Rodenticidal Potential of Gliricidia sepium
- Pages: 10
- Word count: 2415
- Category: Biology
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Background of the Study
Plants are living organisms that belongs to the kingdom of plantae. They include organism such as herbs, trees, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, green algae. The study of plants, known as botany, has identified about 350,000 species of plants. Green plants sometimes called viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight and this process is called photosynthesis.
Gliricidia sepium (kakawate) is a multipurpose legume tree that is used in many tropical and subtropical countries as a live fencing, fodder, coffee shade, firewood, green manure and rat poison. In the Philippines, the extract obtained from its leaves is used to remove external parasites .Gliricidia sepium (kakawate) is also used for its medicinal and insect repellent properties. It is also a fast growing ruderal species that takes advantage of slash and burn practices in its native range.
Rats are some of the hated pest in the Philippines because they feed on their properties like clothes, shoes and more they can also cause diseases like Leptospirosis, Eosinophilic Meningitis, Murine Typhus and more. For this reason, the researchers developed a rodenticide out of Gliricidia sepium (kakawate) tree.
Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to formulate a potential solution to the focal problems, which are the destructive rats and the dependence on insecticides by developing a rodenticide out of G. Sepium (kakawate).
The study purported to evaluate the Rodenticidal potential of Gliricidia sepium (kakawate). In the study reported herein, it sought to:
1. Test the Rodenticidal potential of Gliricidia Sepium (kakawate) in terms of the length of time the rats are killed after the application of the three treatments.
2. Determine the significant differences in the length of time the rats are killed when exposed to the three treatments.
3. Analyze the significant differences in the length of time the rats are killed between pairs of treatments.
The following null hypotheses were tested in the study:
1. There are no significant differences in the length of time the rats are killed after application of the three treatments.
2. There are no significant differences in the length of time the rats are killed between pairs of treatments.
We buy more expensive rodenticide
Damaging of our properties
And additional expenses to repair our properties
Lack of patience in killing the pest
Significance of the Study
Results of this study may be beneficial to the following:
A. People. This may serve as the main rodenticide people can use. This is also cheap so all the People living in far‐flung areas and places that cannot be reached by modern products may also benefit by this study. Also Gliricidia sepium is an environment friendly rodenticide so can use it anytime without harming our planet.
B. Future researchers. The results of this study will give bunch of information about writing a research paper and about Gliricidia sepium.
C. Researchers. This study will give us tons of knowledge about the rodenticidal properties of plants like Gliricidia sepium.
Scope and Limitation
The concern and focus of this study was limited to the Rodenticidal potential of G. Sepium making use of three treatments.
Time and Location
This study was conducted at Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University‐South La Union Campus, Laboratory High School, Agoo, and La Union.
Definition of Terms
Kakawate-A local term of Gliricidia sepium; the plant used in this study.
Insecticide-a pesticide used against insects
Rodenticide-A category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rodents. Pesticide-Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest. Rats-Various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea .
INDEPENDENT VARIBLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Length of time the termites are killed after the exposure to: a. Leaf decoction from Kakawate.
b. Expressed juice from Kakawate.
c. Commercial Pesticide
a. T1 –Leaf decoction from Gliricidia sepium.
b. T2‐ expressed juice from Gliricidia sepium.
c. T3‐positive control (commercial pesticide)
fluid extracted from fresh plants used to create a mother tincture. Leaf Decoction
Review of literature
In recent years, chemical pesticides have become the most important consciously-applied form of pest management. This is a generalization of course for some crops in some areas, alternative forms of pest control are still used heavily. The “first generation” pesticides were largely highly toxic compounds, such as arsenic and hydrogen cyanide. Their use was largely abandoned because they were either too ineffective or too toxic.
