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A Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People

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Know about the legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e-safety

Identify the current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e-safety

Current legislation
The current legislation for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people is the Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 Act. This Act is applied in both England and Wales and authorised guidance on how organisations and individuals should work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people in accordance with the Children Act 1989 and the Children Act 2004.

Child protection policies and procedures
Settings must have the succeeding policies and procedures:
Child protection
Health and safety
Risk assessment

In each workplace there are child protection policy and procedures that set out the setting’s safe working practices. This term makes reference to how practitioners work to protect children and to protect themselves from accusations of abuse. The setting’s guidelines are based on the requirements of a person’s home country, and will be looked over yearly.

Top responsibilities of settings consist of:
Choosing a named senior member of staff to be in charge of safeguarding Making sure that all the adults that have frequent and unsupervised access to children is CRB checked and registered with the ISA (Independent Safeguarding Authority) Keeping a record of all the checks carried out on staff and volunteers Informing the ISA if they believe any person who has had involvement with a setting is a threat to the safety of children or young people Ensuring all staff and volunteers have regular safeguarding training Ensuring the minimum requirement for the ratio of staff to children is met In group settings, ensuring there are always at least two staff present – even if one child is late being picked up, two staff must be available Making sure there is always a qualified first-aider present

Carrying out risk assessments
Having missing child procedures in place
Keeping a registration document for each child or young person, with details of their full names, address and contact details of their parents and carers Taking out public liability insurance and employer’s liability insurance where applicable

These days, a large number of children and young people use computers and either have access to or own a mobile phone. Some may even use their game console to connect with others via internet. Technology has advanced a lot in years gone by and have had a positive effect on children and young people, however there are risk that come with being available online through gaming or mobile phone, such as: physical danger or contact with paedophiles

exposure to inappropriate material
divulging personal details either accidentally or purposefully illegal behaviour
online game
wrong information

Describe the roles of different agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people

There are several different agencies that have something to do with the safeguarding of children and young people. GP or hospital – Gp’s are usually the first call made by patients, and therefore are more likely to spot possible abuse when a child or young person is at their surgery for a check-up or examination. In emergency circumstances, a child or young person may actually be taken or may go to the accident and emergency unit at their local hospital. Hospitals always keep a record or patients’ visits, and if the same child or younger person is frequently seen with certain sorts of injuries, staff may identify possible abuse. Social Services – Social Services have a legal duty to care for weaker families. Furthermore, it is essential they respond appropriately to referrals concerning worries that a child or younger person is hurting or likely to be caused significant harm, and work within the legal outline and local procedures to safeguard children and young people.

Health visiting – Health visitors have responsibilities to children under the age of five regarding their health and development. Additionally, they give direction and support to their families. This means that’s parents who are struggling may turn to them for help. Because health visitors enter the family home, they are in prime position to take note of environmental causes for concern – for example if a child is being neglected or is otherwise living in unacceptable circumstances. Police – Police have the responsibility of criminal proceedings, which may occur when a child or young person has been harmed or abused. It is not unusual for police officers to recognise possible abuse when called to go to a domestic disturbance. Often, police officers may also be in contact with social workers in the event of a young child or person being removed from the family home as a safeguarding measure.

Probation services – Probation services are called when someone is found guilty of hurting or mistreating a child or young person. There a number of responsibilities that probation officers have, some of which include making assessments to advise courts, managing and enforcing community orders, and working with prisoners during and after sentencing. In an attempt to rehabilitate offenders, they also have a duty to implement the conditions of court orders and release licences. To help protect the public, they run offender risk assessments and make sure that offenders are conscious of the effect of their crime on their victims and the public. NSPCC – the NSPCC provide advice services for adults concerned that a child or young person may be harmed.

Parents, professionals and members of the general public can call to help protect children. Also provided; a free, online, specialised child protection resource for practitioners and other professionals working to protect children. They deliver direct services to children and families, focusing on important issues and groups of children most at risk. The NSPCC also support ChildLine, where trained volunteers are available 24 hours a day to give advice and support to children who make contact by phone or online. A primary schools service is also be developed. It aims to teach children aged 5-11 in every community: What abuse and bullying are

How to protect themselves
Where to get help if they need it

Psychology Services – Child psychologists support children or young people who have been harmed or abused. Clinical or forensic psychologists are often requested to contribute to child risk assessments, which assess the level or risk that a parent or guardian may pose to a child or young person. This risk must be carefully considered when choices are to be made about where a child or young person will live, and under which conditions they will be able to see a parent who has caused them harm or abuse.

