Effectiveness of Training and Developement
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When expressed in words the fillings of gratitude is only partly conveyed with humble submission.
At first I would like to acknowledge my thanks to I wish to express my deep gratitude and respect to Ms. Ratna Sinha, Head, Management Development and Mr. Gautam Ghosh of TMDC, for selecting me for doing this project work at TISCO. Without their permission it would not have been possible to do the project in this esteemed organization.
I will also like to thank my project guide Mrs,Sushmitha Shrivathsav of Tata Steel for her valuable and enlighten guidance with critical appraisal of ideas impressed in this project work. It is needless to say that without her kind co-operation and Inspiration and more over, due to timely and consistent guidance this could have not attended the present shape.
I would also like to thank each and every employee of TMDC for giving me time from his or her busy time schedule to complete this project.
SECTION – 1
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION TATA STEEL
SECTION – 1
Tata steel Introduction
Backed by 100 glorious years of experience in steel making, Tata Steel is the world’s 6th largest steel company with an existing annual crude steel production capacity of 30 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA). Established in 1907, it is the fist integrated steel plant in Asia and is now the world’s second most geographically diversified steel producer and a Fortune 500 Company.
Tata Steel has a balanced global presence in over 50 developed European and fast growing Asian markets, with manufacturing units in 26 countries.
It was the vision of the founder; Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata, that on 27th February, 1908, the first stake was drive into the soil of Sakchi. His vision helped Tata Steel overcome several periods of adversity and strive to improve against all odds.
Tata Steel’s Jamshedpur (India) Works has a crude steel production capacity of 6.8 MTPA which is slated to increase to 10 MTPA by 2010. The company also has proposed three Green filed Steel Projects in the States of Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh in India with additional capacity of 23 MTPA and a Green filed project in Vietnam.
Through investments in Corus, Millennium Steel (renamed Tata Steel Thailand) and Nat Steel Holdings, Singapore, Tata Steel has created a manufacturing and marketing network in Europe, South East Asia and the pacific-rim countries. Corus, which manufactured over 20 MTPA of Steel in 2008, has operations in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Norway and Belgium.
Tata Steel Thailand of is the largest producer of long steel products in Thailand, with a manufacturing capacity of 1.7 MTPA. Tata Steel has proposed a 0.5 MTPA Almini blast furnace project in Thailand. Nat Steel Holdings produces about 2 MTPA of steel products across its regional operations in seven countries.
Tata Steel, through its joint venture with Tata Blue Scope Steel Limited, has also entered the steel building and construction applications market.
The iron ore mines and collieries in India give the Company a distinct advantage in raw material sourcing. Tata Steel is also striving towards raw materials security through joint ventures in Thailand, Australia, Mozambique, I vory Coast (West Africa) and Oman. Tata Steel has signed an agreement with Steel Authority of India Limited to establish a 50:50 joint venture company for coal mining in India. Also, Tata Steel has bought 19.9% stake in New Millennium Capital Corporation, Canada for iron ore mining.
Exploration of opportunities in titanium dioxide business in Tamil Nadu, ferrochrome plant in South Africa and setting up of a deep-sea port in coastal Orissa are integral to the Growth and Globalisation objective of Tata Steel.
Tata Steel’s vision is to be the global steel industry benchmark for Value Creation and Corporate Citizenship.
Tata Steel India is the first integrated steel company in the world, outside Japan, to be awarded the Deming Application prize, 2008 for excellence in Total Quality Management.
Tata Steel’s Jamshepur Works produces hot and cold rolled coils and sheets, galvanized sheets, tubes, wire rods, construction rebars and bearings. In an attempt to ‘decommoditise’ steel, Tata Steel has introduced brands like Tata Sttelium (the world’s first branded Cold Rolled Steel) Tata Shaktee (Galvanized Corrugated Sheets), Tata Tiscon (re-bars), Tata Bearings, Tata Agrico (hand tools and implements), Tata Wiron (galvanized wire products), Tata Pipes (pipes for construction and Tata Structura (contemporary construction material). Apart from these product brands, the company also has in its folds a service brand called “steel junction”.
Corus’ man operating divisions comprise Strip Products, Long Products and Distribution & Building Systems Division.
The Nat Steel group produces construction grade steel such as rebars, ‘cut-and-bend’ cages for construction, mesh, precage bore pile, PC wires and pc stand.
Tata Steel Thailand produces round bars and deformed bars for the construction industry.
Regarded globally as a benchmark in corporate social responsibility, Tata Steel’s commitment to the community remains the bedrock of its hundred years of sustainability. Its mammoth social outreach programme covers the company managed city of Jamshedpur and over 800 villages in and around its manufacturing and raw materials operations through unlift initiatives in the areas of income generation, health and medical care, education, sports, and relief.
