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Children and Young People’s Development from Birth to 19 Years

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1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years

Children’s development in ongoing process and it is continuous. Children will develop at different rates, but the sequence of how they develop is roughly the same, as they need to develop one skill before they can reinforce another one, for example, babies are likely to sit before they can crawl, or children will start walking before running.
Development is broken down in ages and for each age is measured on different aspects: physical, social and emotional, language and communication skills and intellectual development.
Let’s analyse growth and development in the stages:
• Infancy from birth to one year early years
• Early years 1-3 years old
• Childhood 4-7 years old
• Puberty from 8–12 years
• Adolescence from 13–16 years
• 17-19 years
Physical Development. Social & Emotional Development. Communication Skills & Language. Intellectual Development.
From birth to one year old. Within weeks of being born babies will start smiling and responding to sounds and environments around them. Babies can see faces, recognise mum’s voice. They learn how to grasp objects, kick legs, wave arms, play with their own hands and roll over. By 6 months as their muscles begin to develop they will reach for and hold objects which they will also put into their mouths. My staff and I understand how important social and emotional development is for babies, therefore, we cuddle, talk, smile to little ones, as they love attention and respond to the smile. A six months baby is able to make different happy sounds. At about 9 months babies can sit without support, may crawl or shuffle. Learns through senses.
One to three years. By their first birthday, babies can stand alone and start walking while holding or some may be walking alone. Most toddlers can feed themselves, at least with their fingers. A one year old finds mother or a key worker (in my setting) very important and becomes unhappy when they leave. Will start communicate by babbling sounds with others; copy adults’ behaviour. Will not play nicely with other children and a lot of times will poke, push or pull instead, that’s why we pay a lot of attention to one year old to make sure they won’t hurt each other in my setting. They like being held, cuddled or spoken to and start recognising most used words, like mum, dad, dog or etc. About age of 18 months they can use a spoon, hold a crayon and scribble something. Around the second birthday children can walk down the stairs and upstairs, can climb on furniture. Mother is still very important for a two year old. Will enjoy interaction with adults, which are familiar and generally is in a happy mood. However, may become very angry and frustrated if he doesn’t like something and throw tantrums. Therefore, cuddles, security from adults, trust and attention are key things to make them feel comfortable and safe. They love to explore and might put fingers in holes. By their third birthday, children can run, climb and pedal, throw a ball, jump, push and walk on tiptoe. They are able to build a tower of 9 bricks. Children enjoy playing with role play toys and love dressing up, enjoy copying and helping adults. Usually fears loud noises and still finds mother’s departure very unpleasant. Loves to explore and is very curious. Continues to learn through senses, can sing along and talk in sentences are very creative and love using their imagination.
Seventh birthday. By their seventh birthday, children can: throw, catch and kick a ball, ride a bicycle, roller skate, and balance on a wall or beam. Have well established hand-eye coordination, can use scissors well and write clearly. Children withdraw from adults, love playing cooperatively and take turns. They are able to tell jokes to each other, like being independent. Will read books and enjoy conversations. They might be frightened of things like ghosts or vampires. At this age they often have the best friend and get worried not being liked.
8-12 years. Children of 8-10 years old usually are very active and engage in rough games, especially boys, therefore may have some accidents. Ha good body control and likes to be involved in more complicated craft activities or creative projects. Makes friends very easily, enjoys making jokes, laughs, teasing each other. Girls are developing faster than boys. Puberty starts at around 10 years for girls with growth spurt. Has more secrets. By their twelfth birthday, children are able to solve problems, have their hobbies, and use good coordination. Around twelvish birthday children start arguing with their parents, they seem very grown up but also very childish at times.
13-16 years. Very often experience rapid increase in height and weight. Becomes much stronger. By their sixteenth birthday they have an adult body, enjoys their friends’ company more than their family. Usually have the whole gang of friends. Often have feeling their parents are to strict and old fashioned. They develop individual taste in what style of music, clothes they like and what they not, often have high level of skills in some areas, for example drawing or computing. They have mood swings, feel very anxious at times. Thrive on arguments, like to discuss new objects and have strong view and opinion.
17-19 years. Physical maturation is completed. Worries about failure; may enjoy relationship with opposite sex, might even be in very serious and romantic relationship and talk about marriage. Increases interest in sex. May appear moody and stubborn, has strong views. Thinks about future and makes plan for it.