Know what to do when children or young people are ill or injured, including emergency procedures

Identify the signs and symptoms of common childhood illnesses Vomiting or diarrhoea
High temperature
Tiredness or disturbed sleep patterns
Reduced appetite
Flushed or pale complexion/lip area
Irritable or fretful behaviour
Lack of desire to play
Swollen glands
Runny or blocked-up nose

Describe the actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured Practitioners should appropriately respond to symptoms shown, for example cooling down a child with a temperature. They should monitor the condition in the event that it worsens, and record any relevant data such as temperature readings or inhalers given. In the case of minor illnesses arrangements should then be made to have the child picked up as soon as possible by a parent, and for someone to calmly supply the facts should the parent be worried. Lastly, if it is necessary practitioners should call for emergency assistance urgently, and know which signs and symptoms indicated that immediate medical help is needed.

Identify circumstances when children and young people might require medical attention

If any of the following signs and symptoms of illness occur you may need to call for urgent medical attention: Breathing difficulties
Child/young person seems to be in significant pain
Baby becomes unresponsive and/or their body seems floppy
Severe headache which may be accompanied by a stiff neck or a dislike of light Rash that remains when pressed with a glass
Vomiting that persists for more than 24 hours
Unusual, high-pitched crying in babies
High temperature that cannot be lowered
Will not drink fluids – most worrying in babies

Describe the actions to take in response to emergency situations including: a) Fires – baby unity – evacuation point for baby room is through staff room nursery worker to form a chain for evacuation should be done as follows. Key worker 1 to take group of two babies out to garden meeting point and wait. Key worker 2 is to be the runner collecting the children from nursery room to garden helping key worker 3. Toddler room – on hearing the fire alarm all children to line up at the door and wait for instructions from staff. A head count is taken place. Key worker 1 is to evacuate with a group of five children out to the meeting place in the garden. Key worker 2 then takes the next group of six children and evacuates the building and meets in the garden.

Key worker collects he register and evacuates quickly checking the room with the last group of children and meets in the garden. Pre-school room – on hearing the fire alarm all children to line up at the door and wait for instructions from staff. A head count is taken place. Key worker 1 is to evacuate with a group of five children out to the meeting place in the garden. Key worker 2 then takes the next group of six children and evacuates the building and meets in the garden. Key worker collects he register and evacuates quickly checking the room with the last group of children and meets in the garden. The register is taken before the manager calls checking room numbers.

Security incidents – staff must check the identity of any visitors they do not recognise before allowing them into the main nursery. Visitors to the nursery must be recorded in the Visitor’s Boo and accompanied by a member of staff at all times while in the building. All external doors must be kept locked at all times and external gates closed. All internal doors and gates must be closed to ensure children are not able to wonder. Parents, visitors and students are reminded not to hold doors open to allow entry to any person, and whether they know this person or not. Staff within the nursery should be the only people allowing external visitors and parents entry to the nursery. The nursery will under no circumstances tolerate any form of harassment from third parties, including visitors, towards others, including children, staff members and parents. The police may be called in these circumstances.

Missing children or young people – as soon as it is noticed that a child is missing the key person or staff member alerts the nursery manager or deputy manager if they are not there. The manager or deputy manager will call the police and report that a child is missing and then calls that child’s parent. Then a thorough search of the building and garden by the manager or deputy manager will happen. The register is checked to ensure that there are no other children gone missing. Doors and gates are checked to see if there has been a breach of security where a child may have wondered through. The manager or deputy manager will talk to staff to find out when and where the child was last seen and make note of it. Finally the manager or deputy manager contacts the nursery directors and reports the incident. The next available nursery director will immediately come to the nursery and conduct an investigation, with the management committee where applicable.

Know how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed or bullied

Identify the characteristics of different types of child abuse Physical abuse – these actions include hitting, kicking, shaking, biting, squeezing, burning, scalding, throwing, attempting suffocation or drowning, giving children poisonous substances or inappropriate drugs or alcohol. Emotional abuse – children will suffer from emotional abuse and may live with constant threats, shouting, ridiculing, critism, taunting and repeated rejection. Sexual abuse – this abuse includes behaviour that does not need physical contact such as exposure through media by way of photos, videos, DVDs, and the internet or by just making them watch other people’s sexual encounters. Neglect – a child’s clothing may be dirty, smelly or worn, their hygiene will be poor; they may be dirty and have skin infections that are not getting treatment, and poor medical care.

