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The first use of the word “computer”

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The first use of the word “computer” was recorded in 1613 in a book called
“The yong mans gleanings” by English writer Richard Braithwait. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations Basically, computer is an electronic device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Typically, a computer consists of a central processing unit (CPU), and memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing (ALU) and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information (CU).

Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. Originally, computer is used to help simple calculation but development in technology rocketed the usage of computers to conduct multiple complicated tasks.In the early age, computer were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries Nowadays, computers are vital every fields. It helps to ease the tasks by doing complicated calculation. For example in military field, computers are used in specialized military application such as decoding military codes, enemy detection and ballistic calculations. In medical field, computer help to improve the health of people by monitor the health of the patients and analyzed the condition of ones.

First account of the computer is proposed by Charles Babbage. Babbage had a vision of mechanical numbers and tables. In the early 19th century, he invented the first mechanical computer designed to help in navigational calculation. In 1833, he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine. The Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit (digital circuit that performs integer arithmetic and logical operations), making it the first design for a general-purpose computer. The first modern analogue computer was a tide-predicting machine invented by Sir William Thompson. In 1941, Konrad Zuse came up with Z3, the world’s first working electromechanical programmable, fully automatic digital computer. It was quite similar to modern machines in some respects, pioneering numerous advances such as floating point numbers.

Replacement of the hard-to-implement decimal system (used in Charles Babbage’s earlier design) by the simpler binary system meant that Zuse’s machines were easier to build and potentially more reliable, given the technologies available at that time. 5 years later, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was constructed by United States Army Research and Development Command.Installed at the University of Pennsylvania, its 40 separate eight-foot-high racks and 18,000 tubes. It was the first electronic general-purpose computer intended to help calculate ballistic trajectories. The development of integrated circuit causes an explosion in the commercial and personal use of computers and led to the invention of the microprocessor.

In 70s, personal computer started to emerge. The Kenbak-1, designed by John V. Blankenbaker, the first personal computer, advertised for $750 in Scientific American. More of pc started to emerge such as Apple I and II, Commodore pet computer and IBM PC Jr. In the year 1981, Microsoft introduces MS-DOS operating system that ease the users to give command. 21st century is known as the golden age of computer as all is depending on computers. Mobile computers start to emerge. With the continued miniaturization of computing resources, and advancements in portable battery life, portable computers grew in popularity in the 1990s.The same developments that spurred the growth of laptop computers and other portable computers allowed manufacturers to integrate computing resources into cellular phones. These smartphones run on a variety of operating systems and are rapidly becoming the dominant computing device on the market.

Computer software also known as computer program is the non-tangible component of computers. Computer software contrasts with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used without the other. Computer software includes all computer programs regardless of their architecture; for example, executable files, libraries and scripts are computer software. Yet, it shares their mutual properties: software consists of clearly defined instructions that upon execution, instructs hardware to perform the tasks for which it is designed. Software is stored in computer memory and cannot be touched, just as a 3D model shown in an illustration cannot be touched.

How does Software functioning?
Software is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language, essentially, a vaguely mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language is converted into object code via an assembler.

Categories of Software
Software is often divided into two categories. Systems software includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. Applications software includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software.

System Software
Application Software
Collection of programs designed to operate, control and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. System software is generally prepared by computer manufactures. Software that are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment. All software prepared by us in the computer lab. Features

Close to system
Fast speed
Difficult to manipulate
Smaller in size
Close to user
Slow in speed
Easy to understand
Easy to manipulate
System control program
System support program
System development program
Word processor
Electronic spreadsheet
Presentation software
Desktop publishing software

Examples of Software
Below is a short list of the different types of software that can be found used widely on all computers today: Antivirus (AVG)
Audio / Music program (iTunes)
Database (Access)
Device drivers
E-mail (Outlook)
Game (World of Warcraft)
Internet browser (Firefox)
Movie player (VLC)

Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system. Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer. There are many different kind of hardware that can be installed inside and connected to the outside of the computer. The hardware can be divided into two which are internal hardware device and external hardware device. The internal hardware parts of computer are often referred to as component. The examples of internal hardware are graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips. The external hardware parts of computer are referred as peripherals. External hardware device include mouse, keyboard, webcam, printer, speaker and scanner. Together they are fall under the category of computer hardware.