The Company, fully conscious of its responsibilities to the future generations, has always taken pro-active measures to ensure optimum utilization of natural resoureces. This is reflected in the ISO-14001 certification that all its operations have acheved for environment management. The SA 8000 certification for work conditions and improvements in the workplace at the steel works in Jamshedpur, along with its Ferro Alloyes and Minerals Divison, is a reiteration of its commitment towards the Company’s employees. Tata Steel has pioneered numerous employee welfare measures such as the 8 hours working day and the three tier joint consultation system of management which have been the platform for nearly 80 years of industrial harmony in its Steel Works in Jamshedpur.
Awards and Recognitions
* Tata Steel India awarded the Deming Application Prize 008 for excellence in Total Quality Management. It is the fiest integrated steel company in the world, outside Japan to get this award.
* World Steel Dynamics has ranked TTata Steel as the world’s best steel maker (for two consecutive years) in its annual listing in February, 2006.
* Tata Steel has been conferred the Prime Minister of India’s Trophy for the Best Integrated Steel Plant five times.
* It has been awarded Asia’s Most Admired Knowledge Enterprised award five times in 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008.
* Conferred the prestigious Global Business Coalition Award for Business Excellence in the Community in recognition of its pioneering work in the filed of HIV/AIDS awareness.
* Tata Steel works has been conferre the prestigious social accountability (SA) 8000 certification by social. Accountability international (SAI), USA. It is the first steel company in the word to receive this certificate.
* Corporate Sustainability Report of Tats Steel hailed by United Nation’s Environment Programme (UNEP) and Standard and poor as strongest, submitted by any corporate house from emerging economies.
* Best governed company Award 2006 for setting high standards in governance practices.
* Tata Steel won “Award for Corporate Social Responsibility in Public health” by US-Indian Business Council (USIBC), Population Services International (PSI) and the center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in 2007.
Tata Steel come across as an organization of substance, in ways more than one way, and is proud of the same. Plants and machinery young and fit, seeking to meet the heightened levels of performance, An impressive record of several pioneering and landmark achievements in operational and business excellence, human resource management and corporate citizenship. The townships exemplifying a unique combination of a cosmopolitan culture, overwhelming greenery, comfort and fine ambience-these are only glimpses of what Tata Steel looks upon it as.
Established in 1907, Tata Steel claims to reflect the spirit of true Sage who is not only blessed with external youthfulness for its consistent cause, untiring effort and true dedication but also seeks to be a lighthouse and epitome of inspiration for many to follow its concern for a collective : all round and sustainable development. The multifaceted achievements since its inception area testimony to the very foundation of the sustainable development that corporate social responsibility stands for today.
Tata Steel established in 1907, is a flagship company of the $66 TATA group, one of the INDIA’s largest and respected business houses. It is the Asia’s first private sector steel company and world’s sixth largest company with an annual crude steel capacity of 28 million tones. It is based in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. Its main plant is located in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, with its recent acquisitions; the company has become a multinational with operations in various countries. The Jamshedpur plant contains the DCS supplied by Honeywell. The registered office of Tata Steel is in Mumbai. The company was also recognized as the world’s best steel producer by World Steel Dynamics in 2005.
Tata steel products include hot and cold rolled coils and sheets, galvanized sheets, tubes, wire rods, construction rebar’s, rings and bearings. Apart from the main steel division, Tata Steel’s operations are grouped under the following strategic business units: Bearings Division, Ferro Alloys and Minerals Division, Tube Division, Wire Division and Rings Division.
The company has introduced brands like Tata Steelium (the world’s first branded cold rolled steel), Tata Shaktee (galvanized corrugated sheets), Tata Tiscon (rebars), Tata Bearings, Tata Agrico (hand tools and implements), Tata Wiron (galvanized wire products), Tata Pipes (pipes for construction) and Tata Structure (contemporary construction material).
The Wire Division of Tata Steel launched the ‘Tata Wiron’ brand for their Galvanised Wires today. The Wire Division of Tata Steel (formerly Tata SSL Limited) is one of the top ten wire companies of the world. It is the largest wire producer in India with a presence in many global markets, and produces various types of coated and uncoated steel wires for diverse applications. Besides applications in the Auto, Infrastructure and Power segments, products like Galvanise Wires touch the lives of consumers in many ways and therefore the tag line of the new brand, ‘Tata Wiron’, speaks of relationships and has been aptly coined as ‘baandhe rishton ke taar’.| | A unique, one of its kind organized retail outlet that aims to create new paradigms in steel retailing for the ‘B2C’ consumer. Combining innovation with functionality and versatility with style, steeljunction provides a ‘one stop destination’ for consumers intending to go ‘steel shopping’The entire range of steel, be it mild steel, alloy steel or stainless steel, will be covered in the product range covering two sections, namely “Home Construction & Maintenance Products” and the “Home Aesthetics Products”.
