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The Influence of Media Technology and Information and Communication Technology

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Today it is not sufficient to have knowledge and experience, it is indispensable to be able to share them, to belong to a networked knowledge community and to have skills of lifelong learning in order to exploit all information, competences and skills, learnt from formal, informal and non-formal learning experiences. These continuous changes determine the evolution and innovation of learning process in order to explore a new approach and new tools. However, there are some impacts that could be positive or negative toward the learning of an individual by using this new approach and new tools. Media Technology

-Educational Media is defined as media for learning and teaching or learning software. -In terms of learning “from” technology, it includes the instructional television, computer-based instruction, or integrated learning systems that have been implemented into classrooms -Within this framework, particular media formats (e.g., books and magazines, video media, computer software, and multimedia)

-Educational Media in terms of multimedia generally includes the integration of text, graphics, video, sound, etc. Apart from merging different types of media – interactivity, multitasking (simultaneous execution of multiple processes) and parallelism (based on the parallel media presentation) are all playing an important role.

Information and Communication Technologies
are defined slightly differently on the following sites:
* “Educational technology (also called learning technology) is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources” [1] * “applies to the development, application, and evaluation of systems and techniques for improving the process of human learning * “includes all components of informational technology used in the delivery of educational materials” [3] * “Field of education centered on the design and use of messages and physical support * “the use of scientific principles in designing and implementing programs. (Audiovisual equipment, computers, multimedia presentations, instructional design)” [5] The cited definitions have in common the use of technologies to support the learning process.

The Influence Of Media Technology and Information and Communication Technology in School Settings The Impact of Media and Technology in School Setting

If we look back at prior educational environments before the invention of computers and multimedia technologies, we see there were other types of technologies introduced as instructional tools such as radio, film, and television into classrooms with a certain degree of success (Nathan, & Robinson, 2001). Today, digital technologies have greatly influenced children in the 21st century. Educational experiences have remained consistent even while there have been some significant changes in the modes and models of teaching and learning with the advance of technology, mainly due to the invention of the Internet and the popularity of personal computers. Thus, educators should deliberately “look differently on communicating and educating today’s media-centric youth” (Kenny, 2001, p. 210) and use those technologies to be the instructional supplementary materials that enable pedagogies to be more diversified. Tarlow and Spangler (2001) mainly tried to argue that we, as educators or educational instruction designers, should be sure not to overlook technology tools, but instead, use our critical capabilities to deliberate on the most essential learning objectives that we seek to achieve, and we should apply and estimate high-tech applications in order to achieve those objectives.

I agree that when we, as educators, over-extend new technologies, it does bring with it drawbacks to the educational system. It is my goal for the future to be an instructional designer, in addition to still being a teacher and educator, to be reminded that it is important not to over-emphasize the capacity of media and technology tools, but rather to closely look at the purpose of education and its educational goals. Media and technology can be one type of channel ortoolbox to enhance the learning environment, but I believe that they are not the only solution for achieving our educational goals. McLuhan (1964) proposed the idea that medium is the message and the four-tiered questions to evaluate new technology when we think about applying it: “what does it extend?”; “what does it make obsolete?”; “what is retrieved?” and “what does the technology revert into if it is over-extended?”. I believe that if we seriously rethink those questions before we determine what kind of technology we will use to improveour teaching, it will lead us to a more neutral decision.

Reference: http://www.engagelearning.eu/wiki/doku.php?id=decision_making_tool:educational_media_and_educational_technology http://rafleckt.wordpress.com/2010/04/23/how-media-and-technology-influence-learning/ http://www.ala.org/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/slmrb/editorschoiceb/infopower/selctkozmahtml

Impact of Educational Media (Technologies) in the Teaching-Learning Process The results indicate that the media knowledge of teachers was average, the level and quality of media utilization on the average was meaningful. However, use of more modern technology and media such as computers, video projectors, smart boards, and visualizers were below average.Based on the results, it can be stated that the main objectives of the teachers using the media were to call on students’ attention to educational concepts, improve willingness and collaboration, and to motivate audio/visual cognitive senses. Much less attention was paid to the media’s concept simplification role. Most frequently utilized media and tools by more than 50% of the teachers are: posters, maps, oral explanation, white/black boards, plays, alphabet cards, and educational CDs. It must be added that the educators confronted numerous obstacles in using technology some of which are directly related to the shortcomings of the educational system in general. These problems and their adverse impacts on media utilization are discussed separately.

