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# Physics: Rechargeable Battery and Manila Cathedral School

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ABSTRACT:

In our community today each one of us are using batteries. Batteries are used for our portable electronic equipments such as watches, cameras, calculators, radios, cellular phones, flashlights, computers, remote controls and many more. Some of the T.V. advertisements are suggesting different brands of batteries like Tiger, Eveready, Energizer, and Duracell. In this project we need to determine what brand of battery that last longer than any batteries that is suggested by others. We will also try to determine in this project if the power of the battery affect the cost of it. While making a basic electric circuit, we will test different battery that is longer to use than to other batteries. During this experiment we will learn about electricity and technical differences among different batteries. Our presentation will include an actual test device that we will make. We will also learn about the structure of a battery and how it produces electricity. We will compare other samples of batteries that are available in the market. We will measure the amount of time what batteries has the shortest time to be use

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

This project helps us to determine what batteries are long lasting so that we can use it for our practical purposes. We will determine if the cost of the battery has an effect to its power. Because batteries today is very useful in our society, every materials or any electric equipments that we always use in our daily life needs a battery for energy so that we can use it well. If the battery is not good but itâ€™s too expensive automatic we will not use it because it so very unfair for us. We will make our own basic electric circuit so that we can test it all in the same time. In making this project we will learn about electricity and technical differences of the batteries. In this project we can also to determine how temperature affected the discharge time of the battery. We also want to know in this experiment whatÂ is the longer lasting between normal disposable batteries and rechargeable batteries. Some of our grandma or grandpa is putting the batteries inside the refrigerator. The reasons why they are doing it because they want to save the power of the battery. We can just prove it if they are wrong or not if we perform this experiment further.

1.1 Background of the study
Our projects will prove us what battery will be long lasting among all batteries. The testing of battery will help us to know what battery is very useful in our daily life. There is so many batteries have been advertised but we donâ€™t know if itâ€™s really long lasting and if itâ€™s helpful in our daily life.

There are a number of different batteries out there to choose from. As far as which one really lasts the longest, it would come down to what you are using the battery for. After all, different electronics will use power faster than others. However, no matter which battery you choose, you will always find that the rechargeable battery will last longer than any other battery around. After all, it can be used over and over again.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this research is find out what battery will be last longer among all the batteries. It can help us to find out what battery will be more practical to use. There is so many batteries are being advertised but no one knows what battery is good for us. While making this research all questions running in our mind about battery life will be answer in the end.

1.3 Significance of the study
The importance of this project is to find out what battery is last longer and more useful to us especially in emergency time. Instead of using batteries that is not practical to use we will know what battery is more practical to us. We will know if the price of the battery can affect to itâ€™s quality.

1.4 Scope and Limitations
This research paper will be conducted by the 1st group of IV â€“ Mary MotherÂ of God. This experiment will be perpetrated with the use of the following equipments/tools: (1) 7different brand of batteries but same size (2) homemade electric circuit (3) bulb

In our product we immediately use the cheaper but surely strong materials. We surely that our products is effective and even if our materials that we use in our product we surely that our product has a high quality and it is not easily to survive. And we are also surely that this experimentation will be finished within one day only.

1.5 Review of Related Literature
We all know that everyone today is using battery. We come up in this project because my mom and I were getting ready to go on an overnight outing and we were debating on what kind of batteries to purchase for our flashlights. We wanted ones with a lot of power. So I thought that would be a good investigatory project.

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY
2.1 Materials/Equipment
In this Project we will use Carbon Zinc Batteries (such as Eveready), Zinc Chloride Batteries (Panasonic makes some), Alkaline Batteries (Duracell), Lithium Manganese Batteries (such as Sony), Nickel Cadmium Batteries (these are labeled rechargeable, but for this experiment, they will not be recharged), Rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries (such as Energizer, will not be recharged for this experiment), Lithium Ion batteries (such as Rayovac, will not be recharged). This is the very important materials because those batteries are batteries that we will test, what batteries will stay for a longer time. We also need a homemade circuit where we can test the battery simultaneously. If you have a budget you can also use a stopwatch so that you can record the right time you have started and the time where the battery died. We will also use a pen and record notebook where we will record the time. Using those materials we can conduct our study properly and correctly.

