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Development Administration

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The term development has multidimensional meaning. Generally it means betterment, change, enlargement, expansion, gain, growth, evaluation, improvement etc. Development in the context of development administration refers to the cluster of politics and process through which the low income countries strive to achieve a higher level of growth leading to a higher standard of living for their people. Development has been perceived in different ways by scholars of different disciplines like ‘Modernization’, ‘Industrialization’, ‘Economic development’, ‘political development’, ‘Social development’, etc. Economist argue that economic development is the basic indicator measured through the GDP distribution per capita, whereas politicians think that a society is developed where there is political freedom with assurance of basic necessities of life and the behaviorists believe socio-cultural development is development where its promotional opportunity exists. In contrast development should meet the basic needs of human being with increasing rate of comfort, living facilities and good quality of food, transport and communication, education, health care and hygiene facilities etc.

In a society there are various institution and organization constitute various sector which help to increase the development of any country especially a developing nation or country like Bangladesh. The NGOs are one of them. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become quite prominent in the field of both national and international development in recent decades. The World Bank, for example, defines NGOs as “private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development.” A World Bank Key Document, Working with NGOs, adds, “In wider usage, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organization which is independent from government.

However From its birth as an independent nation in 1971, Bangladesh became a site for Non Government Organisations. Initially focused on relief and rehabilitation activities following the War of Liberation and succeeding natural calamities, International and local NGOs turned their efforts to longer term development in the absence of state capacity to deliver welfare. Both the national and international NGOs of our country have long years of experience in providing health and family planning, women development, creating employment generation, giving credit, mobilization to target group, capacity building in planning and management, income earning trough enterprise development etc services at grassroots level and also have had collaborative program with government for infrastructural development of the country. The Concept of NGO:

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any form of government. The term originated from the United Nations (UN), and is normally used to refer to organizations that are not a part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue wider social aims that have political aspects, but are not openly political organizations such as political parties. NGO or non governmental organization believe in the voluntarism principle of development which state that people are the primary and ultimate source of any wealth whatsoever. The major development programs of the NGOs are, therefore undertaken for the people.

These organizations provide opportunity to the people in order to organize themselves for self-defense, self-help, self-reliance and development. In the most simple sense the term ‘NGO’ refers to any voluntary non-profit agency involved in the field of development cooperation or in education and policy advocacy activities. OECD defined NGOs as organizations that are established and governed by a group of private citizen’s stated philanthropic purpose and supported by voluntary individual contribution. Others define NGOs as institutions outside the public and private sectors whose goals are primarily value-driven (humanitarian or cooperative) rather than profit-driven. In Asian Institution of Technology, the NGO workshop highlighted on various definition of NGO such as: * It is an organization of private individuals who believe in certain basic social principles, and structure their activities to bring about development to the communities that they are serving. * An independent, democratic organization working for the empowerment of economically and/ or socially marginalized groups.

* An organization not affiliated to political parties, generally engaged in working for the development and welfare of the community. * A non-profit, voluntary, service-oriented/development-oriented organization for the benefit of the poor. So, the term NGO includes all those non profit organizations which are involved in various development activities with the objective of the alleviating poverty of the rural and urban poor. Professor of anthropology, Richard Robbins, in his book, Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism (Allyn and Bacon, 2002, Second Edition), suggests a few reasons why NGOs have become increasingly important in the past decade or so. Amongst them (from pp. 128 to 129): 1. The end of the Cold War made it easier for NGOs to operate 2. Communications advances, especially the Internet, have helped create new global communities and bonds between like-minded people across state boundaries 3. Increased resources, growing professionalism and more employment opportunities in NGOs 4.

The media’s ability to inform more people about global problems leads to increased awareness where the public may demand that their governments take action of some kind. 5. Perhaps most important, Robbins suggests, is that some believe NGOs have developed as part of a larger, neoliberal economic and political agenda. Shifts in economic and political ideology have lent to increasing support of NGOs from governments and official aid agencies in response. NGOs have, since the end of the Second World War, become increasingly more important to global development. They often hold an interesting role in a nation’s political, economic or social activities, as well as assessing and addressing problems in both national and international issues, such as human, political and women’s rights, economic development, democratisation, inoculation and immunisation, health care, or the environment.

