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Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme

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Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a skill training programme designed to expose and prepare students of institution of higher learning for the industrial work situations they are likely to meet after graduation. The scheme was designed to expose students to industrial environment and enable them develop occupational competencies so that they can readily contribute their quota to national economic and technological development after graduation. The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) was established by the industrial Training Fund in (ITF) 1973 to enable students of tertiary institution have basic technical knowledge of industrial works base on their course of study before the completion of their program in their respective institutions and also to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skills in preparation for employment in industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institutions. The major background behind the embarkment of students in SIWES was to expose them to the industrial environment and enable them develop occupational competencies so that they can readily contribute their quota to national economic and technological development after graduation. 1.1OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

According to Federal Government in its Gazette of April 1978, the objectives of the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) are to: * To extend the knowledge of student and widing their interests as well as to improve their technical skills. * Provide students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge in real work situation thereby bridging the gap between theory and practice; and * Provide students the opportunity to relate what have been taught in the class with the actual knowledge obtainable in the field. * Provide an avenue for students in institutions of higher learning to acquire industrial skills and experience in their course of study, which are restricted to Engineering and Technology including Environmental studies and other courses that may be approved. * Prepare students for the industrial work situation they are to meet after graduation; * Make the transition from school to the world of work easier, and enhance students contacts for later job placement; * Expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in their institutions. * Enlist and strengthen employers, involvement in the entire educational process and prepare students for employment in Industry and Commerce. 1.2ITF MISSION STATEMENT

ITF was established in 1971, the Industrial Training Fund has operated consistently and painstakingly within the context of its enabling laws (Akerejola, 2006) i.e. Decree 47 of 1971. The objective for which the Fund was established has been pursued vigorously and efficaciously. In the three decades of its existence, the ITF has not only raised training consciousness in the economy, but has also helped in generating a corps of skilled indigenous manpower which has been manning and managing various sectors of the national economy. The Mission Statement of ITF goes to all the students who participated in the SIWES programme to set and Control Standards of excellence and effectiveness in and offer direct training of professionals technicians, technologists and entrepreneurs to meet the human resources needed for rapid industrial nation and sustainable economic development of Nigeria. 1.3HISTORY OF ITF

The ITF was established by Decree now an act number 47 0f 6th october,1971, to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills in commerce and industry with a view to generating a pool of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the needs of the economy. This she has successfully being doing for the past 27yrs.The staffs of ITF are fully committed to their duties towards the fulfillment of the mandate. The beehive of activities is also prominent in the 27 Area Offices and 3 skills centers spread across the country where employers of labour and students are engaged in training activities and other programmes of the Fund. 1.4DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT

Fumman Farms Nigeria Limited, an organization under Fumman Company of Nigeria was founded in 1994. Since it is not yet in factory productivity, NAFDAC team is not yet invited to the farm for inspection. The farm is located at Orile – Osupa, Ojutaye, along Ajaawa road, Ogbomoso.

The establishment has a few structures which include a factory, General Toilet, Generating House, Pumping House, and a Security House situated at the main entrance of the farm.
Although, the organization has a factory but till the time I left the place, facilities to be used in the factory are just being brought. Meanwhile, a pumping machine with high efficiency is installed along with numerous clean tanks all around the farm site.

Since the factory is not yet productive, the produce from the farm although very many, but they are transported via road network to the processing branch of the company situated at Apata, Ibadan. The farm produce are majorly fruits such as Passion fruits, Grapes, Citrus etc. and so the experience is based only on the productivity of the fruits in relation to the use of tractor in performing different farm operation i.e. Agricultural Mechanization.

The establishment is owned by one person i.e. it is a private organization but it contains many workers including manual labourers and the technicians along with tractor operators. Every workers work everyday of the week except on Saturdays and Sundays.

The farm being very large about 500 hectares of land is separated from other boundaries of land by malaina trees planted around the farm layout. As a student on work industrial experience scheme, I was opportune to work only at the tractor department.
Figure (1.1) shows the Organization Chart of the establishment




Fig 1.1 Organization Chart of the Establishment

In this chapter, I extensively discussed the experience I acquired in the tractor department within the period of my industrial training in the farm. 2.1VARIOUS DEPARTMENT OF THE COMPANY

There are various departments in the farm such as;
* Irrigation department
* Electrification department
* Tractor department
* Technical department
I am able to work only at the Tractor department.
Much is done in this department. This department involves the maintenance of the tractor and the use of tractor in farm operation also known as Agricultural Mechanization.