Describe the risks and possible consequences for children and young people using the internet, mobile phones and other technologies

There are many risks from using technology that children and young people can be exposed to which include physical danger or contact from paedophiles; they usually pose as a child or young person on social media sites as a means of bonding over ‘similar interests’ in order to gain their trust. There is exposure to inappropriate material which is most likely pornographic, violent or hateful. It can also encourage dangerous or illegal behaviour. Children and/or young people may accidentally share personal information which may then may aid identity theft or cons.

Children or young people may also be at risk from those that wish them harm should their personal details leak out. Users may get trapped and become apart of behaviour this is considered illegal, antisocial or inappropriate. This also includes illegally downloading copyright material. The internet gives easy access to online gambling sites and children may fall into online gambling and not really understand what it is and create large debts that they are unaware of which may cause the are online gamblers to seek them out. Children may believe incorrect information that they have come across online; they may read some terminology that is not appropriate to say out loud or in particular company amongst other things.

Describe actions to take in response to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed (including self-harm) or bullied, or may be at risk of harm, abuse or bullying

Responding to evidence of abuse or harm – there are two things that you should really do if you suspect a child is being harmed or abused, and that is to write down all of the information as soon as you can in order to not forget any information later on, especially information that at first seems irrelevant but could in fact be very important. The second thing you should do which is follow your setting’s child protection policy, which will tell you how you should report your concerns and what will happen next. Actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse – you will need to get a disclosure from the child. It may be a full disclosure which is when the child tells you exactly who abused them and tells you what kind of abuse and for how long. It may be a partial disclosure which occurs when the child starts to tell of abuse but then quickly retreat back into themselves and not carry on, or they leave out main details such as the abuser and what abuse occurred.

Lastly there is an indirect disclosure where the child has not said anything to you but abuse is shown subtly through means of their play or artwork. They are usually too ashamed, disgusted or scared to tell someone. Bullying – if a child or young person has told you they are being bullied it is important that you react suitably. Most children will be afraid that the bullying will worsen if the tell someone. In the case that you are concerned a child is being bullied and not gone to anyone, you will need to gently approach the victim and sensitively speak with them as ultimately it is up to them on how they wish to respond to the bully. Whatever the case, bullying should be addressed as it has often caused children to commit suicide instead of telling anyone, so you should not wait for the victim to approach you.

Describe the actions to take in response to concerns that a colleague may be:

a) Failing to comply with safeguarding procedures – people that work with children have a duty to protect them and if you have concerns of a colleague failing to follow safeguarding procedures you should bring your concerns to your manager or deputy manager if the first is unavailable. While it is difficult to complain about a colleague the children’s safety must be our top priority. The manager can call the local inspectorate which is Ofsted (England) if necessary. b) Harming, abusing or bullying a child or young person – if you have concerns of a colleague abusing a child or young person, our actions must be the same for if it were anyone else such as a parent, family member or stranger. We have to protect the children and that means immediately reporting to your manager. If it is against your manager then report to deputy manager or the designated person for child protection. If your concerns are of a colleague bullying a child/children you should report it to your manager for them handle.

Describe the principles and boundaries of confidentiality and when to share information

Confidentiality is defined as people having the right to have information that is known about them tor kept recorded private and hidden away safely. It is an important part of being a practitioner as they know personal details about the families that they work with. There is an Act named The Data Protection Act of 1984/1998 which makes it a lawful requirement for confidential information to be handled with care. Confidentiality is important because it helps to builds between the families and the nursery. It could possibly allow information about the person to flow freely between the client and the worker. It provides security and privacy and helps to build a healthy professional relationship.

Confidentiality is highly valued and expected in any situation where sensitive information is being shared. Sometimes, discussing a confidential matter with a colleague is required, and when you are sharing sensitive information you need to make sure that you can talk alone and in private without being overheard. In a busy setting, this can usually happen by arranging a time for conversation when you are able to go somewhere private, such as the office where the door can be closed. Occasionally, a confidential concern needs to be conversed with a parent or carer. It is up to the practitioner to organised a time to talk in private. Additionally, it should also be deliberated on whether it is appropriate for the parent’s child to listen to the conversation, as it might concern them or a matter that might affect them. If you learn of sensitive information from a child, or you have concerns that all is not well with a child, you have a legal obligation to report it as it is your duty to protect the child.

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