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Role of Financial Intermediaries

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   The role of financial intermediaries is to channel funds to borrowers and firms that need money to implement major and viable projects like restructuring. There are different types of financial intermediaries and each play a different role. There are two types of financial intermediaries namely: Fee-based or Advisory Financial Intermediaries and Asset Based Financial Intermediaries.

    Financial intermediaries can be banks, credit unions, mutual funds, pension schemes, life insurance companies or building societies (Joseph.,Y, 2006). The principal role of financial intermediaries is to take care and facilitate for the needs of different types of investors as well as those who channel and rise funds for fiscal institutions (Joseph Y, 2006). Financial intermediaries take funds from investors and often refund on demand or at maturity of the investment by the investor. These investments often have percentage interests and are used as fiscal loans to borrowers who borrow from the financial intermediaries.

    However, the roles of financial intermediaries have changed of the years. They are now actively involved in company restructuring processes, poverty alleviation programs and are acting as company’s securities and markets for company assets (Karna j, 2006). According to Karna Jalan (2006) “financial intermediaries have a key role in the restructuring and liquidation of firms in corporate problems. Financial intermediaries play an active role in the reallocation of displaced capital, meant both as the piece-meal reallocation of assets (such as the redeployment of individual plants) and, more broadly, as the sale of entire bankrupt corporations to healthy ones” (See Karna Jalan, ICFAI Business School).

  Facilitation and helping micro finance institutions in rural areas lend is the key role of financial intermediaries. This amounts to accelerating the poverty alleviation and eradication programs.

Works cited

  1. Karna J (200) Role of financial intermediaries; ICFAI Business School, Hyderabad
  2. Joseph Y (2006) Chief Executive, Hong Kong Monetary Authority; Role of financial intermediaries

The primary role of management

  Management key role is to legislate on duties and delegate on responsibilities of the staff in an office (Manfred D, 2007). Managers as the principal subjects of management transmit orders and often do as they are told as managers. Management is the principals of clearing difficulties out of the chain of command in administration. The role of management is based on the style of management employed by the manager. There are two ways of management; Authoritarian and participative methodology.

   Through management, coordination of all working groups is achieved. Difficulties in advice and giving directives on what’s essential and implemental in any work group and station are cleared through management. According to Manfred (2007) manager co-ordinates the group’s work he is in charge of with that of the group in which he is a subordinate.

  Through management, employee’s job satisfaction is achieved and controlled administration is achieved.  Management helps manage authorization, this enables managers to specify the resources that employee’s and clients are bound to access.

  Pinero points out that, management’s key role is to oversee implementation of policies and management reviews.  The role of management also is precisely consistently participating and offering ongoing support so as to achieve progress (Pinero, 2003).

 Works cited

Edwin Pinero (2003):The Role of senior management; Office of the Federal Environmental Executive, USA (Slide2-3)

Manfred Davidsonn (2007); Role of Managers under Different Styles of Management; www.google.com

Four factors affect the financial structure

  Important decisions have to be made when working on a financial structure. There are four factors that should be keenly considered when deciding on the capital structure of a company.

 These are:

  • Business risk— Companies whose activities pose greater business risk have no affinity liabilities. As such they cannot take on as much debt as firms with less business risk (Manal Elkhoshkhany, 2007).
  • Tax position- Based on the fact that interest imposed on a debt is tax deductible; this aspect makes debt attractive as a source of financing. A large liability applies more potential on the company becoming insolvent or rather bankrupt. This forces the firm to seek financial intermediaries to gain solvency. The loans acquired to restructure are expensive to repay
  • Financial flexibility- Financial flexibility of a company reflects on a company’s ability to strengthen its balance sheet. The commonplace scenario is that a company strengthens its balance sheet through issuing common stock. This leads to a stronger financial flexibility and confident balance sheet
  • Managerial attitude- This is contextualized as the (conservatism or aggressiveness)—some financial managers are more conservative than others when it comes to using debt, thus they are inclined to use less debt, all else equal ((Manal Elkhoshkhany, 2007)).

Works cited

Manal Elkhoshkhany (2007): www.finance.justwater.com

Enlightened self interest

  Enlightened self interest in business is the context of an individual’s perspective about successfully manifesting skills and social responsibility in creating sustainable business activities. According Houghton Mifflin Company, enlightened self-interest is the realization that business ultimately helps itself by helping to solve societal problems.

