Prehistoric Art Study Guide
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All questions will be multiple choice. Some will be accompanied by images while others will rely on your use of your knowledge without visual reference points. COVERAGE Visual Material: Selected from the works of art and architecture we have studied – see list below. These have all been discussed IN CLASS AS WELL AS IN THE TEXTBOOK or other readings. (If we do not cover all the works listed below in class, you will not be responsible for them on the test.) Information: You will be expected to know terms, important people, and concepts as well as relevant art historical and contextual information that were discussed in CLASS AS WELL AS additional information in the READING assignments that pertains to the works listed below. POSSIBLE TYPES OF TEST QUESTIONS 1. Test questions will be based on Terms and Important People (listed on Blackboard and discussed in class) Historical, cultural, and ideological forces that influenced works of art during particular times and cultures Major stylistic periods and sub-periods (eg. Carolingian, Romanesque, Early Gothic, High Gothic, Rayonnant/Court Style Gothic, etc), their stylistic characteristics, and relative order Major artistic/stylistic characteristics and concepts
The relationships between style and function or meaning of art and architecture for a particular culture 2. You will also be expected to recognize a few major works we have discussed extensively in class. These are designated on the list in bold and will be identified in class. *Remember: MEMORIZATION IS NOT stressed in this course. Understanding of art works, the ideas or values they express, and their context is much more important!! SUGGESTED GUIDELINES FOR STUDYING Instead of concentrating on memorizing facts about individual works, use the following questions to help you focus on important historical issues and the concepts and style of art. If you can make an outline that answers these questions and includes individual works of art or architecture as examples, you should do extremely well on the test! For each of the cultures whose art and architecture we studied:
CULTURAL CONTEXT 1. What are some of the most important religious, political, or other cultural issues for this culture? ART OBJECTS AND BUILDINGS: TYPES, SUBJECTS, MATERIALS and THEIR SIGNIFICANCE 2. What kinds of objects or types of buildings did we study from this culture? 3. What purposes did they serve for the culture? 4. What kinds of materials were art objects and buildings made of, and were there any particular reasons (either practical or symbolic) that those materials were chosen? 5. What types of subjects did we study in the artwork of this culture?
6. What ideas or experiences (cultural, historical, geographic, etc.) do they reflect? ARTISTIC STYLE AND URBAN DESIGN 7. How does the artistic style or the way a particular subject is represented address the ideas, values, needs of the particular culture that produced it? 8. How does the architecture or urban design of a culture express its values or circumstances? 9. Do significant changes in artistic style take place within the art of the culture? If so, what are they and what changes in thinking or experience do they reflect? 10. Do works of art or architecture made for this culture borrow stylistic forms or devices from another culture? If so, what and why? WORKS OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE Use the works of art and architecture, which were both discussed in class and in your reading, to outline your answers to the questions above. The works highlighted in bold are works you should be able to recognize visually and in terms of major stylistic characteristics and cultural significance. Prehistoric • Paintings in caves at Lascaux and Peche Merle, France • Venus of Willendorf • dwellings at Catal Huyuk • Stonehenge • Ancient Near Eastern Sumerian: • Ziggurat at Ur • Votive statuettes from Tell Asmar
• Akkadian: • Stele of Naram-Sin • bronze portrait of a ruler Assyrian: • Citadel and palace at Khorsabad (including architecture, lamassu, and reliefs of Ashurbanipal hunting lions) Egyptian • Pyramid complex at Gizeh (including Sphinx) • Khufu (diorite statue) • “Ka-Aper” • Temple of Queen Hatshepsut • Hypostyle hall, (reconstruction model) Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak • Fowling Scene, Tomb of Nebamun, Thebes • Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and three daughters sunken relief Aegean • Palace at Knossos (including architectural layout, elements, and decoration) • Octopus jar • Lion gate, Mycenae Greek (Geometric – Hellenistic) • Dipylon krater and amphora • The Francois Vase • Niobid Painter’s Krater • Kouros from Anavysos (Kroisos) • Peplos Kore • Kritios Boy • Fallen warrior sculptures from pediments of Temple of Aphaia, Aegina • Myron, Discobolus
• Pediment sculpture from Temple of Zeus, Olympia (Lapiths and Centaurs; Chariot Race) • Acropolis at Athens: architecture and sculpture (including the layout of the complex and architectural styles used); special focus on the Parthenon • Polykleitos, Doryphoros (“Spear-bearor”) • Lysippos, The Scraper • Praxiteles, Hermes and Infant Dionysos • Apollonius (?), Old Boxer • Altar of Zeus, Pergamon (including sources, subjects of the sculptures and their Hellenistic stylistic features) • Dying Gaul (from monument of Attalos I), Pergamon Etruscan • Sarcophagus from Cerveteri • bronze statue of Mars Roman • Head of an old Patrician • Augustus of Prima Porta • Equestrian of Marcus Aurelius • Colossal head of Constantine • Colosseum • Pantheon • Baths of Caracalla • Basilica of Constantine • wall-paintings from Boscoreale • Villa of the Mysteries frescoes • Garden scene, House of Livia • Ara Pacis • Arch of Titus • Column of Trajan • Arch of Constantine (including “spolia” and Distribution of Charity relief)