The Effects of Study Habits on Academic Performance
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This study identifies whether study habits bring positive or negative effects to the academic performance of students. This study gives sufficient information on which study habits bring high General Percentage Average of students.
The extent of student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out predicting grades. It has been interplay of so many factors – gender, IQ, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are variables of academic performance. However, at this point in time, the researchers would like to investigate the possible relationship of study habits and the factors affecting it to the academic achievement of undergraduate Accountancy students of La Salle University. The investigation on this area thus becomes a real and compelling motivation for the researchers to conduct this study.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Figure 1 Show the conceptual framework of the study.
Figure 2 & 3 Operational Framework
Review of Related Literature
According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008), they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not be cramped. They presuppose that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair is usually best. “Don’t get too comfortable–a bed is a place to sleep, not to study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand (book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder, etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to spend on time jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distracting noise should be minimized however they said that there are some people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must find what works for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. Consider a “do not disturb” sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits according to the PBBC.
Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true today–students fail because they do not know how to study .The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study environment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere. That means he/she should eliminate all external and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of the assignment before starting the work. Know what skills, facts and ideas that are expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with most difficult subject first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and know what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956). Studying is the interpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly important for college students, whose needs include time management, note taking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high priority to study.
Marcus Credé and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) in their research at the University of Albany said that Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. The meta-analysis examined the construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college students. They found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely independent of both high school grades and scores on standardized admissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs; these results were inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. They also said that Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown.
Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the popular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improve prediction of academic performance more than any other noncognitive individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third pillar of academic success. According to the how-to-study.com (2009), students who are very successful in their desired career have good study habits. It is stated in the website that students apply these habits to all of their classes. The website also recommends some tips in improving study habits. The website also suggests that the student should try not to study all the subjects in just a period. The website also added that if you try to do too much studying at one time, you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. Space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time.
Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy. A study conducted by University of Kentucky was to determine if the college success can be improved with the Student Attitude Inventory (SAI). The inventory was developed in Britain and contains 47 items which attempt to identify students in higher education on the basis of: (1) motivation, (2) study methods, (3) examination technique, and (4) lack of distractions toward academic work. Students in six Kentucky community colleges were asked to express their attitudes toward study habits on the Student Attitude Inventory. There were 996 students in the sample population (413 males and 583 females). A measure of ability (composite American College Test score) and academic performance (cumula grade-point average) were obtained for each student sampled. The Student Attitude Inventory did contribute a statistically significant amount of variance beyond an ability measure for males and females. ( Mark E. Thompson, 2005)
According to Mark Crilly (2000), Successful students are able to balance social activities with good study habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with a new acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he do study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so.” Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said.
Statement of the Problem
This study is intended to find out the study habits of 2nd yr. Accountancy students enrolled in summer as a factor of their academic performance. It also aimed to answer the following questions:
1) What is the profile of the respondents according to:
1.1 Time management
2) Did the independent variables significantly influence students’ academic performance?
Based on the three specific problems which are of concern of this research, problem 1 is hypothesis-free. For problems 2 and 3, however, the following null hypotheses were stated. Ho1: The independent variable does not significantly influence the study habits. Ho2: Time management, environment and GPA do not have a significant influence on study habits
. Significance of the Study
The researchers believe that students, particularly the 2nd year Accountancy of La Salle University will be benefited from the findings of this understanding of how their current study habits affects their academic performance. Likewise, it gives them a more focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviors related to their studies influenced study habits. Consequently, this awareness also gives a much deeper understanding of their selves as students considering that the college life is typically overwhelmed of developmental adjustment demands. Teachers, will also be helped in understanding better the variety of learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could create more effective methods in teaching their subjects to help students perform better in their academics. Future Researchers, they may be able to use the result of the study in further research similar to what the study is.
. Scope and Limitations
The scope of this research is the 2nd year Accountancy students here in La Salle University. The limitations of this research are only those students that are currently enrolled in summer. The study focuses on the factors affecting study habits, influencing the academic performance of the student. In this view, the researchers wanted to study the effects of study habits to the academic performance.
. Research Methodology
1. The Research Design
The study will use the survey questionnaire in its attempt to determine, describe and analyze relationships between time management, environment, and GPA.
2. Samplings and Respondents
Second year Accountancy students who are enrolled in summer at La Salle University will be the sample size of the study. The sample population is 48 students. Block sampling method will be used.
3. Research Settings
The study will be conducted inside the campus of La Salle University, Ozamiz City.
4. Data Gathering
The researchers ask the list of the names of 2nd year Accountancy students from the Registrar’s office. Then, the researchers approached the students in the list and are given survey questionnaires to be answered.
5. Instrument Use
A questionnaire composed of 7 questions is used to measure study habits and know the GPA of Accountancy student.
. Results and Discussions
With 5 respondents, students having a general percentage average ranging from 76-80 mostly practice studying days or nights before and study at night (9pm-12am) or late night (12am-6am). 100% of these students study at an average of 1-4 hours. Also, most of these students prefer to write outlines while studying and study in their respective bedrooms. Lastly, they prefer to study with silence. With 14 respondents, students having a general percentage average ranging from 81-85, 50% practice night before and study at evening (6pm-9pm). 64% of these students study at an average of 1-4 hours. Also, most of these students prefer to write outlines or repeat points out loud while studying and study in their respective bedrooms. Lastly, they prefer to study with silence.
With 22 respondents, students having a general percentage average ranging from 86-90, 45% practice studying days before and study in the evening (6pm-9pm). 59% of these students study at an average of 1-4 hours. Also, most of these students prefer to repeat points out loud while studying and study in their respective bedrooms. Lastly, they prefer to study with silence. With 7 respondents, students having a general percentage average ranging from 91-95 mostly (71%) practice studying days before and study at late night (12am-6am). 57% of these students study at an average of 1-4 hours. Also, most of these students prefer to highlight texts while studying and study in their respective bedrooms. Lastly, they prefer to study with silence. Based on the research conducted, the independent variable significantly influenced students’ academic performance. It is clearly shown in the differences of the study habits and General Percentage Average. Students with different study habits have different ranges in their GPA.
Conclusion and Recommendation
In conclusion, students having different ranges of general percentage average have different study habits. Though they have some similarities, they have differences that help vary the GPA. Also, we proved through this research that study habits, in one way or another, affects the GPA of students. The researchers recommends, based on the research, that first, for students to help attain high GPA they could practice, studying days before (2-5 days) and study late night (12am-6pm). Also, highlighting text and studying in their respective bedrooms with silence gives better results.
1. “The Prediction of Academic Achievement by The British Study Habits Iinventory”, Mark E. Thompson,2005: February 16, 2009(http://www.springerlink.com/content/w3715h5884172656/)