• BTEC First Children’s Care, Learning and Development
• Teaching Assistants Handbook level 3, Teena Karmen
• Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools, Louise Burnham
• https://www.nct.org.uk
• https://www.markedbyteachers.com
• https://prezi.com
• https://www.homelearningcollege.com
• https://www.silkysteps.com

1.2 Analyze the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the distinction is important

It is very important to know the difference between the rate of development and the sequence of development because it helps to recognize and identify child’s abilities and needs. Sequence of development is the order in which development takes place, for example, baby will learn to hold his head before he’ll be able to sit by himself, or a child will learn how to walk before he will start running. It means that normally children will complete one sector of development before moving into the next one. However, there is a possibility that some parts of sequence might be missed, for example, not all babies will learn crawling before walking and some children will simply skip crawling.
The rate of development refers to speed in which child will develop. It is time frame given for the average development of a child at certain age, for example a child is expected to walk at the age of one year old. Nevertheless, we must understand that no two children are alike and they all are unique, therefore rate of development is only a guideline. The rate can vary individually and it depends on social background, individual growth, health, disability or learning difficulties that might have. So when we plan activities for the same age children, we take into account that each child is different and that some of them will be above average stage, some below and some in the average stage of development and therefore the results and the outcome of activities will vary depending on every child.
The main difference between the sequence of development and the rate development is that the sequence maintains the same, though the rate of development is like to change. As mentioned above the rate of development is hugely affected by different factors, such as social background, health and growth, but those factors do not affect the sequence of development.


• BTEC First Children’s Care, Learning and Development
• Teaching Assistants Handbook level 3, Teena Karmen
• Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools, Louise Burnham
• https://www.silkysteps.com
• https://prezi.com
• www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk
• https://www.academia.edu

1.3 Analyse the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected

There are quite a few different circumstances which may affect child’s development. Disability, social and emotional, cultural and environmental factors play a huge role in child’s development.
Disability is very important factor in child’s development. With some kind of disability either mental, or physical children will find more difficult to learn new things, they might need different way of teaching, more assistance and etc. For example, if disabled child can’t use his legs, he won’t be able to skip or ride a bicycle, so his development will not be following the pattern normally expected. Or if a child with learning disabilities won’t be given extra support while learning to read, he will fall behind and it will affect the development.
Social and emotional factors take another important part in child’s development. If a child comes from family with domestic abuse he is more likely to have low-esteem and therefore, he will refuse to try new activities, which will help him develop. If a child is neglected in any way he will most likely will be slower in intellectual and language development due to lack of proper communication and informal learning though plays.
Environment can be another important reason why child’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected. If a child lives in poor neighborhood and the housing isn’t maintained properly, he can experience a lot of illnesses, breathing problems, skin conditions which have an effect on development. Or if a child comes from poor family, he might not be able to go to nursery and experience a lot of new activities which will help in development.
Cultural reasons can be named as another factor why child’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected. For example, in some countries girls are treated as second class comparing to boys. Girls are not expected to attend school, therefore, they are not given the same opportunities as boys and their development will be affected.


• BTEC First Children’s Care, Learning and Development
• www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk
• https://www.academia.edu
• https://www.homelearningcollege.com/
• https://childmindinghelp.co.uk