Throughout history, various types of pests, such as insects, weeds, bacteria, rodents, and other biological organisms, have bothered humans or threatened human health. People have been using pesticides for thousands of years to try to control these pests. The Chinese used mercury and arsenic compounds to control body lice and other pests. The Greeks and Romans used oil, ash, sulfur, and other materials to protect themselves, their livestock, and their crops from various pests. And people in various cultures have used smoke, salt, spices, and insect-repelling plants to preserve food and keep pests away. (http://www.chemistryexplained.com/)
Rodents are an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterized by two continuously growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. Forty percent of mammal species are rodents, and they are found in vast numbers on all continents other than Antarctica. Common rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, porcupines, beavers, chipmunks, guinea pigs, and voles. Rodents have sharp incisors that they use to gnaw wood, break into food, and bite predators. Most eat seeds or plants, though some have more varied diets. Some species have historically been pests, eating seeds stored by people and spreading disease.
In terms of number of species—although not necessarily in terms of number of organisms (population) or biomass—rodents make up the largest order of mammals. There are about 2,277 species of rodents (Wilson and Reeder, 2005), with over 40 percent of mammalian species belonging to the order. Their success is probably due to their small size, short breeding cycle, and ability to gnaw and eat a wide variety of foods. (Lambert, 2000) Rodents are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica, most islands, and in all habitats except oceans.
They are the only placental order, other than bats (Chiroptera) and Pinnipeds, to reach Australia without human introduction. Many rodents are small; the tiny African pygmy mouse can be as little as 6 cm (2.4 in) in length and 7 g (0.25 oz) in weight at maturity, and the Baluchistan Pygmy Jerboa is of roughly similar or slightly smaller dimensions. On the other hand, the capybara can weigh up to 80 kg (180 lb), and the largest known rodent, the extinct Josephoartigasia monesi, is estimated to have weighed about 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), and possibly up to 1,534 kg (3,380 lb) or 2,586 kg (5,700 lb).
Rodents have two incisors in the upper as well as in the lower jaw which grow continuously and must be kept worn down by gnawing; this is the origin of the name, from the Latin rodere, to gnaw. These teeth are used for cutting wood, biting through the skin of fruit, or for defense. The teeth have enamel on the outside and exposed dentine on the inside, so they self-sharpen during gnawing.
Rodents lack canines, and have a space between their incisors and premolars. Nearly all rodents feed on plants, seeds in particular, but there are a few exceptions which eat insects or fish. Some squirrels are known to eat passerine birds like cardinals and blue jays. Rodents are important in many ecosystems because they reproduce rapidly, and can function as food sources for predators, mechanisms for seed dispersal, and as disease vectors. Humans use rodents as a source of fur, as pets, as model organisms in animal testing, for food, and even for detecting landmines. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Gliricidia sepium is a versatile, fast-growing tree favored by farmers for living fences, fuel, fodder, green manure, shade, support for crops, and erosion control. It Steudel is a small to medium sized tree attaining heights of 2 to 15 meters. It may be either a single or multiple stem trees with trunk diameters reaching 30 cm. The bark is grayish-brown to whitish and may be deeply furrowed on old, large diameter trees. Leaves are pinnately compound, alternate in arrangement and 20 to 30 cm in length. Leaflets are generally opposite in arrangement, oblong in shape and pointed at the tip. On some specimens leaflets may be elliptical with rounded tips.
There are 7 to 25 leaflets per leaf and size increases towards the tip. Leaflets are 40 to 80 mm long and 20 to 40 mm wide (Lavin 1996). Flower development corresponds to the beginning of the dry season when trees have lost their leaves. In its native range flowering occurs November through March. In areas without a pronounced dry season, flowering may occur throughout the year but few pods form (Lavin 1996, Simons 1996). Flowers are pink to light pink in color, fading to white with brown spots or faint purple with age (Lavin 1996).
The flowers are pollinated by the larger solitary bees Xylocopa fimbriata andCentris species in the tree’s native range. Other potential pollinators have trouble accessing the flower due to the rigidity of the keel pedals (Simons 1996). A lack of effective pollinators will greatly hinder pod and seed production. Pods can reach full size, 10 to 20 cm, within 3 weeks of fertilization. The green succulent pods turn woody and yellow with maturity, which requires 35 to 60 days. Pods contain 3 to 10 seeds and are explosively dehiscent (Lavin 1996, Simons 1996). Seed collection is recommended prior to pods.