However, in the developing world, the role of NGOs is often critical. In years of drought or famine, the non-governmental organisations have been pivotal in providing food to those most marginalised. NGOs often provide essential services in the developing world that in developed countries governmental agencies or institutions would provide. Normally, NGOs provide services that are in line with current incumbent governmental policy, acting as a contributor to economic development, essential services, employment and the budget. In a wider approach, NGOs are also the source and centre of social justice to the marginalised members of society in developing countries or failed states. NGOs are often left as the only ones that defend or promote the economic needs and requirements for developing states, often bringing cases to the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organisation and World Bank. Developing nations and NGOs often find allies in one another when opposing legislation, economic terms or agreements from global institutions. Emergence of NGO in Bangladesh:

The 1970s can be considered a period of emergence of NGOs in the development Landscape of Bangladesh, expanding the focus of NGO services, targeting NGO activities on the poor and the disadvantaged, experimenting with new ideas and programmes, and also consolidating and coordinating NGO activities. The emergence of NGOs in Bangladesh began only after the devastating cyclone that occurred in 1971 and after the war of liberation. Before independence, few international voluntary organizations such as CARE, CRS and the Society of Friends (Quakers) were working in Bangladesh. Their activities were limited to emergency help and relief work. During the period between 1973 and 1976, NGOs diverted their attention to “developing integrated Community Development Programmes” incorporating a number of basic sectoral activities. These activities include agriculture, fisheries, livestock, health and family planning and education focusing on adult education.

This was a period of experimentation and learning from trial and error, leading to the development of goals for the future. Gradually the number of NGOs proliferated and their activities expanded in different parts of the country. NGO organizers felt the need for a common platform to coordinate their activities and also to act as an agent to collaborate and maintain liaison with government and donors. So in the year 1974, the Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh (ADAB) was established to provide a forum to facilitate exchange of views and experience and to avoid duplication of activities through proper coordination (Huda 1987:3). The establishment of ADAB as a networking organization of NGOs was significant for three reasons: ƒ It provided a common forum for the NGOs to meet, discuss, and resolve problems in conducting activities in different parts of Bangladesh. ƒ It acted as an important player (sometime mediator) in maintaining a congenial atmosphere in GO-NGO relations and also whenever necessary taking up issues related to NGO activities with government. ƒ

Government engaged ADAB in emergency relief and rehabilitation activities at times of natural disaster. During the 1990s the NGO sector in Bangladesh grew rapidly. NGOs developed business strategies to both provide outlet for beneficiaries’ produce and to deliver goods and services to their ‘target groups’. Local income has become increasingly important in strategies for sustainability of the organizations and the careers of their employees. The formation of the Palli Karma Shahyak Foundation (PKSF) which acts as credit wholesaler to the MFIs drastically changed the NGO activity space. The operations of PKSF also encouragedmany new MFIs to surface within smaller geographical territories and all such organizations are commonly included under the umbrella of NGOs. The second major move came with the delivery of microcredit, which turned many NGOs into apex bodies of large networks of small groups spread over parts or the whole of the countryside. These MF-NGOs may well be regarded as quasi-private sector financial entrepreneurs awaiting a proper legal framework. The network created in the process of delivering credit and other services created the basis for a third kind of entrepreneurship, which is rooted in more explicit commercial motives. Typology of NGO in Bangladesh:

One way of categorizing NGOs is by their location and size. An important feature of NGOs in Bangladesh is the existence of a large number of small and regional NGOs side by side with large national NGOs that cover the country. Local NGOs are small. They normally operate in one Upazila comprising several Unions and villages. They have small budgets and conduct their activities subject to the availability of funds. Typically, they undertake activities relating to literacy, income generation through credit programmes, poultry, kitchen gardening, afforestation etc. Some local organizations are also engaged in socio-cultural activities. There are no exact figures about the number of local NGOs and voluntary organizations, but “There are an estimated 2,000 development NGOs in Bangladesh. Most NGOs in Bangladesh are small, and have limited managerial and staff capacity. Regional NGOs are medium sized and operate in a limited area comprising several Upazilas in a few districts. They receive funds from various DPs and INGOs and also act as partners of large national NGOs: for example more than 200 small NGOs work as partners in the BRAC Education Support Programme.