The steel with a soul, ‘Tata Steelium’ is the first branded Cold Steel product in India, if not in the world. The brand promises formality, flatness, surface quality, thickness consistency and strength.The country’s vast auto ancillaries sector, which till date had to depend on overseas markets for its major needs, now has a credible option within the country. Electrical engineering products and other components now have a top-class brand to opt for. Markers of steel furniture and other allied products can further strengthen their ware. The drums and barrels industry now has access t a raw material that will make for safer and stronger products. Aimed at urban and semi-urban sectors, the brand promises ‘trusted steel for your home’.| | Aimed at urban and semi-urban sectors, the brand promises ‘trusted steel for your home’.| | Tata offers Shaktee to the consumer GC Sheets that ‘Lasts Longest’.| | Tata Agrico products are the most sought after hand tools and implements in the country. The brand has been regarded a the prima donna in its category. | | Tata Bearings is a leader in the auto ancillary two-wheeler market segment. It has firm foothold in a fiercely competitive market.| | A new dimension in Steel Tube Technology opened up in India in the early 50’s with the establishment of The Indian Tube company Ltd. (ITC)|
We aspire to be the global steel industry benchmark for Value creation and Corporate Citizenship. We make the difference through:
Our PEOPLE, by fostering team work, nurturing talent, enhancing leadership capability and action with pace, pride and passion.
Our OFFER, by becoming the supplier of choice, delivering premium products and services and creating value with our customers.
Our INNIVATIVE APPROACH, by developing leading edge solution in technology, process and products.
Our CONDUCT, by providing a safe working place respecting the environment, caring for our communities and demonstrating high ethical standards.
Consistent with the vision and values of the founder jamshetji Tata, Tata Steel strives to strengthen India’s industrial base through the effective utilization of men and matters. The means envisaged to achieve this are high technology and productivity consistent with modern management practices.
Tata Steel recognizes that while honesty and integrity are the essential ingredients of a strong and stable enterprise, profitability provides the main spark for economic activity.
Overall, the company seeks to sail the heights of excellence in all that it does in an atmosphere free from fear and thereby reaffirms its faith in democratic values.
1. Respect for individuals
HR POLICY OF TATA STEEL
Tata Steel recognizes that its people are the primary source of its competitiveness. It is committed to equal employment opportunities for attracting the best available talent and ensuring cosmopolitan workforce.
It will pursue management practices designed to enrich the quality of life of its employees, develop their potential and maximize their productivity.
It will aim at ensuring transparency, fairness and equity in all its dealing with its employees. Tata Steel strives continuously to foster a climate of openness, mental trust and teamwork.
HR CUIDING PRINCIPLE
The focus of Human Resources Management will be to give Tata Steel a competitive advantage by strengthening its position through various HR systems and interventions. All efforts would be aimed at maximizing the contribution of employees and directing them towards the achievement of organizational goals.
Rightsizing the organization
Continuous training & development f all employees for performance effectiveness
Enhancing flexibility & versatility of manpower
Maintaining & promoting harmonious employee relation
Selection, retention & career advancement of human capital.
Relying on performance based reward system.
Continnuous improvement of processes for greater responsiveness.
PEOPLE BEHIND TATA STEEL
(1839-1904) JAMSHEDJI NUSSERWANJI TATA
Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata ranks among the greatest visionaries of industrial enterprise of all time. Gifted with the most extraordinary imagination and prescience, he laid the foundations of Indian industry, contributed to its consolidation, and became a key figure in India’s industrial renaissance. Born on 3rd March 1839 into a family descended from Parse priests in Navsari a center for age-old Parse culture, he was educated at Elephantine College, Bombay.
Initiated early into the techniques of trade by his father, he traveled wide, gained a scientific outlook and first set up textile business in India, introducing new machinery that vastly improved the production of cotton yarn in the country. He however realized that India’s real freedom depend upon her self-sufficiency in scientific knowledge, power and steel and thus devoted the major parts of his life and fortune to three great enterprises- Indian Institute of Science an Bangalore, Hydro-electric schemes and iron and steel work at Jmshedpur.
Wealth to him was not the end, but the means to an end-the increased prosperity of India. The attitude to labour was remarkably ahead of his times constantly reinforcing the norms that the success of the industry depended upon sound and straightforward business principles, the interest of the shareholders, the health and welfare of the employees. As early as 1892, he established J.N. Tata endowment for higher education abroad of outstanding Indian students.