Agricultural mechanization can be explained to be the reduction or complete substitution of human labour with the use of tractor and implements in the production process with the sole aim of increasing productivity per man.

It can be simply be explained as the use of machinery on the farm for crop production and related activities.
Some of the benefits we derived from using the tractor are; -It reduce demand for labour;
-It improves quality and quantity of farm produce
-It increase efficiency
-It reduce drudgery associated with manual labour
-It save time
The major areas or operations that are carried out using the tractor are; 1. Bush Clearing
2. Land Preparation (Tillage)
3. Post Land preparation
Bush clearing: – The clearing of bush is done with the help of an implement referred to as Disc plough ploughing to a depth of about 20cm of soil alongside with an implement known as the Slasher. The Slasher in operation is shown in fig 2.1 being attached to the tractor.

Fig 2.1 Slasher in operation attached to the tractor
Land Preparation (Tillage): – It is plying of soil in order to get a good seed bed for crop production. Land preparation includes the following operations – ploughing, harrowing and ridging. Each operation is undertaken with an appropriate Farm implement powered by the Tractor. Post Land Preparation: – Post Land Preparations are operations undertaken after land operation. The post land operations carried out using the tractor is the chemical spraying although there are other operations. The Chemical Spraying is undertaken with boom sprayer (of 8–24 nozzles) The boom sprayer is attached to the rear axle of the tractor and is lifted using the hydraulic lift system of the tractor. The tank of the sprayer has about 600 litters capacity. The pesticide is poured into the tank and there is a form of rotating movement which helps to mix the clean water in the tank with the pesticide. The frames containing the nozzles are dissembled so that it can cover a wide area of land while the tractor is on motion (fig 2.3).

Fig 2.2 A boom sprayer coupled to the rear axle of the tractor

Fig 2.3 A boom sprayer in operation
The tractor is a type that generally has rubber – type at the front and rear (fig 2.4). They have been specially developed to carry out the many operations demanded by farming. In addition, it have provision for the mounting of implements and machines on them, called the three – point linkage system (fig 2.5).

Fig 2.4 The tractor during operation

Fig 2.5 The three point linkage system of the tractor
The tractor is also equipped with a hydraulic system for the lowering and lifting of mounted implements (fig 2.6). Thus offers many advantages, but the outstanding ones are the case with which implement can be carried from one field to the other or across roads, and the fact that turning at the end of the field can be done more quickly.

Fig 2.6 The hydraulic lift system of the tractor
For the mounting of larger implements, large links and pins called category II types are used while smaller links and pins for the smaller tractor are a live or independent power – take – off (PTO) shaft (fig 2.7) whose normal operating speed is 540 or 1000rpm for driving implements.

Fig 2.7 The Power Take Off (PTO) Shaft of the tractor
The tractor being the backbone of most operations carried out on the farm, it has to be maintained so that its life span can be prolonged.
Preventive and Repair maintenance are performed on the tractor before, during and after operation. We did this to avoid total breaking down of the tractor because the tractor is the only tractor we are having in the farm. The preventive maintenance is undertaken periodically that’s Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly, and as required.

The breakdown of the tractor costs us:
* Disappointment, embarrassment and inconveniences
* Delay or loss of operational time
* Unexpected expenses
* Emotional distress/ frustration
* Loss of production
* Inability to meet the set – target etc
2a. b. c.| Cleaner filter – pre cleaningCleaning Primary air filter oil bathCleaning secondary air filter| *********| | 3.| Checking tyre pressure| ***| |
4.| Checking battery poles and terminals| | ***|
5.| Checking clutch and rod free travel| | ***|
6.| Checking P. T. O Clutch handle free travel| | ***| All these maintenance are aimed at ensuring prolonged service life of the engine as well as reducing the frequency of tractor breakdown.