  Enlightened self interest involves the employee/worker endorsement of the concept of enlightened self-interest. This mean the person ask himself ‘Why or why not?’ he should make sure success is achieved, or implementing a policy is important. Within a managerial perspective, enlightened self interest involves the analysis of the reality of that, short-term costs versus long-term benefits a fatal flaw for the concept of enlightened self-interest in the business.

      The most vital point in comprehending the key aspects enlightened self interest perspectives is the fact that; an employee or an individual has a moral obligation involving the distinction between right and wrong. This obligation, if respected results to ethical considerations which are fruitful to the company or the society.

  Enlightened self interest also involves rising against the self-defeating tendency of individualism. This is the realization that it should be in each individual’s best interest to attend to the interests of the community since he too depends on the same (David SickMiller, 2002).

Works cited

Houghton Mifflin Company (2007): Management’s Social and Ethical Responsibilities (slide 15-16)

David SickMiller (2002); Business Ethics: What does ethical behavior actually involve? www.google.com

Human resource process

  The human resource management process involves eight principals which help the management of the staff in a company. These principals help in sustenance of high performance the personnel employed in the company (Manpower planning, 2008). The human resource is vital in cross functional development and it greatly improves employee development. Human Resource Management has to tackle the challenges of flexible workforce, diversity and changing management methodologies technology and employee development. According to Google, “the HR processes consists of tracking existing employee data which traditionally includes personal histories, skills, capabilities, accomplishments and salary”.Failure in human resources management process leads to failures in the company management structure and the corporate activities of the company. Manpower planning (2008)argues that ‘human resources process are meant to promote thought, stimulate discussion, diagnose the organizational environment and develop a sound human resource management strategy for your organization.”

Works cited

Wikipedia (2008)www.google.com

Manpower planning 2008; http://www.accel-team.com/human_resources/hrm_00.html

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Level III : http://www.cpcs.umb.edu/support/studentsupport/red_book/hr_mgmt.htm

How can a manager build an effective virtual team?

Virtual teams are known to be of profound benefit to organizations. Virtual teams reduce time, cost and hazards of travel. They help company groups to share information, chat, innovate and make decisions together. Managers in big companies have to successfully create high-performance virtual teams by assigning members and ‘letting them run’. The manager has to carefully structure, support and pay attention to processes.  The manager has to use the following process/principals to develop an effective virtual team:

Effective communication; this means making sure he talks and emphasizes on making regular communication with the team members. Relationship building; it involves creating amicable relationships with the team members and orienting them with their functions and forging relationships between them. Managing conflicts; involves making the right decisions and accepting downturns and turning them into opportunity. Also, crating the positive attitude to diverse issue faced in work Leadership; this is being participative in all activities and decisions of the related work and the team’s duties. Guiding them and counseling them on both strategy and objective of their functions. For the virtual team to become performing, the manager, after forming it has to empower it. This is through giving the virtual team the perception of meaningfulness, autonomy and potential effectiveness. It is paramount for virtual teams to be empowered. Empowerment involves the manager spending sufficient time with the individual team members, coaching them, helping them see the larger organizational picture and how the team is aligned with the strategy of the organization.

Works cited

Martha Maznevski, Sue Canney Davison,  Karsten Jonsen, ( 2006)”Global virtual team dynamics and effectiveness”  Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management.

What are the primary functions of the skeletal system?

The primary functions of the skeletal system are:

  • Support
  • Storage of minerals and lipids
  • Blood cell production, protection,
  • Leverage

  Support for the body is provided by bones or group of bones. These way soft tissues are attached. Storage of minerals and lipids is another function of the skeletal system. These minerals and essentials provide energy, and necessary nutrients to the body.

  Blood Cell production occurs in the red bone marrow of the bones. Red, white, and other elements of the blood are produced in the marrow.

The skeletal system other key function is to proffer protection to the vital organs and delicate tissues. These organs and tissues are the brain, heart, lungs.

Leverage is a function which helps movement of the body.

Works cited

  Martini Ph.D., Frederic H., Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall,1998

“Bone Development and Growth”

September, 2000 http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/anatomy_physiology_home.html”The Skeletal System”

  The case of Julie

  Julie had a concussion on the head that led to a fracture on the skull and subsequent injury of the brain since the skull was broken exposing the brain to danger. The brain suffered injury due to the fall. According to Neuro-trauma law nexus (2008), Julie suffered from a traumatic brain injury.