Sir Dorabji Tata (1859-1933)
* J.N Tata had exhorted to his sons to pursuer and develop his life’s work; his elder son, Dorab Tata carried out the bequest with scrupulous zeal, and distinction.
* Thus, even though it was Jamsetji Tata who had envisioned the mammoth projects, it was in fact Dorab Tata who actually brought the ventures to existence and fruition. He was the first Chairman of the gigantic Tata enterprises.
* He had a deep interest in people. The great labour strike in 1920 in Jamshedpur ended in a day due to his intervention. It demonstrated India could have no better employer of labour than Sir Dorab.
* A great sportsman (riding, tennis, football, cricket), he was president of the Indian Olympic Association which he served keenly with liberal funds, and total commitment. He was the Founder of the Parsi Gymkhana of Bombay, and a founder member of the Willington Sports Club.
He charities were numerous and munificent. The Dorab Tata Charitable Trust that he executed, covering property and crores of rupees is used today for innumerable charitable causes and institutions.
JEHANGIR RATANJI DADABHAI TATA
JRD Tata has been one of the greatest builders and personalities of modern India in the twentieth century. He assumed Chairmanship of Tata Sons Limited at the young age of 34; but his charismatic, disciplined and forward-looking leadership over the next 50 yerars and more, led the Tata Group to new heights of achievement, expansion and modernization. Under his stewardship, the number of Tata ventures grew from 13 to around 80, encompassing steel, power generation, engineering, hotels, consultancy services, information technology, art and culture, consumer goods, industrial products, etc. He was the pioneer of civil aviation in India. In 1932, he introduced air transport in the country – – the enterprise later became Air India. He implicitly followed the principles of business ethics of the great visionary Jamshedji Tata, his ideal. He also personally crusaded for issues that he felt were imperative for India’s development – – family planning, women’s education, and spread of literacy. The 100% successful family welfare schemes at Tata Steel and the various educational programs for all, directly emanate from JRD Tata’s insight.
Numerous national and international honors were bestowed on JRD Tata. These included Knight Commander’s cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bessemer Medal of the Institute of Metals, London and the United Nations Population Award. Government of India conferred the highest civilian award of the land, Bharat Ratna to JRD Tata in 1992. For all his colossal achievements, JRD Tata was a modest, sensitive man, forever espousing the cause of his employees. His natural love for people endeared him to all across the entire spectrum of society.
Ratan Naval Tata (born December 28, 1936, in Mumbai) is the present Chairman of the Tata Group, India’s largest conglomerate established by earlier generations of his family. He was instrumental in setting up the Tata Foundation, which sponsors a multitude of social causes.
Ratan Tata was born into an old Parsi family of Bombay (present-day Mumbai), the first child of Soonoo & Naval Hormusji Tata. His childhood was troubled, his parents separating in the mid-1940s, when he was about seven and his younger brother Jimmy was five. His mother moved out and both Ratan and his brother were raised by their grandmother Lady Navajbai.
During college, Ratan joined Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity. In 1962, after graduating from Cornell University with a degree in Architecture and Structural Engineering Ratan joined the family business. Ratan turned down a job offer from IBM, following the advice of J.R.D Tata, and entered the family business. Today, Ratan maintains that he came back because of his ailing grandmother who had raised him. Ratan joined tha Tata Group in December 1962, when he was wsent to Jamshedpur to work at Tata Steel. He worked on the floor along with other blue-collar employees, shoveling limestone and handling the blast furnaces.
In 1971, Ratan was appointed the Director-in-Charge of the National Radio & Electronics Company Limited (Nelco), a company that was in dire financial difficulty. Ratan realized the opportunity that Nelco provided and assumed that hitech was the way to go in the future. He conveyed this vision to J.R.D. Tata and asked for further investment. JR.D. was reluctant due to the historical financial performance of Nelco which had never even paid regular dividends. Further, Nelco had 2% market share in the consumer electronics market and a 40% of turnover as loss when Ratan took over. Nonetheless, J.R.D. following suggestions of Ratan Tata.
From 1972 to 1975, Nelco eventually grew to have a market share of 20%, and wiped out its losses. In 1975 however, India’s Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency, and the demand for consumer goods slumped. This was follwed by union problems in 1977, so even after demand improved, production did not keep up. Finally, the Tatas confronted the unions and, following a strike, a lockout was imposed for seven months. Ratan continued to believe in the fundamental soundness of Nelco, but the venture did not survive.
