Social Organized Crime Perspective
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Social Institution is defined as an organizational system which functions to satisfy basic social needs by providing an ordered framework linking the individuals to the larger culture. This paper will provide more information as to how social institutions apply to organized crime, also which empirical and speculative theories are most applicable when applied to organized crime and criminal behavior. Organized crime within our social institution would exist because a small amount of the people who living within our society would willingly choose not to agree to abide by rules, regulations, morals, and laws both written and unwritten. Organized crime exists because and could be applied to our social institution. When we consider theories that are most applicable to the idea of a social institution and how they may apply to organized crime or criminal behavior in generally it is important to consider at least two theories.
The Rational Choice Theory and the Theory of Differential Association are two theories that attempt to allow us to gain insight as to how social institution can not only be responsible for creating organized crime but also allude to criminal behaviors and allow us to see how individuals can come to a decision to choose their live their life in this fashion. Rational theory believes organized crime groups can make rational decisions when pertaining to crime and the groups know right from wrong and possess free will. The rational theory believes in harsher penalty and quicker approach when it comes with dealing with criminals. The rational theory offenders discover that committing a crime was not worth it. Rational theory considered that offenders who commit a crime do so after taking chances, and punishment for the crime as well as gift for committing a crime. Some theorist believes that crime can be slowed down by deterrents. General deterrence state: that crime can be defeated by punishment.
For example, if people fear jail they will not commit a crime. Capital punishment is another example of general deterrence because some people fear death. Another theory is special deterrence theory suggest that punishment for criminal acts should be quickly severe that convicted criminals will never repeat their acts. The main personality identified in organized crime is sociopathic personality occurs when a person is aggressive, is not deter from crime, no remorse is shown, and do not learn from past mistakes. Sociopaths have a calm personality and a high intelligence level. Psychopaths are antisocial people who always are in trouble, profiting from neither experience nor punishment, and emotional immaturity, with lack of responsibility and judgment. Studies have shown that criminal who are in jail make up a wide population of the antisocial personality.
Another personality characteristics is the over controlled aspects of their own personalities. People who fall into this category are not able to control their frustrations, anger, and hostile attitude. Every time a person is involved in a stressful situation the emotions increases (Lyman 2007). Empirical studies produce information about business of organized crime. The first one “according to the author that groups engaged in criminal enterprise are loosely structured, highly adaptable, and flexible. These businesses respond readily to the growth or the decline of a market for a particular illicit good or service, and manufacturer. For example, when cocaine became a drug of choice Coca – Cola begins to put cocaine in their products.
Empirical evidences produce the pattern of connection in organized crime by network and partnership.” In conclusion, the empirical and speculative theories discussed throughout this paper, such as social control, differential association can assist researchers, society professional, and law enforcement with understanding the element that exist in different criminal organization and criminal behavior. Each theory is supported by research, statistics, strong argument, and facts that can be used by law enforcement in numerous ways. Theories as such display characteristics and mannerisms common in criminal behavior, along with what geographical location are susceptible to the development of criminal organizations and activity.
Lymad, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized crime. Retrieved May 24, 2014
from River, NJ: Pearson / Prentice Hall. Jenkins, O (2001). Social institutions. Retrieved May 24, 2014 from Google http://orvillejenkins.com /whatisculture/socinstitutcul.html