, pp. 1,895-1,898. 3. H. Wechsler et al., Face Recognition: From Theory to Applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998. 4. P.J. Phillips et al., ā€œThe Feret Evaluation Methodology for Face-Recognition Algorithms,ā€ NISTIR 6264, Natā€™l Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998, http://www.itl. nist.gov/iaui/894.03/pubs.html#face. 5. S.
Rizvi, P.J. Phillips, and H. Moon, ā€œThe Feret Veriļ¬cation Testing Protocol for Face Recognition Algorithms,ā€ NISTIR 6281, Natā€™l Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998, http://www.itl. nist.gov/iaui/894.03/ pubs.html#face. 6. NIST Spoken Language Technology Evaluations, http:// www.nist.gov/speech/test.htm. 7. C.L. Wilson and R.M. McCabe, ā€œSimple Test Procedure for Image-based Biometric Veriļ¬cation Systems,ā€ NISTIR 6336, Natā€™l Institute of Standards and Technology, 1999, http://www.itl.nist.gov/iaui/ 894.03/pubs.html#ļ¬ng. 8. A.K. Jain et al., An Identity-Authentication System Using Fingerprints,ā€ Proc. EuroSpeech 97, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997, pp. 1,348-1,388.

P. Jonathon Phillips is leader of the Human Identiļ¬cation project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. He has a PhD in operations research from Rutgers University. Contact him at jonathon@ nist.gov.

Alvin Martin is coordinator of the annual speaker recognition evaluations at NIST. He has a PhD in mathematics from Yale University. Contact him at [email protected].

C.L. Wilson is manager of the Visual Image Processing Group at NIST. He has an MS in physics from the University of Texas. Contact him at [email protected].

Mark Przybocki is a computer scientist at NIST. He has an MS in computer science from Hood College. Contact him at [email protected].

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