The repair maintenance is perform on the tractor to replace the worn out parts of the tractor to avoid total breaking down of the tractor. 2.1.5MAINTENANCE OF THE TRACTOR IMPLEMENT
In the department, we are able to attach some implement to the tractor through its point of attachments. The following implements are the major ones that are used in the farm;-Plough * Harrow

* Ridger
* Plough: – It is used to undertake ploughing (Primary Tillage); for churning the soil, to disturb the growth of weeds, to check erosion, to allow aeration and facilitate consequent operations. The plough is set to a certain depth aimed at loosening the topsoil (15 – 25cm) to promote aeration and infiltration of water. I am able to work with only the disc plough (fig 2.8). I was told that the disc plough performs better than the mould board plough type on hard dry soil and sticky soils. This is because it pushes into the soil by its weight rather than by suction as in the case of the mould plough; even additional weights are put on the frame to aid penetration when there is a need.

Fig 2.8 Disc plough
* Harrow: – It is used to undertake harrowing (secondary tillage); for goods seed beds, proper aeration and also to facilitate mechanical planting and spraying. Several gangs are mounted in different arrangement to make a disc harrow (fig 2.9). Here, the angle of individual disc is fixed but the angle of the gang may be adjusted in direction of travel.

Fig 2.9 The Disc Harrow attached to the tractor
* Ridger: – It is coupled to the tractor to undertake ridging (secondary tillage) to control soil erosion. And since the farm entails only in fruits, the ridger is used for making ridges only.

Fig 2.10 The Disc ridger
As you can see, the farm implements are very useful in doing day – to – day farm operations and so they need to be maintained. TABLE 2.2:INFORMATION
Operation| Required implement| Fuel requirement (field operation only litre/hectare| Effective duration per hectare (min)| Slashing| Slasher| 20 – 30| 100 – 120|
Ploughing| Plough| 20 – 35| 120 – 150|
Harrowing| Harrow| 15 – 20| 80 – 120|
Chemical Spraying| Boom – sprayer| 10 – 15| 60 – 90| N.B: Depending on condition of the functioning tractor, condition of the land and the expertise of the operator. The following are the maintenance strategy for the farm implements. 1. We check daily, the conditions and tightness of pins, bolts, nuts and screws. 2. Lubrication of farm implements.

* We lubricate the implements at intervals especially to protect and conserve it. * We clean all grease nipples and replace damaged ones before embarking on any operation. * We carefully lubricate all grease points using quality grease only, avoiding contamination with earth, water, dust etc. It is recommended to change the oil after 1200 hours of operation. 3. We clean the farm implements.

* If the implement will not be used for a longer period (e.g off season), we give the whole implement a general cleaning and paint before storing it away. You also spray with protective oil. * We clean the implement during the wet season regularly to remove clogged of soil and dirts. 4. Application of Pesticides using the sprayer

* We calibrate the sprayer when a pesticide needs to be applied at an accurate dosage in order to avoid applying too much which wastes money and might injure the crop or to avoid applying too little which might make the product ineffective. Figure 2.11 shows the isometric drawing and figure 2.12 the engineering drawing of the crankshaft.

Fig 2.11Isometric drawing of the tractor used on the farm
Fig 2.12The Engineering drawing of the crankshaft of the tractor CHAPTER THREE
There is no how knowledge with experience is acquired without going through difficult task. On the farm, we are faced with so many challenges as a whole and also as an individual it can’t be left out. * Low or No power supply of electricity

In the course of using the boom sprayer on the farm, the tank has to be filled with about 600 liters of clean cool water which has to be pumped with the help of the pumping machine. The pumping machine will not work without the power supply and very low voltage. And to pump the water, there is need for powering ON of the generator thereby consuming more fuel which should have been use for other farm operations. * Bad road network

The road network linking the farm with other neighboring towns and cities is very bad; this makes it very difficult for the vehicle while transporting the farm produce from the farm. A good road network should be provided so that their will be free movement of the vehicle transporting the farm produce. * Dam leakages

The Dam that was constructed is leaking out water which is very dangerous to the farm. The water enclosed is finding a way to gets out and in so doing, the rate at which the water level in the dam is decreasing is very fast even when the rate of evaporation is very low. The water in the dam should be properly enclosed with a stronger engineering material such as concrete etc. This will prevent the water from leaking away from the dam. * Action of rodents

Many fruits are destroyed by the action of bush rats and grasshopper; the oranges are been bored by some insects which later in the day destroy the orange. So far, the only preventive measure been provided is the placing of small bottles (fig 3.1) containing a form of chemical that attracts those insects around the affected trees. Moreso, the bush rats as well as the grasshopper are been hunted down when ploughing the farm.