2.1 Analyse how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors

Certain personal factors have an automatic impact on children’s and young people’s development. One of them could be named as health status. Health plays huge role in child’s development, for example, if a child suffers from uncontrolled asthma he cannot run as other children and sometimes has to be excluded from some physical activities, therefore, his development most likely will be affected. Illnesses and conditions like diabetes, anemia, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease or even genera viruses could have an effect on child’s development. If a child is not able to play outside due to his condition, his social development will be affected, as children make a lot of friends in outdoors spaces, like parks or playgrounds. If a pregnant mother was on drugs, a baby can be born premature and his development may be influences by this factor. Disability triggered by genetic information has a huge impact on children’s development, for example, Down’s syndrome. This means that the child may grow slower, will need extra help and support with all daily activities and their development will not follow the pattern normally expected. Another common disability is cerebral palsy. It can occur if “a baby’s brain doesn’t develop normally while in the womb, or is damaged during or soon after birth” (www.nhs.co.uk). This condition will affect movements, coordination and child’s development. Disability will not only affect physical development, but in most cases social and intellectual development will be influenced. Talking about genes, we should mention that genetic influences could affect social development, for example, if a child gets bullied for his color of skin, hair or other body feature, he can be hurt and next time avoid socializing with new children of fear to be bullied again. Therefore, it very important to show to children from very early age that all children are unique and different, in my setting we not only talk about different people, different conditions, but we take part in different activities, where we use walking frame, glasses, pretend hearing aids and etc. A child’s with learning difficulties development will be affected by the condition; this will include physical, social and intellectual skills. They may find it extremely difficult to interact and play with the same age children or keep focused and concentrated. I used to work with nine years old boy but his development was more as a five years old. He found it difficult to play with others, to keep conversation, to interact with other children and he would get crossed if he can’t do something what other children of his age a capable of. But understanding and knowing about his condition my staff and I were able to interact with him in the way that he would enjoy and wouldn’t become angry, for example, he loved one-to-one “art lessons”, which we always tried to accommodate when he attended. Visual impairment can also affect child’s development, as they are not able to pick up and learn from others, they cannot watch TV, PC and learn new things, they might have difficulties in new environment. Hearing problems will influence child’s development too. Sometimes, a child is excluded from some games as he cannot hear and understand the rules, it is more difficult to communicate for him. All personal factors play a huge role in child’s and young people’s development.

• BTEC First Children’s Care, Learning and Development
• Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools, Louise Burnham
• www.academia.edu
• http://www.ocr.org.uk
• http://www.livestrong.com
• www.nhs.co.uk
• http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea7lk18.htm
• https://www.healthtap.com/topics/how-personal-factors-influence-child-development
2.2 Analyse how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors

Children’s and young people’s development is affected by a lot of external factors: including poverty and deprivation, abuse and neglect, family environment and background, personal choices, looked after/care status and education. Poor housing condition may affect child’s health, for example, if is no heating during winter months, there is damp and mould in a house, it might cause serious health conditions, or if a house is overcrowded it reduces child’s learning through play, therefore poor living conditions may have an effect on child’s development. Lack of furniture may cause health issues, for example, if a child sleeps on the floor with very thin blanket, hi might get seriously ill. Lack of safety equipment may cause children having some accidents and serious physical harm, for example, no stair gate or no socket plug covers.
Low income of parents might mean that the child is not able to go on school trips, where he could learn new things and socialise with friends. In such case a child might feel isolated from others, ashamed of the situation and scared of other children finding out. A child might even get bullied and then he most likely will become withdrawn and unwilling to participate in tasks and it will have a huge impact on his learning and development. A child’s poor diet might lead into poor concentration, obesity and lack of energy. So many factors which affect child’s development come from family, as parents’ divorce, new partner’s arrival, a member of a family loss, redundancy and etc. Children’s development may be affected if there is depression, arguments in a family. Alcoholic or drug users might neglect child’s physical, emotional and intellectual needs. Looked after children might be moved from one family to another quite often and that may affect their development, as they have separation and attachment issues, they might not want to go to school. Socially they might find difficult to make new friends, academically they might fall behind for changing and missing school and they might become very unstable and fragile. Early and appropriate education in nursery or pre-school has a huge positive impact on child’s development. Children experience new things that they would not have at home, they socialise, interact with others, and learn to share and to take turns. Teachers and teaching assistants play a big role in child’s development. Every child needs to be treated the same, but attention must be paid in the national origin. If a child can’t speak English, he will need additional support with learning, otherwise development will be affected, for example, in my setting I have a three years old Russian girl who cannot speak English, therefore, all activities are being explained to her in English and translated into Russian or showed into pictures that she would have a clear understanding of what she is asked to do.


