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Zoology Chapter

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1).Why is life difficult to define?
Life is difficult to define due to the fixed properties varying from earliest living forms than those from today. This represents extensive and ongoing change refered to as Evolution. So we must base our definition on common history of life on earth.

2). What are the basic chemical differences that distinguish living and nonliving systems? The basic chemical differences from distinguished living and non living systems are: Chemical Uniqueness, Complexity and hierarchical organization, Reproduction,Possession of a genetic program, metabolism, development, environmental interaction, movement,

3). Describe the hierarchical organization of life. How does this organization lead to the emergence of new properties at different levels of biological complexity? Cell(hours to reproduce), Organism (hours to days to reproduce), Population(up to thousands of years to reproduce), Species (thousands to millions of years to reproduce) . Cells hold the replication for all major parts of organisms that become part of a population that are part of a species. All interconnect.

4). What is the relationship between heredity and variation in reproducing biological systems? Variation is controlled by heredity thus creates stability in biological systems to persist through time.

5). Describe how evolution of complex organisms is compatible with the second law of thermodynamics. The need of energy to fuel the organism follows entropy in the making of this source, therefore compatible with the second law of thermodynamics.

6). What are the essential characteristics of science? Describe how evolutionary studies fit these characteristics whereas “scientific creationism” or “intelligent-design theory” does not. Science is guided by natural law, it has to be explanatory by reference to natural law, it is testable against the observable world. Its conclusions are tentative and therefore not necessarily the final word, it is falsifiable. Evolution is a science outside of religion whereas Scientific-creationism is a religion.

7). Use studies of natural selection in British moth populations to illustrate the hypothetical-deductive method of science. Obeservation – rise of smoke pollution, decrease of Melanic moths. Question formed about this and then a null hypothesis is generated. The empirical test gathered on data about larval growth rates set in two groups: test group, control group. Conclusions where made of the decrease in moths due to the soot on the trees exposing these moths to their natural predators.

8). How do we distinguish the terms hypothesis, theory, paradigm and scientific fact? Theory is a hypothesis that explains a phenomena a paradigm is a powerful theory that guide extensive research. Scientific fact is a paradigm that can me tested over and over and the conclusion result the same.

9).How do biologists distinguish experimental and evolutionary sciences? Experimental sciences – investigate proximate causes.
Evolutionary sciences – address questions of ultimate cause. How they distinguish would be by going through a scientific method of their findings.
10). What are Darwin’s five theories of evolution (as identified by Ernst Mayr)? Which are accepted as fact and which continue to stir controversy among biologists?
1) Perpetual Change(fact)
2) Common Descent(disputed)
3) Multiplication of Species(disputed)
4) Gradualism(disputed)
5) Natural Selection(chromosomal thoery of inheritance was added due to being disputed)

11). What major obstacle confronted Darwin’s theory of natural selection when it was first proposed? How was this obstacle overcome? Major obstacle confronted Darwin’s theory was Hereditary factors. Mendel’s chromosomal theory of inheritance over came this obstacle by being incorporated into Darwin’s theory creating Neo-Darwinism.

12). How does Neo-Darwinism differ from Darwinism?
Neo-Darwinism differs by incorporating Mendel’s Theory of inheritance.

13). Describe the respective contributions of the genetic approach and cell biology to formulating the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Genetic approach is crossing populations of organisms that are true-breeding for alternative traits that follow through generations. Cell biology helped support the chromosomal theory of inheritance.

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