Some examples of regional NGOs are, Village Education and Resource Center(VERC), Gono Unnyan Prochesta (GUP), Gono Kallyan Trust (GKT), Association of Community  Development (ACD), Ashriyan and Uddipan. There are many examples of regional NGOs becoming national NGOs, extending their programmes to several districts and a large number of Upazilas. Thengamara Mohila Sabuj Songha (TMSS), Buro Tangail and Gonoshyssatra Kendra (GK) fall into this category. Regional NGOs tend to be stable and by and large have regular sources of fund. National NGOs are large and work in almost all districts of Bangladesh. They get large amounts of money from a number of donors. Some national NGOs are supported by donor consortia who mobilize funds for different activities. Currently a group of 10 large Bangladesh NGOs dominates the NGO scene in Bangladesh. These include BRAC, ASA, Proshika, RDRS, CARITAS, TMSS, CCDB, Buro Tangail, HEED, FIVDB and Nizera Kori. International NGOs (INGOs) mostly derive their resources from their country of origin. The NGO Affairs Bureau identified 147 registered foreign NGOs in Bangladesh. The Functions of NGOs in Bangladesh:

NGOs in Bangladesh are involved in numerous activities from basic service provision to advocacy, human rights and governance. NGOs are quite successful in many of these areas and are known for their innovative approaches. The functions of NGOs in Bangladesh are described bellow: Access to Credit for Poor and People in Distant Areas

NGOs in Bangladesh have played a very significant role in opening up access to credit for the poor and people in distant areas. Traditional banking had failed to reach the poor since ownership of collateral was a prerequisite for having access to bank credit. One corollary of collateral -based lending practices was that the poor were not bankable. The NGOs in Bangladesh and the Grameen Bank, established, to the contrary, that it is very much feasible to lend to the poor and ensure good recovery rate, and that such lending did not require collateral in the form of tangible assets. In the process, a new approach to banking has gained global recognition, and its efficacy in addressing needs of the poor is widely acknowledged. In the Health sector

The involvement of NGOs in the implementation of large donor funded health projects has shown a significant increase in recent years. The HPSP, HNSP, UPHCP, HIV/AIDS prevention and Care and Tuberculosis Control are a few major examples of these projects, where special project mechanisms are created for the involvement of NGOs in the implementation process. The comparative advantages of NGOs over government, as these are claimed in the literature, can be summarized as follows ƒ NGOs have a base at grassroots level and have better knowledge of the community; ƒ NGOs has network all over the country to serve all segments of the population. ƒ NGOs have a large number of karmis with access to the fur flung areas of the country; ƒ NGOs have developed good expertise in the delivery of PHC and also in certain other areas which include TB, leprosy, immunization, family planning etc. ƒ NGOs are innovative in linking health services with credit and other services. ƒ NGOs are effective in training, developing BCC and IEC materials which have an impact on health service provision. ƒ NGOs are relatively efficient in the utilisation of funds. ƒ NGOs are more innovative in ensuring participation, gender equality and accountability. ƒ NGOs’ health service provision is less bureaucratic and efficient. ƒ NGO services are affordable and within reach of the poor.

NGOs have already made remarkable contribution in nation wide immunization program and also on the means of treating diarrhea through homemade ORS.

Family planning
Most of the NGOs are involved in motivational activities and distribution of contraceptive at the community level while a few have focused on reproductive health care and surgical contraceptive services. Women Development

In order to develop the socio-economic condition of the women the NGOs emphasis on women development. The focus on women and group formation among NGO/MFIs are closely related – regular group meetings and interactions in a non-kinship based space results in important empowerment impact for the members. The very act of getting women who were hitherto excluded from the public domain to form groups, meet regularly, chant slogans and interact with (most often male) outsiders, all done in a way that emphasized the value of the women as having an identity independent from their male guardians, was revolutionary. These acts had far-reaching impacts in bringing about new ways of perceiving of the self, womanhood and relating to various engagements in the realm of the economic, social and political domains. Education

The NGOs have concentrated their efforts on eradicating illiteracy through functional education for both men and women. They have particularly been working on children’s education programs. As a human recourse development strategy the NGO provide non formal primary education to the target children where the majority are girls. Sanitation

NGOs played an important role in the formulation of the first National Sanitation Strategy (NSS) which was launched by the Local Government Division (LGD) of the Ministry of Local Government Rural Development and Cooperatives in 2005. This brought sanitation, which was so long an overlooked public policy issue, to the centre-stage of both the public health and the development arenas. The process of preparing and finalizing the National Sanitation Strategy 2005 was a long and arduous one, involving many different stakeholders at the macro level. The NSS is an outcome of advocacy, lobbying, persuasion, policy dialogue and consultation between NGOs, donors, government officials, academicians and members of civil society. Water Aid Bangladesh (WAB) played a leading role in this process by organizing different activities and financial support, and also in the publication of the strategy (Discussion based on Water Aid documentation and advice). Employment Generation