Impact of information and Communication technology on Learning & Achievement Guiding Questions:
1. How are ICTs actually being used in education?
2. What do we know about the impact of ICTs on student learning? 3.
What do we know about the impact of ICTs on student motivation and engagement for learning? Current knowledgebase
What we know, what we believe — and what we don’t

1. It is generally believed that ICTs can empower teachers and learners, promote change and foster the development of ‘21st century skills, but data to support these beliefs are still limited There is widespread belief that ICTs can and will empower teachers and learners, transforming teaching and learning processes from being highly teacher-dominated to student-centered, and that this transformation will result in increased learning gains for students, creating and allowing for opportunities for learners to develop their creativity, problem-solving abilities, informational reasoning skills, communication skills, and other higher-order thinking skills. However, there are currently very limited, unequivocally compelling data to support this belief. 2. ICTs are very rarely seen as central to the overall learning process Even in the most advanced schools in OECD countries, ICTs are generally not considered central to the teaching and learning process. Many ICT in education initiatives in LDCs seek (at least in their rhetoric) to place ICTs as central to teaching and learning. 3. An enduring problem: putting technology before education One of the enduring difficulties of technology use in education is that educational planners and technology advocates think of the technology first and then investigate the educational applications of this technology only later. Impact on student achievement

1. The positive impact of ICT use in education has not been proven In general, and despite thousands of impact studies, the impact of ICT use on student achievement remains difficult to measure and open to much reasonable debate. 2. Positive impact more likely when linked to pedagogy It is believed that specific uses of ICT can have positive effects on student achievement when ICTs are used appropriately to complement a teacher’s existing pedagogical philosophies. 3. ‘Computer Aided Instruction’ has been seen to slightly improve student performance on multiple choice, standardized testing in some areas Computer Aided (or Assisted) Instruction (CAI), which refers generally to student self-study or tutorials on PCs, has been shown to slightly improve student test scores on some reading and math skills, although whether such improvement correlates to real improvement in student learning is debatable. 4. Need for clear goals

ICTs are seen to be less effective (or ineffective) when the goals for their use are not clear. While such a statement would appear to be self-evident, the specific goals for ICT use in education are, in practice, are often only very broadly or rather loosely defined. 5. There is an important tension between traditional versus ‘new’ pedagogies and standardized testing Traditional, transmission-type pedagogies are seen as more effective in preparation for standardized testing, which tends to measure the results of such teaching practices, than are more ‘constructivist’ pedagogical styles.

6. Mismatch between methods used to measure effects and type of learning promoted In many studies there may be a mismatch between the methods used to measure effects and the nature of the learning promoted by the specific uses of ICT. For example, some studies have looked only for improvements in traditional teaching and learning processes and knowledge mastery instead of looking for new processes and knowledge relatd to the use of ICTs. It may be that more useful analyses of the impact of ICT can only emerge when the methods used to measure achievement and outcomes are more closely related to the learning activities and processes promoted by the use of ICTs. 7. ICTs are used differently in different school subjects Uses of ICTs for simulations and modeling in science and math have been shown to be effective, as have word processing and communication software (e-mail) in the development of student language and communication skills. 8. Access outside of school affects impact

The relationships between in-class student computer use, out of class student computer use and student achievement are unclear. However, students in OECD countries reporting the greatest amount of computer use outside school are seen in some studies to have lower than average achievement (the presumption is that high computer use outside of school is disproportionately devoted to computer gaming). 9. Users believe that ICTs make a positive difference

In studies that rely largely on self-reporting, most users feel that using ICTs make them more effective learners. Impact on student motivation
1. ICTs motivate teachers and students
There appears to be general consensus that both teachers and students feel ICT use greatly contributes to student motivation for learning. 2. Access outside of school affects user confidence (Not surprisingly) Students who use a computer at home also use them in school more frequently and with more confidence than pupils who have no home access. 3. Where to place computers has an impact

Placing computers in classrooms enables much greater use of ICTs for ‘higher order’ skills than placing computers in separate computer laboratories (indeed, fewer computers in classrooms may enable even more use than greater numbers of computers located in separate computer labs). Related to this is an increasing attention given to the use of laptops by both teachers and students (and in some places, ‘computers-on-wheels’), as well as, to a much lesser extent, to the use of personal digital assistants and other mobile devices. 4. Models for successfully integrating ICT use in school and after school hours are still emerging There are few successful models for the integration of student computer use at home or in other ‘informal settings’ outside of school facilities with use in school. 5. The appropriate ages for introducing computers to students are hotly debated On a general level, appropriate ages for student ICT use in general are unclear. However, it is clear that certain uses are more or less appropriate, given student ages and abilities. Emerging research cautions against widespread use at younger ages. 6. ICTs can promote learner autonomy

Evidence exists that use of ICTs can increase learner autonomy for certain learners. 7. Gender affects impact

Uses of ICTs in education in many cases to be affected by the gender of the learner. 8. The ‘pilot effect’ can be an important driver for positive impact Dedicated ICT-related interventions in education that introduce a new tool for teaching and learning may show improvements merely because the efforts surrounding such interventions lead teachers and students to do ‘more’ (potentially diverting energies and resources from other activities).

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