In 1977, Ratan was entrusted with Empress Mills, a textile mill controlled by the Tatas. When he took charge of the company, it was one of the few sick units in the Tata group. Ratan managed to turn it around and even declared a dividend. However, competition from power looms had mad a large number of companies unviable, including those like the Empress which had large labour contingents and had spent too little on modernization. On insistence of Ratan Tata, some investment was mad, but it did not suffice. Without the market for coarse and medium cotton cloth (which was all that the Empress produced) turning adverse, the Empress went into an inevitable financial tailspin. Bombay House, the Tata headquarters, was clearly unwilling to divert large funds from other group companies into an undertaking which would need to be nursed for a long time. So, some Tata directors, chiefly Nani Palkhival, took the line that the T?atas should liquidate the mill. In a later interview with the Hindustan Times, rattan would claim that the Empress needed just Rs 50 lakhs to turn it around. But Palkhival opposed further investment and the mill was closed down in 1986. Ratan was severely disappointed with with the decision.
The important point that the troubles brought home to the senior directors in Bombay house was what had been clear to Ratan for quite a while: that the group’s lack of cohesiveness was turning into a major disability. Thus, while the Birlas bailed out Jay Shree Textiles through a merger with India Rayon and the Bangurs arrived at a similar arrangement between Hastings Jute Mills and Shree Digvijay Cement, very little of such “blue-sky thinking” could be done for the Empress. Perhaps some lessons were learnt, and in 1988 (with ACC), the Tatas reasserted control at Ratan Tata’s behest.
In 1981, Ratan was named Chairman of Tata Industries; the Group’s other holding company, where he became responsible for transforming it into the Group’s strategy think-tank and a promoter of new ventures in high technology businesses.
In 1991, he took over as group chirman from J.R.D Tata, pushing out the old guard and ushering in younger managers. Since then, he has been instrumental in reshaping the fortunes of the Tata Group, which today has the largest market capitalization of any company on the Indian Stock Market.
Under Ratan Tata’s guidance, Tata Consultancy Services went public and Tata Motors was listed on the Now York Stock Exchange. His dream was to manufacture a car costing Rs 1 lakh (approx. US$2200). In 1998, Tata Motors introduced his brainchild, the Tata Indica.
On January 31st, 2007, Rata Tata successfully pulled off one of the biggest acquisitions in Indian corporate history. Corus Group – an Anglo-Dutch steel and aluminium producer, was acquired by Tata Sons for an astounding £ 6.7 billion at the rat of 608 pence per share against a Brzilian steel company that had bid 603 pence. With the merger, Ratan Tata became a celebrated personality in Indian corporate business culture. The merger created the fifth largest steel producing entity in the world.
Another feather of success got attached with this man when he presented the latest Tata four-wheeler model Tata Eligante at Geneva on March 6, 2007. This model was appreciated by all the global dealers of four-wheelers. In the meeting he told the press about his Singur-small-car plant. According to him, manufacture is going to start there soon and the first small car cost the first small car costing and around Rs 1 lakh is going to be launched by the end of 2008.
Awards and Recognition
Mr. Tata was honored by the Government of India with the Padma Bhushan on 26th January, 2000, on the occasion of the 50th Republic Day of India. He serves in senior capacities in various organizations in India and he is a memer of the central board of the Reserve Bank of India and of the Prime Minister’s Council on Trade and Industry. In March 2006 Mr. Tata was honored by Cornell University as the 26th Robert S. Hatfield Fellow in Economic Education, considered the highest honor the university awards to distinguished individuals from the corporate secor.
Ratan Tata’s foreign affiliations include membership of the international advisory boards of the Mitsubishi Corporation, the American International Group, JP trustees of the RAND Corporation, Ford Foundation and of his alma maters: Cornell University and the University of Southern California. He also serves as a board member on the Republic of South Africa’s International Investment Council and is a Asia-Pacific advisory committee member for the New Your Stock Exchange. Tata is on the board of governors of the East-West Center, the advisory board of Center of RAND for Asia pacific Policy and serves on the program board of the Bill & Melinda Gates Fundation’s India AIDS initiative. In February 2004, Ratan Tata was conferred the title of honorary economic advisor to Hangzhou city in the Zhejiang province of China.
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
A study by me have been undertaken in order to know about the industrial Best Practices followed on training effectiveness world over. Some of them are as follows which help me in the formation of effective model for measuring Training effectiveness in Coke Plant. They are as follows:-
Kirkpatrick`s learning and training evaluation theory
Donald L Kirkpatrick`s training evaluation model- the four levels of learning evaluation
Donald L Kirkpatrick,Professor Emeritus,University Of Wisconsin (where he achieved his BBA,MBA and PhD), first published his ideas in 1959, ina series of articles in the Journal of American Society of Training Directors. The articles were subsequently included in Kirkpatrick`s book Evaluating Training Programs (originally published in 1994; now in its 3rd edition – Berrett-Koehler Publishers).