  Julie’s brain damage occurred at the time of impact but the death came later due to the fact that she developed a swelling (cerebral edema) and bleeding into the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage) or bleeding around the brain (epidural or subdural hemorrhage).

   This is because her head hit the rocks with a lot of force, the brain turned and twisted on its axis (the brain stem), interrupting normal nerve pathways and led to loss of consciousness.

  The bleeding and clotting of blood around the brain surface led to lack of circulation of oxygen and blood and the subsequent death of Julie.

Works cited


Neurotrauma law nexus (2008); Brain injury

Heat stress and alcohol related complications

 The cause of the unconsciousness is due to the high temperatures in the environment. The condition is life threatening since the blood is short of enough glucose and oxygen due to the alcohol level in the blood stream.

   According to clinicians, heat and alcohol makes the heart rate increases so as to move blood and heat from heart, lungs, and other organs to the skin. Sweating increases so that more sweat can evaporate and cool the body. On this case too much sweat was lost to sitting under hot conditions; the body didn’t have enough water left to cool itself since there was a lot of alcohol in the victims system resulting to dehydration resulting to this stress disorder.

   Alcohol played a major role in the heat stress disorder. The dehydration was as a result of the high levels of alcohol in the system. There was no more water to help sweating which led to the unconsciousness. This condition is known as heat stroke. According to Dr. Dru Sahai this condition (2008) occurred since the body could no longer cool itself and body temperature rose to critical levels. Leading to, confusion, irrational behavior, loss of consciousness, convulsions, lack of sweating ,hot, dry skin, abnormally high body temperature.

Works cited


Dr Dru Sahai (2008), Heat stress

Paul universalized Christ

Paul was extreme in his purge to preach the faculties of Christhood. He is described as natural extremist; he made Jesus a subject which the world was to embrace as a principal of life. He contextualized Christianity as a virtue which members of Christ Jesus following respected and wanted seen as an essential aspect of living a humble life.

    Paul universalized Christ through his chronicles. He made Jesus an example of a son; he made the subject of the son and the father a model of what each human should conceptualize when seeking the aspects of proper living and the virtues of religious guidance. Paul cites Christ as the son and God as the father. He makes this concept the key element of belief. He makes Christ the example of obedience and ordnance in human life.

  He says; “not one among you shall falter in the day which will come to pass where your child will too know his real Father in Heaven…on EARTH! AND it is said that thy words have no appeal, no reverence. Take up thy cross now children. Lean on no man for understanding, but it be even as it is the Christ that is in you. Know him as he knows that which I say verily unto you, stop the fight share the land eat the fish and love thy neighbor.” (See the bible, The epistles of Paul). This concept of universalizing Christ as the one and only example of faith, prosperity and life is indicative of the need to embrace Christianity. This proves Paul was extreme in his purge about the world and Christianity. This is universalizing Jesus Christ as the model of life and what every human should embrace in religions faculties on society.

Features of new religious movements

  The commonplace features of new religious movements are cults and divergent views of faith and belief. The conflicting aspects of teaching of various religious movements are conceptual and need examination due to divergent instructions given by leaders of new religious movements.

  The new religious movements use different methodologies of communication and teaching their following about their spiritual beliefs and social responsibility. According to Wikipidedia (2008), there are different approaches to spirituality or religion. These new religious movements use communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates its adherents from mainstream society (Wikipedia, 2008).

    Worship, teachings, bible versions, type of music and method of prayers are different from what the mainstream society has been doing in the recent past and today.

 These new movements advocate for different approach to faith that, though it is in the existing religion. This is rejected from mainstream religion “for not sharing the same basic creed or declares itself either separate from the existing religion or even “the only right” faith” (Wikipedia, 2008).

  Works cited

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_religious_movement : (2008)

New religious movements

What functions do world views fulfill

  Literally, the functions of world views are to lead the society through being functional and safe from various factors and social problems. According to Yahoo answers, world views give the society and the individuals a focus or perspective on life.

  This perspective is what drives the religious aspect of society to belief and conformity. This way, the society beliefs and adheres to social responsibility and morality. An accord to conform to high morals, perform duties and abide by biblical teachings on life and cohesiveness as a society is diverse and it’s what is truly represented by world views.

  Within the perspective of world views, the aspects of nature and creation are well understood and interpreted in the society and several standards of conformity are well understood from these world views.

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