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Typologies of Government

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– 1.) Research different typologies of government
type of governments based on:
a. Number of executive heads
b. Repository of sovereign power
c. Relationship existing between executive & legislative branch
d. Relationship existing between central & local government

Dictatorship implies rule by an individual who has complete power over the country, where even a small group of people can help in ruling the government. Although there have been several definitions of dictatorship, broadly all the various types and forms of dictatorship tend to exhibit totalitarian characteristics. When the power of the government does not come from the people, it is unlimited and tends to expand their scope of power to control every aspect of people’s lives. (Takes power through coercion or force and has no limit with regards to the scope of their power, military is the main line). (It’s a supreme rule by one person or a group of persons). (Less legitimacy for local government because the power is centralized solely to the dictator.) (Family dictatorship – inheriting power through family ties, Military dictatorship – through military force or coup d’etat. In Latin America, military dictatorships were often ruled by committees known asmilitary juntas. Constitutional dictatorship – dictatorial powers provided for by constitutional means, for emergencies Self-coup – by suspending existing democratic mechanisms after attaining office by constitutional means) Theocracy

This kind of government is when a religious hierarchy of administration is identical to that of the government, where the latter is under the religious ruling administration. It is when a religious body takes over the government, where if a church or a kind of religious group were to govern a nation, it would be termed as ecclesiocracy. They believe in being ruled by the highest authority ‘God’, where they are believed to be functioning under his guided influence. (A theocracy is a country in which the religious leaders are also leaders in the government. The society is run by religious beliefs and dogma.) (Heads: religious leaders or denominations). (In a theocracy, government leaders are members of the clergy (church officials), and the state’s legal system is based on religious law. Rulers are thought to be “divinely guided”) Monarchy

Monarchy implies rule or the power of government in the hands of an individual (king, queen, emperor) who in his hereditary line becomes next in line to take over the throne. (Undivided rule of a single person). Anarchy Rule by a single person (a king or queen), who is the permanent head of state. The term is now used to refer to countries with hereditary rulers. This means that rule is passed down from parent to child. (One ruler gets its power from his/her royal bloodline)(Local governments do exist but the norm is to follow what the monarch wants.) Anarchy

An anarchical nation is where no government rules, and there is a constant fight between groups to obtain power. There is complete disarray and chaos, where no law exists and an authority of any sort is absent. (Often occurs after war, it is a state of disorder). (No head, no government, pure chaos) Communist

A political and economic system in which the government controls all business. Individual people cannot own property or industries and in theory, people of all social classes are treated equally. Communist countries have totalitarian governments. All communists are socialists, but not all socialists are communists. Democracy

“Democracy” literally means “rule by the people.” In a democracy, the people govern – by voting. Two METHODS of Democracy: Direct Democracy, Representative Democracy.(power comes from the people and for the people.)

– 2.) Characteristic features of:
-Authoritarian Government
* Authoritarianism is characterized by highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers. It uses political parties and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime. * Concentration of power in the hands of a few

* Intolerance of opposition
* Press censorship
* Outlawing opposition parties
* Firm control over the legal system
* Prosecution & persecution of political opponents
* Few avenues for ordinary people to change the system

-Dictatorian Government
* Human and civil rights are not recognized or protected
* Civilians cannot choose their leaders
* Civilians cannot influence the decisions the leader makes * There is no sense of equality or the importance of the individual citizen * Right to private property is often severely restricted or abolished * Censorship of the media is frequent

* Dictator often holds the top ranking military post; military is a main focus in a dictatorship.
* No restrictions or opposition for the leader; and protestors are punished harshly

-Totalitarian Government
* Government that aims at total political, social, and economic control
* Subjugation & attempted transformation of society
* Extensive use of violence
* Other characteristics
* Single party merged with state
* “Utopia” gone wrong: official vision of social and political reorganization
* Extensive use of propaganda
* Extensive use of violence as main policy instrument
* Attempt to create a monolithic society Atomization of the individual

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