Fig 3.1 Chemical Trapping Bottle
* Weed growing rate is very high
Weed growing rate is very high due to the carelessness of some of the worker. It happens when the user did not wash away the remains of the fertilizer in the knapsack sprayer before putting in the pesticide. Those weeds that falls into the part to which the kind of chemical is sprayed to grow at a faster rate. The sprayer should be thoroughly washed with cool clean water after each use. This will prevent further application of such chemicals on weeds thereby reducing the rate at which they grow. * High fuel consumption of the tractor

The tractor used in farm operation consumed more fuel than normal. This is so because the tractor is now very old and it has been the only one used throughout the farm. There is need for another tractor to be bought so that the farm operations can be shared between the two tractors. * Absence of first aid

There is nothing like first aid in the farm which shouldn’t be. Any injury sustained in the farm is not treated until we get to the town. Whenever you work and gets tired, taking of drugs is necessary but since there is no first aid box in the farm, own your own you be. There should be provision of adequate first aid for the workers so that the work efficient of such person will not decline. * Absence of meteorological station

Absence of the meteorological station makes it impossible for us to known the temperature and the amount of rainfall that fell and so affects the level of irrigation to the crops. If the amount of rainfall is known, their would not be any excess runoff resulting from the application of water through the irrigation system since the amount of water to be added would have been known. * Action of thieves

Since the farm is very large, thieves come into the farm either during the day or at night to steal some of the farm produce. Although, there is provision of night guards but they are not capable of watching about 500 acres of land at a time. * Presence of bees and insects

There is presence of bees in some parts of the land area and so few operations can only be carried out there. They stings and left the body swollen. The part of land areas with bees should be made an apiary where bee keeping can also be some form of production of honey, treating of wounds and also serves as a minor source of income.

Apart from the mentioned challenges; as an individual, I face the challenges of adapting to the farm site because of its large area and its far distance to the town. Also, there is free blowing of air there and so there is need for me to be putting on thick cloth anytime am in the farm.

Moreso, we are resuming too early. At first, it doesn’t seem okay with me but as time goes on the challenges become a step stone for me.

The students industrial Training Experience Scheme has provided a training ground where skills relating to assembling computer from its individual component as well as maintenance of the computer facilities. I acquired some skills about Industrial Management which is very vital to industries. Likewise, I realised that, my communication skill also improved significantly during the SIWES period. This has gone a long way in equipping me in merging what has been learnt in the class room environment to what was actually learnt on the farm.

The successful completion of this scheme has in many ways contributed to my knowledge and has sharpened my skill and expertise in this fascinating field of Agricultural Engineering. Agricultural Tractor has been the major source of farm power in any Agricultural organization and so it needs to be maintained and repair to prevent production down time and also to reduce demand for labour. Moreso, it helps to improve quality and quantity of farm produce and thereby improving the standard of living of people both in urban and in rural areas.

To end this, it does suffice to say that the aims and objectives of this scheme have been met in the course of my six months in the areas of agricultural mechanization.

The following recommendations are given due to the challenges encountered during the scheme:
The company should purchase machines to be used in the factory so that their will not be any form of transporting the produce to the agro processing industry of the company situated at a very far distance to the farm.

Moreso, the farm should employ more specialist and workers to reduce the stress of the work. Students are most times faced with the problem of placement. I would like to suggest that students should be given the opportunity to secure wherever they wish to undergo their training before the end of the academic session as SIWES training starts immediately after the session. While collaboration with ITF and head of department should take place so as to tackle this problem being encountered by students. To my fellow undergraduate, I recommend that the quest for the knowledge should be placed far above monetary considerations so that the aims and objectives of the scheme can be fully realized.


* Agricultural Machinery booklets (2012) from the supervisor, Fumman * Encyclopedia
* Fraser, F. And Burrill (1999). Knap sack Sprayers: Use maintenance, accessories 31p * Kepner et al (1998): Principles of farm machinery
* Ojo, O. A. Adebayo, T. A. And Babarinde, S. O. (2004): Principles of Agricultural Maintenance, Nigeria 84p * Proceeding, Meeting of Agricultural Engineers, Ahmadu Bello University, (1999)

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