2.2 Treatment / General Procedure
The first thing we need to do is complete the materials needed for this experiment so that we can do it properly. If your materials are complete you can do it now. First put all your batteries in you homemade circuit. Then record the time that you had started. Observe what battery will off first. Record it in your record notebook. Do it again until you determine what battery is long lasting.

This table implies the ranking of the batteries that can be last longer. After the testing was completed the following results were recorded. The battery that long lasted is the rayovac its total time is 26hrs and 15mins.

Chapter4: Conclusion and Reccomendation
The researcher conclude that the Eveready will be the long lasting battery, but were wrong because the total time of Eveready is 22 hrs only, while the Rayovac is 26hrs15mins. Now our final conclusion, the eveready is not the best battery that long lasting but the Rayovac is the very long lasting battery itâ€™s not expensive but it can be long lasting. So we can conclude that Rayovac is more practical to use than the other branded batteries. Now we know that the price of the battery is not affecting the quality of the battery. The quality of the battery cannot be measured in the price or in its brand but you can measure it on what is in the inside of the battery.

Abstact:
To researcher makes investigatory project to be able to produce an alternative source of electricity out of saltwater. The concept is easy. The same way like burning wood and make heat energy. The researcher should be able to burn metals and get electricity (or electrical energy). The difference is that the researcher is not really burning anything; instead the researcher producing a condition of oxidation which by itself is the same as slow burning. If on with cup of saltwater and some metals we were able to light up a small bulb. It took us a look time to make first working battery using the saltwater; however, the researcher doesnâ€™t have to waste that much time. The researcher combined the results of all our experimentsÂ and made a recipe for a success. The researcher concludes that the community was able to create an alternative source of electricity out of saltwater.

The researcher makes this project because the researcher wants to help the community to lessen the energy crisis that we are facing right now. The researcher knows that this project will help our community to improve our technologies. This project will help us to grow and to lessen our problems in electricity. The purpose of the project is to make a battery that provide more energy and last longer and many such high quality batteries commercially available today.

Chapter 1: introduction
The researcher knows that our world is now facing an energy crisis and everyone is trying to do something about that. So the researcher decided to make a project that will help the community to do something that can develop to lessen our energy crisis that the community is facing right now. The project that the researcher chooses is the air/saltwater battery. The researcher chooses this project because the researcher knows that this project will help the community to lessen the energy crisis that the community is facing right now. The researcher can show to everyone that the community can use the air and the saltwater to make electricity. And the community knows that the air and saltwater can be found easily and freely available in everywhere.

The researcher thought that is impossible to make electricity from air and saltwater can be found easily and freely available in everywhere. The researcher thought that is impossible to make electricity from air and saltwater but now the researcher realizes that can easily make electricity from this project that the researcher chosen. The purpose of the project is to make a battery that provide more energy and last longer and many such high quality batteries commercially available today. The community uses the battery in electronic devices such as camera, calculators, watches and etc. So the researcher thinks that this project is very useful and very effective because it easy to make and it is not expensive.

1.1 Background of the Study
The Air/Saltwater battery described in this project guide can light up aÂ light bulb for a few seconds. When the light goes off, you can simply empty the used saltwater and add fresh saltwater to get light again. By adding a small amount of hydrogen peroxide you can get lighter and the light will last longer. The Air/Saltwater battery is made of two different electrodes inserted in a chemical compound. A chemical reaction between the electrodes and the chemical compound produces electricity. The Air/Saltwater battery is not as strong as a real battery. It can produce visible light on a low voltage light bulb. It is also safer than batteries that use many harmful chemicals.

The researcher researches the ideas that this project is chosen by the group to work on for them to help the community to improve more the technologies that we have right now. This project shown that we can use more energy from the natural resources. 1.2 Statement of the Problem

The purpose of the researcher is to solve the energy crisis problem. The researcher make this project to have auseful batteries that we can use to electronic devices like cameras, watches, calculators and other devices that uses batteries. The air/saltwater battery can use in the light and can also use this in other things. The air/saltwater battery is also called the emergency battery because it will help the community to use it if it is out of electricity. Because if the community has an emergency, the community can use this even if the community has emergency and even if the communities donâ€™t have. So the community will have little solutions to the energy crisis problem. And they may able to provide a real life application of the air/saltwater battery. 1.3 Significance of the study

