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Child Development

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1.Summarise the main development of a child from the age range 0-2years, 3-5years and 5-8years. Raising a baby, especially for the first time, is both exciting and challenging. This is a time for developing the bonds that will last a lifetime providing the child with the inner resources to develop self-esteem and the ability to relate positively with others. It is also the time for parents to begin to discover who this new person really is. Each child is unique and its important that parents learn to understand, respect , support and encourage the unique characteristics and abilities of each child. 0-12months- It doesn’t take long to develop the confidence and clam of an experienced parent. Your baby will give you the most important information- how she/he likes to be treated, talked to, held, and comforted.

They can raises head and chest when on stomach, stretches and kicks on back, begins to develop social smile, enjoys playing with people, follows moving objects, recognizes familiar objects and people at a distance, starts using hands and eyes in coordination, prefers sweet smells, prefers soft to coarse sensations. 4-7months – At this age your baby should roll both ways, sits with and without support of hands, supports whole weight on legs, reaches with one hand, transfers objects from hand to hand, uses raking grasp, enjoys social play, interested in mirror images, responds to expressions of emotion, appears joyful often, finds partially hidden object, explores with hands and mouth, struggles to get objects that are out of reach.

8-12months- Your baby should, gets to sitting position without help, crawls forward on belly, assumes hands- and- knees position, gets from sitting to crawling position , pulls self up to stand, walks holding onto furniture, shy or anxious with strangers, cries when parents leave. Enjoys imitating people in play, prefers certain people and toys, tests parental response , finger-feeds him/her selves, explores objects in different ways, finds hidden objects easily, looks at correct picture when the image is named, imitates gestures, begins to use objects correctly.

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1-3years- Your child is advancing from infancy towards and into the pre-school years. During this time, his/her physical growth and motor development will slow, but you can expect to see some tremendous intellectual,social and emotional changes. At this age they can walk alone, pulls toys behind when walking, begins to run, stands on tiptoe, kicks a ball, imitates behaviour of others, aware of his/her selves as separate from others, enthusiastic about company of other children, finds objects even when hidden 2 or 3 levels deep, sorts by shape and colour, plays make-believe. 3-4years- With your child’s third birthday the “terrible twos” are officially over and the “magic years” of three and four begin- a time when your child’s world will be dominated by fantasy and vivid imagination.

During the next two years, he/she mature in many areas, climbs well, walks up and down stairs, alternating feet , kicks ball, runs easily, pedals tricycle, bends over without falling, imitates adults and playmates, show affection for familiar playmates, can take turns in games,understands ‘mine’ and ‘his/hers’, makes mechanical toys work, matches an objects in hand to picture in book, plays make believe,sorts objects by shape and colours, completes 3-4 piece puzzles, understands concept of “two” or more. 4-5years- before you know it, the somewhat calm child of three becomes a dynamo of energy, drive, bossiness, belligerence , and generally out-of-bounds behaviour. You may be reminded of the earlier trails and tribulations you went through when he/she was two.

Also obvious during this time is the tremendous spirit of imaginative ideas that spring from children’s minds and mouths. All of this behaviour and thinking will help your youngster build a secure foundation as he/she emerges into the world of kindergarten. 5-12years- Your child should feel confident in her/his ability to meet the challenges in her/his life. This sense of personal power evolves from having successful life experiences in solving problems independently, being creative and getting results for her/his efforts. 12-18years – Adolescence can be a challenge for parents. Your teen may at times be a source of frustration and exasperation, not to mention financial stress. But these years also bring many, many moments of joy, pride, laughter and closeness. 18-21years- A young adult who goes away to a college or a job far from home has to build asocial support system from the ground up. At the same time, he/she may have to acclimate him/her self to a drastically different environment. Reference (Developmental Milestones- By American Academy Pediatrics – )

2.Analyse key social,economic and environmental factors, which may influence development Young children can be affected by many social, economic and environmental factors both in positive and negative ways. Because children are so vulnerable, they can be easily affected by things many parents and adults take for granted. There are four main factors affecting a child’s development. Intellectual development is affected by other factors besides the pupil’s chronological age. Factors affecting learning can include: lack of play opportunities: unrewarding learning activities: lack of opportunities to use language and communication skills:inappropriate learning activities. Some pupils may not develop their intellectual processes in line with the expected pattern of development for their age due to special needs such as: communication and/or interaction difficulties: learning difficulties: behavioural, social or emotional difficulties.

