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Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools

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1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19. 1.2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and why the difference is important.

Some aspects of development follow a definite sequence, for instance babies learn to lift their heads before they can sit up alone but the rate at what they do it at will vary between each child. Some babies will sit up unsupported at 8 months while others may take a few months longer. Again a baby’s physical development may begin with rolling over then sitting up, then to crawl, walk, run. Another may sit up, walk, run and completely miss out rolling over & crawling. However, it may take one child 10 months to walk and it may take another 16 months. Therefore, while children follow the same development, the age at what they reach certain stages may differ. Milestones of development are given as a guideline so that when a child reaches a certain age, most should have reached the particular milestones.

2.1 Explain how children and young peoples development is influenced by a range of personal factors.
There are many personal factors that can affect a young persons development. They could have a mental health problem like ADHD or Autism. For a young person who has ADHD their development will be affected as they can be distracted easily, have lack of concentration or act without thinking. This can lead to difficulty in making friends and forming relationships. To a young child who is between the age of 5-8 they may think that this child is simply being naughty and will not understand that they actually have a disorder therefore they may turn against them and not play with them. Also, as they have difficulty focussing attention they may get distracted easily during a lesson and not take in what they are being taught leading to their school work being affected. 2.2 Explain how children and young peoples development is influenced by a range of external factors.

There are many external factors that can affect a young persons development such as the young person could have a language barrier, so English may not be their first language. Or their home circumstances could also be an issue and they could be a looked after child. Children need a loving and supportive home for them to develop, if a child is a looked after child they will have less opportunity to make positive relationships with key figures. They are more vulnerable, having already experienced the negative experience of being separated from their birth family. This can affect their ability to relate to others and can lead onto communication and behaviour difficulties which may involve showing emotions aggressively or could also cause withdrawal and isolation. 2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.

There are many different theories of development that help us to understand children’s behaviour and ways of learning. All equally important as they influence practice. One is Piaget’s cognitive theories, he believed that children are active agents of their own learning. He looked at the way in which children seem to be able to make sense of their world as a result of their experiences and how they are active learners. He suggests that as children develop so does their thinking. Pia get’s work has influenced early years settings into providing more hands on and relevant tasks for children and young people. In other words the children are ‘learning through play’. Teachers are working out the needs of children and plan activities accordingly. There are three basic components to Piaget’s theory


Adaption processes that enable transition from one stage to another (assimilation and accommodation)

Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools

Stages od development

Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired. A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed. For newborn babies the grasping reflex which is elicited when something touches the palm of a baby’s hand, or the rooting reflex, in which a baby will turn its head towards something which touches its cheek, were assumed to result operations: for example shaking a rattle would be the combination of two schemas, grasping and shaking.

3.1 Explain how to monitor children and young peoples development using different methods. Observation, assessment and planning all support children’s development and learning. Planning starts with observing children in order to understand and their current interests, development and way of learning. We must observe the children in our care, listen to them and taking note of what we see and hear. We assess children’s progress by analysing our observations and assessing work. We can identify the children’s requirements, interests, current development and learning. We plan for the next steps in children’s development and learning. Much of this needs to be done on the basis of what we have found out from our own observations and assessments as well as information from parents.

A method of recording child observations is a narrative account. A written description of children’s actions as they are happening. The observer will record everything seen and in as much detail as possible – verbal, facial expressions, head and eye movements and how the child uses objects such as toys or play materials. The benefits of this is it is very detailed, it focuses on several behaviours not just one therefore more that one area of development is observed and assessed. Another way of monitoring children’s development is by speaking to parents and carers on a daily basis but also at Parents Evenings and having a positive relationship with them. Working together with parents and carers enables us all to help develop the child. Giving the parents a summative assessment enables us to see how that child has developed over a length of time. 3.2 Explain the reasons why children and young peoples development may not follow the expected pattern.

There are many reasons why children may not follow the expected pattern of development. Children with a disability, either physical or mental, will find it harder to learn than other children of the same age, and may need support, such as a different way of teaching like intervention – help from a qualified specialist, or use of certain specialised or adapted equipment, such as a computer or writing desk.

If a child is physically limited through disability, this could prevent them reaching certain physical milestones, such as being able to walk, run, catch a ball, or jump when others of their own age can.

Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools
A child’s environment – physical, social and cultural – can play a large part in all aspects of their development. The family environment is very important in the development of a child and if less than ideal, can have a negative effect on their development. For example, if parents are inattentive, have financial problems or neglect the child, this could impact on their social and emotional development, result in malnutrition and then impact on their physical development and affect their intellectual and language development through lack of proper communication. Everyday things like heating and food can also have an affect on a child’s development. For example, if a home does not have proper heating and has dampness, it may cause illness to child, like a respiratory illness such as bronchitis or eczema. Also parents having low income tend to live in poor area with not enough space to live. Such parents may also have stress in their life and they cannot promote a better development in children.

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