Donald Kirkpatrick was president of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) in 1975. Kirkpatrick has written several other significant books about Training and Evaluation, more recently with his similarly inclined son James, and has consulted with some of the world`s largest corporations.
Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluation model
The four levels of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model essentially measure:
* Reaction of student – what they thought and felt about the training * Learning- the resulting increase in knowledge or capability * Behaviour- extent of behaviour and capability improvement and implementation/application
Results- the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee’s performance
All these measures are recommended for full and meaningful evaluation of learning in organizations, although their application broadly increases in complexity and usually cost, through the levels from level 1-4.
Quick Training Evaluation and Feedback Form, based on Kirkpatrick’s Learning Evaluation Model – (Excel file)
Kirkpatrick’s four levels of training evaluation
This grid illustrates the basic Kirkpatrick structure at a glance. The second grid, beneath this one, is the same thing with more detail. level| Evaluation type (what is measured)| Evaluation description and characteristics| Examples of evaluation tools and methods| Relevance and practicability| 1| Reaction| Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt about the training or learinig experience.| ‘Happy sheets’, feedback formsVerbal reaction, post training surveys or questionnaires,| Quick and very easy to obtain,Not expensive to gather or to analyse.| 2| Learining| Learining evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge before and after| Typically assessments or tests before and after the training Interview or observation can also be used
Relatively simple to set up; clear-cut for quantifiable skillsLess easy for complex learning| 3| Behaviour| Behaviour evaluation is the extent of applied learning back on the job implementation.| Observation and interview over time are required to assess charge, relevance of charge, and sustainability of charge| Measurement of behaviour charge typically requires cooperation and skill of line managers.| 4| Results| Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment by the trainee| Measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting – the challenge is to relate to the trainee| Individually not difficult; unlike whole organization,Process must attribute clear accountabilities.|
Why I selected kirkpatrick’s Model
Since Kirkpatrick established his original model, other theorists (for example Jack Phillips), and indeed Kirkpatrick himself, have referred to a possible fifth level, namely.
ROI (Return On Investment) In my view ROI can easily be included in Kirkpatrick’s original fourth level ‘Results’. The inclusion and relevance of a fifth level is therefore arguably only relevant if the assessment of Return On Investment might otherwise be ignored or forgotten when referring simply to the ‘Results’ level.
Learning evaluation is a widely researched area. This understandable since the subject is fundamental to the existence and performance of education around the world, not least universities, which of course contain most of the researchers and writers.
While Kirkpatrick’s model is not the only one of its type, but for most industrial and commercial applications it suffices; indeed most organizations would be absolutely thrilled if their training and learning evaluation, and thereby their on going people development, were planned and managed according to Kirkpatrick’s model.
While studying all the levels, Fourth Level “RESULTS” impressed me most.
Evaluation type (what is measured)| Evaluation description and characteristics| Examples of evaluation tools and methods| Relevance and practicability| Results| Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment by the trainee.| Measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting – the challenge is to relate to the trainee| Individually not difficult; unlike whole organization, Process must attribute clear accountabilities|
Training programme evaluation
Training and learning evaluation, feedback forms, action plans and follow-up
This section begins with an introduction to training and learning evaluartion, including some useful learning reference models. The introduction also explains that for training evaluation to be truly effective, the training and development itself must be appropriate for the person and the situation. Good modern personal development and evaluation extent beyond the obvious skills and knowledge required for the job or organization or qualification. Effective personal development must also consider: individual potential (natural abilities often hidden or suppressed); individual learning styles; and whole person development (life skills, in other words). Where training or teaching seeks to develop people (rather than merely being focused on a specific qualification or skill) the development must be approached on a more flexible and individual basis than in traditional paternalistic (authoritarian, prescribed) methods of desgn, delivery and testing. These principles apply to teaching and developing young people too, which interestingly provides some useful lessons for workplace training, development and evaluation.
INTRODUCTION TO WORK PLACE TRAINING EVALUATION
A vital aspect of any sort of evaluation is is is effect on the person being evaluated.
Feedback is essential for people to know how they are progressing, and also, evaluation is crucial to the learner’s confidence too.
And since people’s commitment to learning relies so havly on confidence and a belief that the learning is achievable, the way that test and assessments are designed and managed, and results presented back to the learners, is a very important part of the learning and development process.
VARIOUS EVALUATION METHOS FOLLOWED THE WORLD OVER
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial (Life Stages) Theory is very helpful in understanding how peops’s training and development needs change according to age and stage of life. These generational aspects are increasingly important in meeting people’s need (now firmlu a legal requirement within age discrimination law) and also in making the most of what different age groups can offer work and organizations, Erikson’s theory is helpful particularly when considering broader personal development need and possibilities outside of the obvious job-related skills and knowledge.