Low self-esteem: The lack of opportunities to explore, experiment and create within a stimulating learning environment can result in pupils having having no sense of purpose or achievement. A pupil’s emotional well-being is based on positive interactions with others and the world around them. Lack of concentration: Poor concentration leads to poor listening skills and difficulty in following instructions. Play opportunities are an effective way to motivate younger pupils’ learning , as children are more likely to concentrate on self-chosen activities they enjoy. If they have not had play opportunities they will find it especially difficult to concentrate in more formal learning situations. Boredom: Lack of concentration can lead to boredom.

If pupils have not had discovery opportunities they will often lack interest in others and the world around them. This can lead to disruptive and/or attention – seeking behaviour. Reluctance to participate: Some pupils may have a tendency to withdraw from activities especially those involving problem-solving skills) for fear of ‘failing’. Pupils who have lacked play opportunities will have missed out on learning in safe, non-threatening situations. Over-dependency on adult support: Some pupils may be reluctant to do things for themselves if they have not had opportunities to engage in play and independent learning activities. Dependency on adults can also be linked to a pupil’s fear of ‘failing’.

Reference ( Teena Kamen – Teaching Assistant’s Handbook Level 3 )

Environment: Providing a safe, clean, calm and comforting environment is essential for your child’s development. Keep hazardous and inappropriate toys away from young children. An environment where your child is exposed to physical or verbal abuse will negatively affect her development. Not only is your child missing out on seeing what a healthy relationship looks like, stressful situations cause the body to release elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol, according to Sean Brotherson, a Family Science Specialist at North Dakota State University. Extended periods of this hormone can make the brain vulnerable to processes that can destroy brain cells or lower the number of connections in the brain.

Nutrition:A child needs adequate nutrition to allow her body and mind to develop properly. Feed your child foods that are appropriate for her age. Breast milk or formula can provide almost every nutrient a baby needs for the first months of life, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. As a child grows, her nutrition needs change. Your pediatrician can help guide you on what foods are best at each stage. Fruits, veggies, whole grains, lean meats and water are all part of a well-balanced diet as your child gets older. Malnutrition can lead to development issues and a failure to thrive. Stimulation: According to the World Health Organization, the amount of stimulation provided in a child’s environment can dramatically affect her brain and cognitive development.

WHO states that this is especially important during the first 3 years of life because early childhood is the most intensive period of brain development during a person’s life. Hands-on experiences, such as touching a cat, grasping a spoon, rolling a ball or handling various types of cloth do wonders for your child’s brain development. Show her how to properly touch, listen, talk, play, smell, look and hear the world around her. This world is new to her, so let her take it all in and make those connections.

References ( http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/things-affect-child-development-4360.html )

3.Describe children’s overall development needs Summary of the developmental needs of children

The need for physical activity. Children need to exercise and develop their growing bodies through physical activities that develop both large and small muscles. Psychologist Abraham Maslow says our physical needs are our most basic ones. The need for Competence and Achievement. It is common for many children and especially young adolescents to explore a wide variety of experiences, careers and interests to acquire some level of mastery and success. They need opportunities to demonstrate to themselves and others thatthey can do things well. Psychologist Eric Erickson states that the achievement of mastery is the primary development task for 6-12year olds.

The need for Self-Definition. Rapidly growing children lots of opportunities to explore who and what they are becoming and how they relate to the world around them as a member of their sex, race, family culture, community, etc. Self-Definition or identity is the primary challenge of adolescence. Exploring possible careers and roles is one way adolescents can begin to look at what the future might hold for them. The need for Creative Expression. As children’s bodies and minds rapidly grow and change, and as they become more involved in the world beyond home and family, opportunities for creative expression are essential to their development. These opportunities help children develop an understanding and acceptance of themselves as they use speaking, writing, singing, dancing, drama and the visual arts to express their emerging feelings, interests, thoughts, talents and abilities.

The need for Positive Social Interaction. Although the family is of primary importance to children, they all need increasing opportunities to experience positive relationships with peers outside the family. These positive relationships can provide comfort, support and security as they are confronted with and experience new ideas, views, values and feelings. The need for Structure and Clear Limits. As children grow in their need for independence and freedom, they also need the security of structure and clear limits to help them develop skills such as responsibility, resourcefulness and reliability. The need for Meaningful Participation.

Children need opportunities to develop and use new talents, skills and interests in the context of the real world. The center for Early Adolescence stress that children “need to participate in the activities that shape their own lives”. The need for strong Attachment with Positive Adults. All children need the skills to establish a strong attachment to at least one positive adult in their life. Resilient children-those who bounce back despite difficulties, are always ones who have strong attachments to at least one positive, caring adult in their lives.

Reference ( The Children’s Aid Society founded 1853)

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