Category of Hardware

Hardware can be classified into 4 category :
Input device
Output device
1) Input Device
Input device is the data put into the computer for processing. Common input device are keyboard, pointing device, scanner and source data automation. 2) Output Device
Output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system which converts the electronically generated information into human-readable form. Common input device are monitor, printer, microform, projector, voice output. 3) Processor

Processor is well known as central processing unit (CPU). It is the center of activity in the computer which interprets and executes program instruction. It also communicate with input, output and storage device. 4) Storage

Storage devices are hardware devices that are capable of storing information in a computer. The data storage devices come in several sizes and shapes and some are non-removable while other are removable. Some of the storage devices in a computer include: floppy diskette, CD-ROM disc, CD-R disc, hard disk drive and USB flash drive.

How does the Computer Hardware related to the Medical Science?
Computer hardware is very useful in medical science field. The medical officer such as doctor, pharmacist and dentist use the hardware to observe, measure, interpret and record all the information, data and photocopy of the medical material. For example, a radiographer use an X-ray device (input hardware) to generate X-ray image of a patient. The X-ray device is linked with computer and the image is display at computer screen (output hardware).One of the output hardware that is widely used in medical field is vital sign monitor. It is an output device used by the doctor to display the information about blood pressure, temperature, pulse and pulse oximetry of patient. The storage device is used by the doctor to store and save the patient record, electronic medical report, documents and others.


Computers play a key role in almost each area of life. They ease storage of huge measures of data, they enable instant action of info and they have an inbuilt intelligence. Owing to these specific potentialities, computers work on levels good to that of a human brain. Computers can hence be utilized in a wide form of fields like engineering, data processing and store, planning and programming, networking, education as well as health and medicine. First of all, computers are the brilliant way for store of patient linked data. Big hospitals utilize computer systems to sustain patient records. It is often essential to hold detailed records of the medical history of patients. Doctors oftentimes want the information about a patient’s family history, physical ailments, already diagnosed diseases and prescribed medicinal drugs. This info can be in effect stored in a computer database. Computers can bear on track of prescriptions and billing information.

They can be practiced to store the information about the medicines determined to a patient as well as those, which cannot be prescribed to him/her. Computers enable an capable storage of huge amounts of medical data. Computer software can used for diagnosis of disease. It can be utilized for the examination of internal organs of the physical structure. Advanced computer-based systems are practiced to analyse delicate organs of the body. Some of the complex surgeries can be executed with the aid of computers. The various types of monitoring equipment in hospitals are oftentimes based on computer programming. Computer networking enables brighter communicating. Computers and Internet have showed to be a good in all the areas of life. In the field of medicine, computers provide for quicker communication between a patient and a doctor.

Doctors can collaborate better over the Internet. Nowadays, it is possible to obtain experts’ opinions within seconds by ways of the Internet. Medical professionals sitting on opposite sides of the globe can communicate within minutes by means of the Internet. It is due to computer networking technology that network communication has become smooth. Medical practicians can discuss medical issues in medical forums. They can exchange images and messages in seconds and derive conclusions rapidly. They can seek advice and share knowledge in a favorable way over the Internet. Medical imaging is a extended field that conducts with the techniques to produce images of the human body for medical purposes. Many of the modern methods of scanning and imaging are largely based on the computer technology. We have been able to execute many of the advance medical imaging techniques, thanks to the growings in computer science. Magnetic resonance imaging employs computer software.

Computed tomography makes function of digital geometry processing techniques to get 3-D images. Sophisticated computers and infrared cameras are in use for obtaining high-resolution images. Computers are wide used for the generation of 3-D images in medicine. So, that is all the function of computer in medical field. The usage of computer in medical field give a lot of benefit and also ease all the works. We don’t need more files and writing all over the night to complete the tasks and to settle down the works if we use computer in this field.