Multiple intelligence theory (section includes free self-tests) is extremely relevant to training and learning. This model helps address natural abilities and individual potential, which can be hidden or suppressed in many people (often by employers).
Learning Styles theory is extremely relevant to training and teaching, and features in kolb’s model, and in the VAK learning styles model (also including a free self-test tool). Learning styles theory also relates to methods of assessment and evaluation, in which inappropriate testing can severely skew results. Testing, as well as delivery, must take account of people’s learning styles, for example some people find it very difficult to prove their competence in a written test, but can show remarkable competence when asked to give a physical demonstration. Text-based evaluation tools are not the best way to assess every body.
The Conscious Competence learning stages theory is also a helpful perspective for learners and teachers. The model helps explain the process of learning to trainers and to learners, and is also helps to refine judgements about competence, since competence is rarely a simple question of can’ or cannot’. The conscious competence model particularly provides encouragement to teachers and learners when feelings of frustration arise due to apartment lack of progress. Progress is not always easy to see, but can often be happening nevertheless.
Work of Leslie Rae: workplace training Evaluation Methods
Evaluation of workplace learning and training
There have been many surveys on the use of evaluation in training and development (see the research findings extract example below). While surveys might initially appear heartening, suggesting that many trainers/organizations use training evaluation extensively, when more specific and penetrating questions are asked, it if often the case that many professional trainers and training departments are found to use only ‘reactionnaires’ (general vague feedback forms), including the invidious ‘Happy Sheet’ relying on questions such as ‘How good did you feel the trainer was?’, and ‘How enjoyable was the training course?’. As Kirkpatrick, among others, teaches us, even well-produced reactionnaires do not constitute proper validation or evaluation of training.
For effective training and learning evaluation, the principal questions should be:
To what extent were the identified training needs objectives achieved by the programme?
To what extent were the learners’ objectives achieved ?
What specifically did the learners learn or be usefully reminded of?
What commitment have the learners made about the learning they are going to implement on their return to work?
And back at work,
How successful were the trainees in implementing their action plans?
To what extent were they supported in this by their line managers?
To what extent has the action listed above achieved a Return on Investment (ROI) for the organization, either in terms of identified objectives satisfaction or, where possible, a monetary assessment.
Organizations commonly fail to perform these evaluation processes, especially where:
The HR department and trainers, do not have sufficient time to do so, and/or
The HR department does not have sufficient resources – people and money – to do so.
Obviously the evaluation cloth must be cut according to available resources (and the culture atmosphere), which tend to vary substantially from one organization to another. The fact remains that good methodical evaluation produces a good reliable data; effectiveness of the training.
Evaluation of training
There are the two principal factors which need to be resolved:
Who is responsible for the validation and evaluation process?
What resources of time, people and money are available for validation/evaluation purposes? (Within this, consider the effect of variation to these, for instance an unexpected cut in budget or manpower. In other words anticipate and plan contingency to deal with variation.)
Responsibility for the evaluation of training
Traditionally, in the main, any evaluation or other assessment has been left to the trainers “because that is their job…” My (Rae’s) contention is that a ‘Training Evaluation Quintet’ should exist, each member of the Quintet having roles and responsibilities in the process (see ‘Assessing the Value of Your Training’, Leslie Rae, Gower, 200). Considerable lip service appears to be paid to this, but the actual practice tends to be a lot less
The ‘Training Evaluation Quintet’ advocated consists of:
1. Senior Management
2. The Trainer
3. Line management.
4. The Training manager
Each has their own responsibilities, which are detailed next.
The training manager : – Training evaluation responsibilities
Management of the training department and agreeing the training need and the programme application.
Maintenance of interest and support in the planning and implementation of the programmes, including a practical involvement where required
The introduction and maintenance of evaluation systems, and production of regular reports for senior management.
Frequent, relevant contact with senior management
Liaison with line managers, where necessary, in the assessment of the training ROI.
The trainee or learner – Training evaluation responsibilities
Involvement in the lanning and design of the training programme where possible
Involvement in the planning and design of the evaluation process where possible.
Obviously, to take interest and an active part in the training programme or activity.
To complete a personal action plan during and at the end of the training for implementation on return to work, and to put this into practice, with support from the line manager.
Take interest and support the evaluation processes.
Training evaluation and validation options
As suggested earlier what you are able to do, rather than what you would like to do ro what should be done, will depend on the various resources and culture support available. The following summarizes a spectrum of possibilities within these dependencies.
1 – do nothing
Doing nothing to measure the effectiveness and result of any business activity is never a good option, but is is perhaps justifiable in the training area under the following circumstances:
If the organization, even when prompted, displays no interest in the evaluation and validation of the training and learning – from the line manager up to the board of directors.