Gliricidia sepium is native to the lowland dry forests from sea level to 1,200 m. It is uncommon above this elevation because of its sensitivity to cold. The temperature range is 20 to 30° C. It performs poorly below this range but will tolerate temperatures as high as 42° C (Glover 1989). Rainfall is generally from 900 to 1,500 mm/year, but may be as low as 600 mm or as high as 3,500 mm (Simons 1996). The dry season varies from 3 to 8 months, however Gliricidia sepium survives dry seasons of 9 months in Indonesia.
It grows well on many soil types; volcanic, sandy, stony, and heavy clays, including Vertisols. It is reported to tolerate some salinity and slightly alkaline soils. It will tolerate acid soils, but not severe acidity (pH less than 4.5) nor high aluminum saturation (greater than 60%). An aggressive pioneer, gliricidia readily colonizes infertile soils and reclaims Imperata grasslands (MacDicken et al 1997). Its name gamal means ‘Imperata killer’. It sprouts quickly after fire and thus may benefit from burning.
This chapter deals with the materials, methods, and procedures used in the preparation of the different test substances and its application to termites. It also includes the data gathered and the statistical analysis of the data.
Gliricidia sepium (kakawate)
Mortar and Pestle, Clean Containers, Funnel, Dropper
Pot, Clean Water
The study did not use any design for the reason that studies such as this one, concerned treatment of the experimental animals done by batches or done one after the other and not at the same time. In line with this, this study utilized the experimental method of research using standard laboratory diagnostic procedures involved in rodenticidal potential of kakawate. The study used three treatments, which are as follows:
a. T1 –Leaf Decoction from Gliricidia sepium.
b. T2 – Expressed juice from Gliricidia sepium.
c. T3 – positive control (commercial pesticide).
Collection and Preparation of Plant Material
Kakawate branches are collected from DMMMSU-SLUC Agoo, La Union. Leaves of Gliricidia sepium were removed from the plant. The leaves were washed by running water.
Preparation of Decoction from G. sepium Leaves
Gliricidia sepium leaves were boiled in 500 mL water. Boiling was done for about 25 minutes. Afterwards, the mixture is allowed to cool then placed in a clean container. Eventually, the mixture was filtered using filter paper. The filtrate collected was the decoction used in the treatment.
Preparation of Expressed Juice
Gliricidia sepium leaves were pounded using mortar and pestle and squeezed using a clean cheese cloth. The obtained juice was filtered using filter paper. Finally, the expressed leaf juice was placed in a clean container.
A total of 27 Swiss rats in more or less uniform in sizes were collected from Agoo, La Union. After the collection, the test organisms were placed in their own cages. Each cage contains three rats.
Application of the Test Substances
Three (3) treatments namely T1 – Leaf Decoction from Gliricidia sepium; T2 ‐ expressed juice from Gliricidia sepium, T3 ‐ positive control (commercial pesticide) extract solution were utilized in the study. The test substances were sprayed once to the sample rats by using sprayer. These doses were administered once for each treatment. The rodenticidal effects were observed as to the length of time the rats are killed. The treatment was replicated three (3) times.
The following data was collected during the course of the study: The length of time the rats were killed. The data on the length of time the rats were killed after the application of the test substances was determined using timer in minutes. This was done for every replication.
The data gathered were tabulated and computed using the following statistical tools: 1. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether significant differences exist in the length of time the rats are killed among the rats; and
2. Scheffé’s Test to find out where the difference lies and determines which among the five treatments has the greatest rodenticidal potential.
Preparation of various test substances:
a. Positive control
b. leaf decoction
c. expressed bark juice from kakawate
Preparation and collection of
resources used in the study:
a. plant material
b. test organisms
c. laboratory apparatuses
d. chemicals, etc.
Gathering of data:
a. length of time for the test organisms to die as affected by various test substances
Application of the various test substances to the test organisms (rats)
Analyzing the data gathered using the following statistical tools: a. Analysis of Variance
b. Scheffé’s Test