1) Virtual Classes
Help medical students in having a class virtually so students can pass notes and assignments easily. 2) Options for the patients
Patients can choose a specialist from any part of the world. They are not limited by geography or extra travelling costs. Another advantage of this technology is that it is more precise and accurate than most human surgeons, so it can increase the likelihood of the patients survival, especially in complicated surgeries like brain surgery. 3) Education

Source of information regarding the medical terms such as various kinds of diseases that needs to be known by doctors and medical students. Internet Surgery makes use of fast Internet connections and robotic tools to perform the actual surgery. The surgeon does not have to be present in the room for this surgery to take place. 4) Increasing accuracy in helping patients

There are so many ways in which computers have directly affected the productivity and accuracy of doctors. One small device that was introduced a few years ago was the handheld computer, or palm pilot. This small, yet very effective device has been a great advancement to doctors. Doctors have been able to use these devices as medical look-ups. By installing a code reference and other medical information, doctors will be able to treat patients a lot more accurately.

5) Storage of information
Patient records are stored on computer databases in the medical field. The medical history of a patient includes physical symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and even family medical history. Details of the medications prescribed are stored together with details of any that cannot be prescribed, such as an allergy to penicillin. Appointments are scheduled using a computer database. Billing information is also stored. Hospitals and surgeries depend on computers for administrative and financial functions.

6) Helps in Security and Alarm and Diagnosis of patients
Hospital monitoring equipment is often based on computer programming. Emergency alarms, bed beeping systems and X-ray machines are all examples of equipment using computer technology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) employ computer software. We can see that MRIs and CT scans are good examples of how computer technology has helped the medical field. High-resolution images are achieved with the use of sophisticated computers and infrared cameras.

7) Communications
Computer networking facilitates fast communication. Doctors on opposite sides of the world can communicate instantly via the internet. Images and messages can be exchanged in seconds and conclusions can be reached speedily.


1) Cost a lot of Money
One of the biggest drawbacks of adding computers to hospitals is the cost. Computers cost money, and a large hospital needs many computers to keep the system running smoothly. Creating a network to transfer medical records or keep track of billing is an additional initial cost. Unlike paper records, which simply require a few more copies, electronic record keeping requires constant upkeep of computers, computer software and other electronic elements, which can cost even more.

2) Security
If your doctor or hospital is switching to computers or electronic record keeping, you’re probably worried about the security of your medical records. Paper records are kept in a doctor’s office or a warehouse, but once computers are added to a hospital, electronic record keeping typically follows. Once electronic record keeping is begun, medical information is usually added to a closed computer network, but as long as an Internet connection comes into the network, the system is vulnerable to outside sources.

3) Lack Standardization
From a hospital point of view, one of the biggest disadvantages of adding computers and electronic records to a hospital is the lack of standardization through the medical field. Different hospitals use different shorthand abbreviations or symbols on medical records than others. Even the codes called out during emergencies don’t always mean the same thing in every hospital. If a medical record is transferred from another hospital or the system becomes open so hospitals can share information, the lack of standardization in hospital notes and records could cause problems when it comes to a medical professional’s understanding of the medical record.

Healthcare Technology Management (also referred to as biomed, biomedical engineering, bio-medical engineering, biomedical equipment management, biomedical equipment services, biomedical maintenance, clinical engineering, clinical engineering management, clinical equipment management, clinical technology management, clinical technology services, medical equipment management, and medical equipment repair), is a fundamental part of managing, maintaining, and/or designing medical devices used or proposed for use in various healthcare settings from the home, the field, the doctor’s office, and the hospital. It includes the business processes used in interaction and oversight of the medical equipment involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients. There are few policies that medical practitioners should implement in using the computed medical equipment:

1. Equipment Control & Asset Management
2. Equipment Inventories
3. Work Order Management
4. Data Quality Management
5. Equipment Maintenance Management
6. Equipment Maintenance
7. Personnel Management
8. Quality Assurance
9. Patient Safety
10. Risk Management
11. Hospital Safety Programs
12. Radiation Safety
13. Medical Gas Systems
14. In-Service Education & Training
15. Accident Investigation
16. Analysis of Failures, Root-Causes, and Human Factors
17. Safe Medical Devices Act (SMDA) of 1990

1) Work Order Management
Work order management involves systematic, measurable, and traceable methods to all acceptance/initial inspections, preventive maintenance, and calibrations, or repairs by generating scheduled and unscheduled work orders. Work order management may be paper-based or computer-base and includes the maintenance of active (open or uncompleted) and completed work orders which provide a comprehensive maintenance history of all medical equipment devices used in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients. Work order management includes all safety, preventive, calibration, test, and repair services performed on all such medical devices. Work orders must be tracked on regular intervals and all discrepancies must be corrected.

2) Personnel Management
Using computed medical device covers a crucial area to the daily work activities. Biomedical managers must be able to correctly assign staffs for the right job. To assign a team leader/veteran to lead staff that might not have as much experience is a wise decision. A data timesheet is important to be used to process performance information about individual staff/ team members. 3) Patient safety

Safety of the patients/staff is paramount to the success of our organizations mission. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations publishes annual lists detailing “National Patient Safety Goals” to be implemented by healthcare organizations. Goals are developed by experts in patient safety nurses, physicians, pharmacists, risk managers, and other professionals with patient-safety experience in a variety of settings. Patient safety is among the most important goals of every healthcare provider, and participation in a variety of committees and processes concerned with patient safety provides a way for biomedical managers and clinical engineering departments to gain visibility and positively affect their workplace. 4) Risk Management

This program helps the medical treatment facility avoid the likelihood of equipment- related risks, minimize liability of mishaps and incidents, and stay compliant with regulatory reporting requirements. The best practice is to use a rating system for every equipment type. For example, a risk-rating system might rate defibrillators as considered high risk, general-purpose infusion pumps as medium risk, electronic thermometers as low risk, and otoscopes as no significant risk. This system could be set up using Microsoft Excel or Access program for a manager’s or technicians quick reference. In addition, user error, equipment abuse, no problem/fault found occurrences must be tracked to assist risk management personnel in determining whether additional clinical staff training must be performed.

5) Duties and responsibilities For Bio- Medical Engineer
These people need to be expert or be able to conduct these followings job scopes in order to prevent any misconducting of computed medical devices. • design and develop medical devices such as artificial hearts and kidneys, pacemakers, artificial hips, surgical lasers, automated patient monitors and blood chemistry sensors. • design and develop engineered therapies (for example, neural-integrative prostheses). • adapt computer hardware or software for medical science or health care applications (for example, develop expert systems that assist in diagnosing diseases, medical imaging systems, models of different aspects of human physiology or medical data management). • conduct research to test and modify known theories and develop new theories. • ensure the safety of equipment used for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. • investigate medical equipment failures and provide advice about the purchase and installation of new equipment. • contribute to patient assessments. • prepare and present reports for health professionals and the public. • supervise and train technologists and technicians.


Based on what our group can conclude is, computers have a lot of advantages rather than being a credit in the medical field. The computers have been helping the medical field in so much ways. This helps to ease the management in the hospitals and clinics and also computers have been helping the medical officers to sort and appoint all of the patients without so much work done.

Computers can also have its disadvantages but with correct precautions and knows how to use the computers properly, these disadvantages can be avoided. What we can conclude is, computers are very important regardless in what fields computers are used. Without computers, all of our works cannot be done due its time and need a lot of work to be done.

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_equipment_management 2. http://www.wisegeek.org/what-are-the-disadvantages-of-electronic-medical-records.htm 3. 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_hardware

5. http://www.techterms.com/definition/hardware
6. 7. http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/s/software.htm

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