The NGOs expand the opportunity of employment generation through small trading, rickshaw pulling, and mulberry plantation for women.etc. Enterprise Development

The opportunity of income earning of the poor are expanded by NGOs trough enterprise development such as social forestry, fish culture, and weaving, poultry and livestock rearing. Development of Appropriate Irrigation Technology

With a view to responding to the needs of the small and marginal farmers and also to promote crop diversification, NGOs develop low cost irrigation technologies through research and experiment. For instance the Rangpur Dinazpur Rural Services developed the treadle pump and a bamboo tube well; the Mennonite Central committee developed the Rower pump etc. From such endeavors there are currently more than 13,000 such technologies in operation in the country. Environment

In the recent days Bangladesh is considered to be an environmentally endangered region. The major environmental problems in Bangladesh include deforestation, desertification and damage to the genetic a aquatic environment. The NGOs undertake various programs to combat deforestation and to improve the conditions of deforestation. Urban and Rural Development

For urban and rural development, the NGOs expand their activities through infrastructure development, slum development, low-cost housing, food for works program, construction and reconstruction of roads, bridge and culverts etc. Thus the NGOs of Bangladesh provide different type of services for the development of the country. The Role of NGOs in Bangladesh:

In all spheres of development, NGOs are reported to have created a landmark in the history of Bangladesh. NGOs as the proper alternative organizations have the vision of imagination, flexibility, autonomy, creativity, innovative machinery, experience resources and strategies of executing programmers including non formal constructive education. NGOs have different projects towards development. Doubtlessly to say, the NGOs with their constructive efforts have been promoting development strategies by creating unique changes in the field of socioeconomic progress in Bangladesh since her independence. Most of the endeavors made by the NGOs mainly targeted to achieve overall development of the country by meeting pragmatically or practically. The NGOs have their constructive mission in developing the country. They touch the fundamental elements of socio economic development of a country. If human resources are not properly used, it will be gradual inactive and useless for the country bringing no utility.

The most important NGO innovation has been in the way they reach the poor. A group-based or target group mobilization strategy underpins virtually all development NGO programs aimed at service-delivery. Such an approach serves to fulfill not only the goal of economic improvement through direct targeting and beneficiary participation, but also that of social and institutional development through strengthening the organizing capacity of the poor to be more able to help them. The identification of credit as a critical need felt by the poor and subsequent designing of an efficient and cost-effective delivery mechanism to serve this need, have justifiably become the most will-known of the development NGO innovations in Bangladesh. The model pioneered by Grameen Bank (GB) has established micro-credit as the most widely replicated anti-poverty program in both government and development NGO sectors. The role of the development NGOs has been crucial in a number of primary healthcare concerns, notably immunization and diarrhea control. NGOs have been particularly successful in effectively disseminating health through innovative media campaigns.

Gains in immunization are already being reflected in reduced infant mortality. Universal awareness of oral dehydration therapy has also sharply cut down cases of diarrhoeal deaths. Low enrollment and high drop-out rates have been major problems that plague primary schools in Bangladesh. In response to this the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) pioneered a system of model is focused on poor children. It employs young Para-professional teachers (mostly female) drawn from the community. A strong emphasis is placed on parent and community involvement.

Some NGOs undertake unique programs of technology transfer. Declining soil fertility is an emerging environmental concern. About eight NGOs are currently involved in ground-breaking farm-level innovations in fertilizer-use and pest-management. These activities are complemented are developing an extension system for appropriate technology transfer to homestead agriculture. It encourages cultivation of a variety of fruits and vegetables and teaches the proper method of cooling. The result not only provides income but also improves the nutritional status of the family, particularly children. During the seventies and early eighties, irrigation led agriculture was promoted by the government agencies. Small farmers with an acre or less of land could not afford irrigation technology. In response to the need of the small and marginal farmers and also to promote crop diversification, NGOs developed low-cost irrigation technologies through research and experiment. Critical Analysis of the Function and Role of the NGOs:

Third world country like Bangladesh there has been considerable Positive and negative debate about the function and role which are playing by of NGOs .However the NGOs in Bangladesh generally face some challenges in the time of their operation such as: Lack of Funds: NGOs are expressing difficulty in finding sufficient, appropriate and continuous funding for their work. They find accessing donors as challenging as dealing with their funding conditions. They perceive there to be certain cartels of individuals and NGOs that control access to donor funds. They have limited resource mobilization skills and are often not looking for funds that are available locally, preferring to wait for international donors to approach them. There is a high dependency of donors and a tendency to shift interventions to match donor priorities. There is a lack of financial, project and organizational sustainability. Poor Governance: Poor governance was recognized within the sector as a whole, within the NGO Council and within individual NGOs.