The importance of this project is to give electricity to the things that need electricity and to have a battery that the community can easily make and easily to use. Instead using of batteries that we can buy in stores even go to the stores or malls to buy batteries because the materials that needed in our project is easily to find. This project is so important because this project is helping the community to their problems in electricity. The purpose of this project is to be able to create an alternative source of electricity out of saltwater. And this project give the electricity to theÂ community that they can use in everyday lives. 1.4 Scope and Limitations

This research paper will be conducted by the 1st group of IV â€“ Mary Mother of God. This experiment will be perpetrated with the use of the following equipments/tools: (1) Miniature light bulb (low voltage, low current), (2) Miniature base for light bulb, (3) pair of insulated solid copper wire AWG=20, (4) Pair of alligator clips, (5) magnesium Electrodes, (6) Iron electrodes and, (7) a cup of saltwater, and lastly (8) Screws for the miniature base.

In our product we immediately use the cheaper but surely strong materials. We surely that our products is effective and even if our materials that we use in our product we surely that our product has a high quality and it is not easily to survive. And we are also surely that this experimentation will be finished within one day only. 1.5 Review of Related Literature

We all know that the world is now facing an energy crisis and everyone is trying to do something about that. Some people try to use solar energy and wind energy; some others try to invade and occupy oil producing countries; and now you can show them that electrical energy or electricity can be made from air and saltwater. After all, both the air and the saltwater are freely available everywhere. These are the two things that we have plenty of them available in most.

Batteries have been made with many different chemical compounds. Scientist often tries to make batteries that provide more energy and last longer. Many of such high quality batteries are commercially available today. They are used in flashlights and electronic devices such as radios, watches, computers and calculators.

Making a battery is always an exciting science project. Your home made batteries can be used as chemistry, physics or electricity project. This project can be performed and conducted as a display project, engineering project or experimental project in this project you make a saltwater battery after a few minutes of light production, the salt soluction becomesÂ alkaline. Alkaline solutions can irritate eyes and cause dryness of skin. Avoid contact with the used saltwater solution. The researcher used saltwater can be disposed in the sink or sewer system along with other household liquid waste. If you hydrogen peroxide to the solution, you must dispose dilute it with plenty of water before disposing it. Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidizer can cause rust in metal pipes if it is not diluted. Chapter II: Methodology

2.1 Materials/ equipment

These are the materials that we will be needed in our project: (a) miniature light bulb (low voltage, low current) (b) Miniature base for light bulb (c) pair of insulated solid copper wire AWG=20 (d) Pair of alligator clips (e) Magnesium Electrodes (f) Iron Electrodes (g) A cup of saltwater (not in the picture) (h) Screws for the miniature base. 2.3 Treatment/General Procedure

First remove the plastic insulation of about one inch from both ends of the wire then second loosen the screw on both contacts of the bulb holder. Place one end of the red wire under one screw, make a loop and then tightened the screw. Place one end of the black wire under the other screw, make a loop and then tighten the screw and after that pass the open end of the red wire through the arm of the red alligator clip and secure it under the screw next pass the open end of the black wire through the arm of the black alligator clip and secure it under the screw then screw the light bulb on the miniature base next connect the red alligator clip to the iron electrode and secure it on one side of the plastic container or the cup and connect the black alligator clip to the magnesium electrode and secure it on the opposite side of the container. (You may need to hold them by hand or use a small tape to hold them in place on the side of the container then in another pitcher, propare some strong, warm salt water. Add enough salt so at the end some salt will be left at the bottom of the pitcher then transfer the salt water from the pitcher to the container and lastly at this time, if all the connections are secure and the electrodes are large enough, you should get a light.

We see in this table that our first trial is not effective while our second and third trial become effective. Simple because in the first trial we didnâ€™t follow the right procedure while in the second and third trial we did it.

Chapter IV: Conclusions and Recommendation
We conclude that the electricity you produce can be high enough to light up a light bulb. You can extend the power by adding oxygen. But it will not be effective if you donâ€™t have enough knowledge in this experiment. You need to know how to follow the right procedure and the guidelines for this experiment to have a successful battery made by saltwater and air.

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