If you, as the trainer, have a solid process for planning training to meet
organizational and people-development need.
If you have a reasonable level of assurance or evidence that the training being delivered is fit for purpose, gets results, and that the organization (notably the line managers and the board, the potential source of criticism and complaint) is happy with the training provision.
You have far better things to do than carry out training evaluation, particularly if evaluation is difficult and cooperation is sparse.
However, even in these circumstances, there may come a time when having kept a basic system of evaluation will prove to be helpful, for example:
You receive have a sudden unexpected demand for a justification of a part of a all of the training activity. (These demands can spring up, for example with a change in management, or policy, or a new initiative).
You see the opportunity or need to produce your own justification (for example to increase training resource, staffing or budgets, new premises or equipment).
Yu seek to change job and need evidence of the effectiveness of your past training activities.
Doing nothing is always the least desirable option. At any time somebody more senior to you might be move to ask “Can you prove what you are saying about how successful you are?” Without evaluation records you are likely to be at a loss for words of proof….
2 – minimal action
The absolutely basic action for a start of some form of evaluation is as follows:
At the end of every training programme, give the learners sufficient time and support in the form of programme information, and have the learners complete an action plan based on what they have learned on the programme and what they intend to implement on their return to work. This action plan should not only include a description of the action intended but comments on how they intend to implement it, a timescale for starting and completing it, and any resources required, etc. A fully detailed action plan always helps the learners to consolidate their thoughts. The action plan will have a secondary use in demonstrating to the trainers, and anyone else interested, the types and levels of learning that have been achieved. The learners should also be encouraged to show and discuss their action plans with their line managers on return to work, whether or not this type of follow-u has been initiated by the manager.
3 – Mininal desirable action leading to evaluation
When returning to work to implement the action plan the learner should ideally be supported by their line manager, rather than have the onus for implementation rest entirely on the learner. The line manager should hold a debriefing meeting with the learner soon after their return to work, covering a number of questions, basically discussing and agreeing the action plan and arranging support for the learner in its implementation. As described earlier, this is a clear responsibility or the line manager, which demonstrates to senior management, the training department and, certainly not least, the learner, that a positiveattitude is being taken to the training. Contrast this with, as often happens, a member of staff being sent on a training course, after which all thoughts of management follow-up are forgotten.
The initial line manager debriefing meeting is not the end of the learning relationship between the learner and the line manager. At the initial meeting, objectives and support must be agreed, then arrangements made for interim reviews of implementation progress. After this when appropriate, a final review meeting needs to consider future action.
This process requires minimal action by the line manager – it involves no more than the sort of observations being made as would be normal for a line manager monitoring the actions of his or her staff. This process of review meetings requires little extra effort and time from the manager, but does much to demonstrate at the very least to the staff that their manager takes training seriously.
4 – Training programme basic validation approach
The action plan and implementation approach described in (3) above is placed as a responsibility on the learners and their line managers, and, apart from the provision of advice and time, do not require any resource involvement from the trainer. There are two further parts of an approach which also require only the provision of time for the learners to describe their feelings and information. The first is the reactionnaire which seeks the views, opinions, feelings, etc., of the learners about the programme. This is not at a ‘happy sheet’ level, nor a simple tick-list – but one which allows realistic feelings to be stated.
This sort of reactionnaire is described in the book (‘Assessing the Value of Your Training’, Leslie Rae, Gower, 2002). This evaluation seeks a score for each question against a 6-point range of Good to Bad, and also the learners’ own reasons for the scores, which is especially important if the score is low.
Reactionnaries should not be automatic events on every course or programme. This sort of evaluation can be reserved for new programmes (for example, the first three events) or when there are indications that something is going wrong with the programme.
Sample reactionnaires are available in the set of free training evaluation tools.
The next evaluation instrument, like the action plan, should be used at the end of every course if possible. This is the Learning questionnaire (LQ), which can be a relatively simple instrumentasking the learfners what they have been usefully reminded of, and what was not included that they expected to be included, or would have liked to have been included. Scoring ranges can be included, but these are minimal and are subordinate to the text comments made by the learners. There is an alternative to the LQ called the key objectives LQ (KOLQ) which seeks the amount of learning achieved by posing the relevant questions against the list of Key Objectives produced for the programme. When a reactionnarire and LQ/KOLQ are used, they must not be filed away and forgotten at the end of the programme, as is the common tendency, but used to produce a training evaluation and validation summary. A factually-based evaluation summary is necessary to support claims that a programme is goo/effective/satisfies the objectives set. Evaluation summaries can also be helpful for publicity for the training programme, etc.