Knowledge of good governance varied widely, with some regions indicating very little understanding of why NGOs are required to have Boards or what their roles and functions should be. Many other participants explained that it is difficult to achieve good governance with founders who wished to own their NGOs for their own purposes. Participants with better understanding of good governance appreciated that this is fundamental to NGO accountability and transparency. Many NGOs mismanage their resource quite often with the involvement and encouragement of their Boards that eat their NGOs resources. Absence of Strategic Planning: Few NGOs have strategic plans which would enable them to have ownership over their mission, values and activities. This leaves them vulnerable to the whims of donors and makes it difficult to measure their impact over time. Poor Networking: Poor networking is identified as a major challenge. It is the cause of duplication of efforts, conflicting strategies at community level, a lack of learning from experience and an inability of NGOs to address local structural causes of poverty, deprivation and under-development.

Negative competition for resources also undermines the reputation of the sector and the effectiveness of NGO activities at community level. As a result there is a great deal of suspicion among NGOs, secrecy and lack of transparency. Many NGOs, large and small, intervene at community level without any community mapping and implement projects without due regard to ongoing community initiatives. NGO politics: one fighting another, one with resources but no community presence, another with community presence but no resources. Poor Communications: NGOs also recognize that there is very poor communication within the sector. The majority of NGOs have little or no access to reliable email and internet connections; they receive almost no literature on development issues and are generally out of touch with issues of global, regional and national importance. Limited Capacity: NGOs recognize that many of them have limited technical and organizational capacity. Few NGOs are able or willing to pay for such capacity building. Weak capacity was identified in fundraising, governance, technical areas of development, and leadership and management.

Some NGOs felt that the existence of quality standards would assist them to develop the required capacities. The speed of technology changes is also a challenge particularly in areas of IT capacity. Political Interference: NGOs leaders identified the interference of local politicians and civic leaders as a major hindrance to their work. Where NGOs are involved in sensitive issues, such as land disputes, local leaders can threaten NGOs with de-registration. NGOs are not aware that the Board – and potentially the Council – is there to protect them from such intimidation. From positive point of view the function and role of NGOs can be considered as competent, potential, and essential agent in the process of national development. The NGOs are proficient to carry on benefits to the poor who are almost always ignored by governmental programs.

The major contribution of NGOs in Bangladesh perhaps lies in developing human potentials through building organization of the poor. The contributions of NGOs are visible in mobilizing destitute women and involving them in various income and employment generating activities. Despite their contribution in development of the country it is argued that NGOs are not politically strong enough and don’t have any social commitment to bring out change in existing power structure; rather it claimed that the NGOs either knowingly or otherwise served the interest of international corporate capital. It is also argued that the NGOs programs leave out the extreme poor which is a significant portion of its potential clients. The NGOs face major challenge in this respect. Some observers identify NGOs as a new agent for expending neo-imperialism. They considered that the activities of the NGOs are dedicated to serve the interest of the donor countries and agencies. Besides this the big NGOs receive the major share of the foreign donation where the small NGOs are deprived of foreign aid. This imbalance among the big and small NGOs is also raised as a criticism. Besides the personnel of the NGOs are blamed for nepotism, corruption, misuse of power and misappropriation of money. NGOs Operation in Bangladesh and Transparency Issue:

Although NGOs bring many positive change and work for rural development of the country as a whole I think their operation or activities are not so clear in the sense of transparency. As they are non-profit, non governmental welfare organization the government has no overseeing mechanism to justify the operation of the NGOs of the country. As a result the word accountability does not exist for doing their activities or performing their operation. Accountability brings responsibility and for being responsible the word ‘Transparency’ come forward. NGOs operate for public benefit, like governments, rather than private benefit, like companies. In order to make the most contribution to other people’s efforts, NGOs should operate with the openness and transparency expected from democratic governments, unless there are strong reasons not to. But it is very sorrow to say that, Not being democratically elected who are these organizations and who do they represent? What is their legitimacy in furthering their causes?