• https://prezi.com/qnnml9i4dgxi/external-factors-that-can-influence-a-childs-development/
• https://www.academia.edu
• https://studymoose.com/children-and-young-people-development-essay
• http://www.silkysteps.com/pages-cypw-sector-skills/cyp-3.1-Understand-child-and-young-person-development-cypw-level-3-diploma.html
• http://www.agored.org.uk
• http://teachingassistantmaterials.blogspot.co.uk/2014/02/factors-influencing-development-of.html

2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice

2.3- Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.
Two theorists I think influence current practice and frameworks in place are John Bowlby and Albert Bandura.
The theorist whose theory is Emotional Development is John Bowlby. His theory is that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and will influence how children react to social interactions with other people. He believes that children who are securely attached to their main cares generally have high self esteem and will be able to enjoy intimate relationships where the ability to share feelings will develop and will seek out social support. We support this theory by easing children into nursery life slowly with visits that get longer and longer as the child becomes more comfortable. This is to prevent separation anxiety
The theorist whose theory is Social Development is Albert Bandura. His theory is that children learn by observing how the main people in their life behave and imitating them. People they will observe are parents/cares/siblings/friends/etc. A child will repeat the behaviour they have seen if it is rewarded with attention or praise. Staff should behave calmly and use quiet communication to settle any disagreements. Children will copy any inappropriate behaviour.
2.3 Explain how current practice is influenced by Theories of development and frameworks to support development. Maslow

Believes everyone has fundamental needs that must be met in order for people to reach their full potential. The needs include warmth, food and shelter, love, security and self esteem. His hierarchy needs has five stages which was expanded to include cognitive aesthetic needs.

Page 11 of 17 In our setting we ensure the children are well cared for, environment is clean and tidy, and temperature of nursery is at a comfortable level, we provide a healthy balanced diet. Children are allocated a key worker on entry in nursery the key worker is responsible for
ensuring each child’s needs are meet under the EYFS

Created a theory that children learn by observing others, they do not need to be taught directly as they will imitate and observe what those around them are doing. This is a natural process and does not require the force of an adult. This learning is known as observational learning. In our setting we have a calm approach to all situations modelling good behaviour. We create an environment where observational learning can take place on a daily basis. Skinner

Believes that children learn language through principles of conditioning and that they learn words by associating sounds with objects, actions and events. They also learn words by imitating other people. We support this in our setting by having a language rich environment, asking open ended questions, lots of interaction. Bowlby

Believes that attachment behaviours are instinctive and that early relationships and early experiences with care givers have a major role on development and behaviour and influence how children will react to social interactions with other people. Early attachment were children are secure to main carer will allow the child to have high self esteem and will enjoy intimate relationships; they will start to have the ability to share their feeling and seek out others for support. We support this in nursery for new starters by introducing them gradually into the setting through visits which will start off with main carer staying with them and then progressing to the child having visits on their own to ensure they feel comfortable in their new environment. Lev Vygotsky-
His theory is that children’s development depends on interaction with people
and the tools that the culture provides. . He had three different ways cultural tools could be passed from one individual to another. Imitative learning where one person tries to imitate or copy another e.g. when a parent sings an action song and the child tries to copy, Instructed learning which involves remembering the instruction of an adult and then using these instructions, collaborative learning involves a group of peers who strive to understand each other and work together. He believes every new interaction is a learning experience to for children that they must be guided through until they know how to react properly.
Believes that children’s cognitive development moves through four different stages
of mental development:- Sensorimotor birth-2 years were a child recognises self as agent of actions and begins to act intentionally, preoperational 2-7years were they learn to use language and represent objects by images and words., concrete operational 7-11 years were children can begin to think logically about objects and events and classify objects according to several features, Formal operational 11-adult hood were they can think logically about abstract propositions. He believed all children pass through these phases to advance to the next level of cognitive development. In our setting we encourage a more hands on approach and more relevant tasks for
age/stage of development of child. We emphasise strongly on “childImitated” activities and observations to be able to plan for children’s needs.
Believed that our personalities are made up with three parts; the “id”
-is the insti
nctive part of our personality, the “ego”is the planning part of our personality, and the
“superego” develops later in childhood it is known as the control part of our personality ,which are not all present at birth but will develop as the child develops.
3.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of development delay