Are they effective in promoting their objectives? Are they open, transparent and accountable to their stakeholders? Do the stakeholders have an opportunity to influence the policies and practices of an NGO? What means are acceptable to an NGO in furthering its objectives and what not? Many of these questions remain unanswered in the present-day operations of most NGOs. Some NGOs are now the largest providers of a range of services in Bangladesh, and their role with respect to the poor, business and government has become increasingly subject to debate. Around half of the NGOs registered with the Ministry of Social Welfare remain inactive for long and a few of them are even regularly taking funds from the government, reveals a recent finding. A staggering 23,280 of the 50,997 registered NGOs, which do not get foreign funds but receive government allocation, have so far become “signboard NGOs” and have no recent activities.

“Signboard NGOs” does not submit their annual reports and financial records to the Department of Social Welfare (DSW) as per the Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance, 1961.As many as 16,980 such NGOs did not submit their annual and audit reports in the past 15 years. Some NGOs are still receiving annual allocation estimated between Tk. 50,000 and Tk. 5 lakh from the government in the name of social development and welfare. On the other hand, a number of inactive NGOs are receiving sewing machines, computers, wheel chairs and other things. According to the Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance, 1961, an individual or organization could get registration to run volunteer or social welfare activities to help women’s empowerment and rural development and ensure rights of children, the disabled and aged people through DSW. It’s unfortunate that some NGOs in the name of social or voluntary activities are nurturing and funding militant activities. Most of these NGOs belong to political party, and their activities are not transparent.

On the other hand most of the NGOs of Bangladesh are run by foreign aid; as a result they have to do what the donor agency wants. International NGOs have a significant presence in Bangladesh providing both humanitarian and development funds to local NGOs. Moreover, foundations and trust funds such as Aga Khan Foundation, Ford Foundation etc. also provide funds to NGOs for their activities in Bangladesh. Besides they does not submit their financial statement to NGO affairs Bureau or the concern ministry; as a result how and where they spent their money the ratio of program to non-program expense, approximate costs per beneficiary, how much donated services subsidize real costs (increasingly, volunteers complete specific projects that would otherwise be paid services) etc remain unclear and non transparent.

For this reason the word corruption are now closer to NGOs operation. For not being accountable to anyone or not have any clear financial statement the officials of NGO become corrupted. Most of the aid money is used for their personal interest rather than people interest or welfare operation. Leadership and staff of a non-governmental organization are using their position for personal advantage or financial gain. NGOs should make relevant information available in ways that are easy for different stakeholders to access. In particular, they should make information accessible to the organizations and poor people they work with directly. But it is very unfortunate to say that the NGOs of our country don’t have clear and accessible information to the poor they work with. Conclusion

NGOs (Non-governmental organizations) activities have virtually grown into a movement in Bangladesh and eventually playing a very significant role in the nation’s development process scene. NGOs have not been evolved over time. The NGOs throughout the world have evolved in the specific context of the society. The context of the developed countries and developing countries are certainly different. The last three decades, enormous growth of NGOs in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has been regarded as the land of NGOs. In Bangladesh NGOs started their activities as voluntary, nonprofit organization but they make themselves essential in the necessary for the poor, backward and in ware women of Bangladesh. It has argued that these NGOs have transformed themselves by changing or incorporating new goals in order to face the challenges which were thrown upon them from the environment in which they operate. NGOs have been extremely successful in providing access to a credit to a large number of people and participation in development process, to some extent, has made the role of the few NGOs controversial.

References

* Islam.M,N and S.Hussain, “Rural Development Programs and the Role of NGOs in Bangladesh” in M.A Quddus(ed) Rural Development in Bangladesh Strategies and Expertise, Comolla, BARD. * Karim.M, “Non Governmental Organizations in Bangladesh: Issues of Legitimacy and Accountability”, Grassroots. Vol.3 No.12. * Aminuzzaman.S. “NGOs and Development Management in Bangladesh”, Administrative change, vol24, No.3. * Shelly.M.R “NGOs Movement in Bangladesh”, working paper. * OECD, Voluntary Aid for development: the Role of Non-Governmental Organization. * Khanna.B.S, “Role of Voluntary Agencies in Rural Development: Case Studies form Bangladesh”. * Huq.M.F. ‘Towards Sustainable Development: Rural Development and NGO Activities in Bangladesh”. Dhaka Agricultural Research Council. * From different website about the Role and Function of NGOs in Bangladesh. * Class lectures.

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