Each child is different and unique, therefore, he will develop on his own rate. However, it should be looked at the average rate of development, which is marked by milestones. When a child doesn’t reach the milestone at expected rate, a child is delayed in development. There are a lot of personal and external factors which may influence a delay. Some factors causing delay can be eliminated very easily, for example, lack of sleep, but others are not. Very often difficulty in one area of development for example, speech, can influence development in other areas, for example, socializing. “Delay and/or difficulty in beginning to use language is one of the most common causes of parental concern for young children brought to pediatricians and other professionals. Delay may indicate specific difficulty with language, or it may be an early indicator of a broader problem such as developmental delay or autism” (http://www.child-encyclopedia.com). It is very important to recognize the cause of delay, but early identification and intervention is vital, as support is more effective as the delay begins to show. It is absolutely essential to provide children with necessary support and help to reach their full potential. Early identification and intervention will benefit children on long term basis, as it not only will allow children to develop skills that are expected at their age, but will prevent children from developing negative behavior also. Early years practitioners play fundamental role in identifying signs of delay in a child’s development. They spend so much time with the child, they get to know the child well and they know child’s abilities, so when the delay become clear it most likely will be identified by them. Early years practitioners after identifying signs of delay in a child’s development are able to make swift assessments and involve outside agencies to make their observations of a child. The earlier a delay is identified the less problems it will cause in child’s further development, especially in behavioral and emotion development, for example, if delay in communication and language is identified in a nursery is better and more effective than it would have been identified later at school. Therefore, it is very important for early years practitioners to know the rates and sequence of development, to understand children’s’ learning and be able to recognize and identify any early signs of delay.
• Ellis E, Thal D. Early language delay and risk for language impairment. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 2008
• https://brainwave.org.uk
• https://education.ucsb.edu
• http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/learning-disabilities/according-experts/early-identification-language-delay
• http://www.ldonline.org/article/6231

3.2 Explain the potential risks of late recognition of development delay

“Child development refers to the process that children go through in skill development during predictable time periods called developmental milestones. Developmental delay occurs when children do not reach certain milestones by the expected time period” (https://www.brainwave.org.uk). Late recognition of development can cause a lot of problems for children and young people later on in life. Late recognition of development may affect children’s confidence and self-esteem. Not realizing the child’s delay in development may cause potential risks as the children not fulfilling their potential, experience problems with understanding information, struggling to be independent, lack of motivation, difficulty in making friends, depression, possible regression of behaviour, anxiety, anti-social behaviour and much more.
If there is a delay in recognition, for as such as language development, the child might be unable to express his feelings and needs, this can cause the child being angry and frustrated. Children can be very selfish and impatient with those who they do not understand or those who do not understand what they say. The child with communication problems can find himself excluded straight away. The responsibility lies on early education practitioners firstly and later on teachers to encourage the child and other children not to exclude the child and play together despite communication difficulties. Late speech development may affect other aspects of development such as social, emotional, behavioural and intellectual. If some signs are missed, the child may not be able to reach his full potential and be independent. Low self-esteem will influence the child’s social behaviour and he may become withdrawn and isolated for fear of being laughed at or bullied. Finally it can cause learning delays particularly, spelling, reading and literacy.
• http://www.essayzone.co.uk/level-5-diploma-in-leadership-for-health-and-socia/5062/unit-6-understand-children-and-young-person-s-development
• http://teachingassistantmaterials.blogspot.co.uk/2014/02/child-and-young-person-development-4.html
• https://www.brainwave.org.uk/developmental-delay?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI4pSnt5vS2AIV1c0bCh0GVgbEEAMYASAAEgKezvD_BwE
• http://www.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_potential_risk_of_a_child_well-being_if_any_speech_language_and_communication_delay_is_not_identified_early#slide=1
• https://www.majortests.com/essay/Self-Esteem-And-Child-613386.html
• http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=122

3.3 Evaluate how multi agency teams work together to support all aspects of development in children and young people

“Multi agency working is when two or more agencies combine their skills and expertise, with the joint goal of meeting an individual, or group of individual’s needs. It requires good, strategically planned, methods of working alongside each other, where good communication, common goals, understanding and powerful leadership and teamwork is essential” (https://abbysprojects.wordpress.com/2016/03/07/how-does-multi-agency-working-decrease-the-risk-of-abuse-and-neglect/). There are number of professional which support all aspects of children’s development. Multi-agency working together makes a huge difference to the lives of children and young people and ensures effective way of supporting children, young people and families with additional needs. Social worker, SEN Officer, childminder, teacher or parent may work together to help the child and improve the quality of life. All professionals can come together to work out a plan to support the child and his individual needs. The action plan consists of gathering information, taking an assessment on, examining the results and making future plans. All gathered information must be shared continuously throughout the whole process, and certainly, the information must be thorough and accurate. By working together agencies become much stronger and avoid more mistakes, issues can be dealt much faster and necessary support received easier. For example, every school has special educational needs coordinator (SENCO) who is responsible for special education needs at school and work together with other teachers and parents to provide the best support at school. This way it is easier to monitor and observe the child’s development.
When a health visitor identifies a problem, for example, language and communication, the child would be referred to Speech Therapist or if the child is school age, SENCO would be aware. SENCO would put intervention plan into place, outside agencies would be informed and individual learning plan (ILP) drawn up. Teaching Assistant would be part of ILP. When working together is involved and everything is being checked by different people from different organisations there are less chances of errors which can limit the risk of accidental harm and every stage of development is covered.

• https://studymoose.com/explain-how-multi-agency-teams-work-together-to-support-speech-language-and-communication-essay
• https://lms.thelearningstation.co.uk
• http://webarchive.nationalarchives.co.uk
• https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/182200/integrated_working_explained.pdf
• https://www.childmindinghelp.co.uk
• https://abbysprojects.wordpress.com/2016/03/07/how-does-multi-agency-working-decrease-the-risk-of-abuse-and-neglect/

3.4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.
According to the Department of Education’s Early Intervention Paper (2010), “Early intervention means intervening as soon as possible to tackle problems that have already emerged for children and young people”. There are different professionals who come into school to discuss ways the child with additional needs can be supported. They include:
Speech Therapist: The speech therapist works in partnership with parents, teachers and other professionals involved, to help children develop their communication skills to the best of their ability, and reach potential booth educationally and socially. For some children, particularly those with speech sound difficulties, this may involve weekly sessions for a period of them. For other children, input may be at the level of working with parents and professionals to set appropriate goals and monitor progress.
Social worker: They come in when parents ask for help or if there is a concern about a child in the home environment. Sometimes schools contact social services directly if they are worried about a child’d home environment. They also work with the school regarding ‘Looked After Children’.
Physiotherapist: They work with the parents and classroom assistants. They give advice and set targets on how pupils can develop their gross motor skills.
Following the agreed period of support, the child’s progress will be reviewed in partnership with parents/carers and others and further recommendations and actions will be adopted according to the child’d changing needs.
Psychologist: An Educational Psychologist may come in if the child does not make any progress following interventions by and speech therapist. They will carry out assessment on the child which uses different tools, techniques and approaches that draw on relevant psychological theory and research. The purpose of the assessment would be to understand what is happening to the child, who is concerned, why there is a problem and what can be done to make a difference to the situation.
4.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition.
Early identification of speech, language and communication delay is extremely important as children may be supported to improve their skills and they may then be able to organise their thought and express themselves.
Language development is so important, if a child has a problem communicating they may become frustrated and this may affect other aspects of their development including social, emotional, behavioural, moral, cognitive and intellectual.
If delayed language acquisition is diagnosed early enough, professionals can target the child’s needs and support him/her in the best possible way so that they don’t out on milestones in their development.
Outside agencies can be informed and the child will receive the specialist support they require.
Risks could include: the child not fulfilling their potential; experiencing problems with learning and understanding information; struggling to be independent; child being isolated and withdrawn; difficulty in or loss of interest in making and keeping friendships; lack of motivation; depression; low self-esteem and confidence; inability to express feeling appropriately; possible regression of behaviour; separation anxiety and anti-social behaviour.
4.2 Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication
Children who have speech, language and communication problems often have different professionals who work with them to support them. They sometimes come together as a team to discuss the need of the child and how these needs can be met as the guiding principle is that all services should work together closely in the best interest of the child.
They would include :
Speech and Language therapist
Refer to section 3.4
The school’s senco manages SEN provision in schools. They work with different professionals who support the child, to ensure that the child’s appointments and paperwork are up to date.
Autism Advisory teacher
They come into school to advise on how best to support children who have been diagnosed with autism.
4.3 Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication
Puppets: When children interact with puppets and make them talk and interact with one another, they are also involved in dramatic play. This type of play is excellent for developing language and for expressing feelings.
Games: When children play games they learn to take turns and communicate with each other. They express how they feel about what the other child has to do or did and sometimes they try to support the other child if they think they do not understand the game and it’s a great way for them to develop their communication. Their vocabulary will improve.
Pictures: Pictures are used alongside words to make communication more easier and understandable. In fact in my placement school, the reading scheme that is used starts the children off with ‘picture only’ books so the children are encouraged to talk about the pictures in the book and make their own story up and ask questions.
Technology: Computer programmes (apps and games), interactive whiteboard, story tapes, cds are all ways of stimulating a child’s communication development. These days a lot of programmes are interactive and children can hear and respond to different applications made specially to help develop their language.
5.1 Explain how different types of transitions can affect development
This usually comes from the children’s personal experiences in life.
Bereavement: a loss of carer, family member, friend, pet or even toys(for much younger children) can affect children’s development. They may display frustration, aggression, anger, regression, withdrawal and other behavioural problems.
Divorce: Sometimes children may think it’s their fault that mum and dad are not together anymore. They may begin to hate themselves. Physically they may experience a loss in appetite and insomnia. They may not be able to concentrate in school and it may become challenging for them as they may be suddenly expected to become more independent.
This type of transition is a result of movement to a different location
Migrating: This is very stress for children as they have to lose all their relationships(family and friends), start a new school, and possibly learn a new language, accent and culture. They may feel different to others (physical racial differences like skin colour; eye colour; hair colour) and too young to handle their feelings. They may become frustrated, hate their parents, be unable to settle in school and show behavioural problems in school.
This type of transition can be seen when children move to different learning framework.
From Foundation Phase to National Curriculum: In the Early Years Foundation Phase, children most have their learning experience through play. When they make that transition into National Curriculum, it has a huge effect on them as they begin to have formal ways of learning and less creative and expressive activities.They may show signs of anxiety, not wanting to go to school, not understanding why they have to be in school hence not engaging in the learning activities.
This is as a result of changes to our body due to physical growth and development or long term medical conditions.
Puberty: Young people begin to experience puberty from early teenage. During that period a lot of hormonal changes take place in their body which results in physical body changes. They experience mood swings which can sometimes lead to behavioural problems or withdrawal. They may not like the way that they look or they may feel that they have reached maturity so they can decide what they want for themselves. Sometimes these decisions (taking harmful substances, getting pregnant and truancy) affect their development negatively and they are not able to achieve their full potential.
5.2 Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition.
It makes it much easier for children to cope with transition when they have somebody who is supporting them positively so that they can continue to feel secured about other aspects of their life.
They know that someone is there that they can talk to about how they feel and talking about it may help them to cope better and settle down much quicker.
Nobody likes to go through a situation feeling that they are on their own and no one is supporting them. A positive relationship will reassure children that they are being cared for and supported.
They learn how to deal with stressful situations and become resilient. Their likelihood of low self-esteem/worth/confidence which often leads to depression in later life may be reduced.

Teaching Assistants Handbook level 3 by Teena Karmen
Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools by Louise Burnham
Theories of Child Development and Learning http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea7lk18.htm
Child Development Theories

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