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Physical Education

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1.0 Figueroa’s Framework
An Individual’s access to exercise, sport and physical activity in Australian society can be influenced in the ways demonstrated by theories like Figueroa’s Framework. Equity and Equality are two major components that can also affect an individual and their amount of participation in physical activity. Figueroa’s Framework is constructed along five different levels specific to factors that influence levels of participation in physical activity according to Figueroa’s theories. These include; cultural, structural, institutional, interpersonal and individual levels. Each level can be applied in some form to any individual’s life, no matter what lifestyle or attitude to physical activities. The factors within each of the five components of Figueroa’s framework include how different sports can be affected by the media, religion, values, beliefs, team mates, parents, friends, family, coaches and more. These factors not only affect how involved an individual is in their physical activity, but also what sports they play and the level they play at. Figueroa’s Framework is not only a module of most people’s sporting lifestyles, but it shows what levels each person can be affected at; cultural, structural, institutional, interpersonal and individual levels.

1.1 The Interpersonal level
Many factors influence the selection of physical activities from an interpersonal level for any subject involved with physical activity. In my own personal life, the interpersonal level is a foremost aspect when doing physical activity, exercise or sport. Access and opportunities created at the interpersonal level include; relationships and interactions with parents, siblings, coaches/teachers and friends/peers. Also included is interactions and observation of the media and spectators. The relationships between a range of the access and opportunities

Ella Hargreaves

10 P.E Extension


created affect the equity of physical activity. I have had negative and positive experiences when growing up, though being picked last on a team, non-verbal actions during a game, peer pressure and embarrassment are more predominant reasons why I do not enjoy physical activity. On the other hand, goal achievement, playing with parent and siblings, attending major sporting events and fun and enjoyment make any physical activity worthwhile.

1.2 Influences on physical activity at an Interpersonal level The main influences I have in sport that affect me at an interpersonal level include the media, parents, school and friends. All of these have encouraged me to continue with my chosen sport and participate at a higher level. The media influences many children in what type of sport they play and what level they play at through the use of commercials, coverage of sport and other forms. The media has largely influenced my sporting decisions; watching sport on television at a high level has motivated me and many others to form goals to enhance my performance in sport. Observing magazines, books, photos, articles and real life stories from others that I look up to can also largely influence my sporting decisions. Parents and family determined my main sport; they also largely influence all of my decisions to do with any sport and physical activity.

Attending a school that is highly involved with sport has also changed my focus on what sports I should play and what physical activity I am involved in. Friends have also impacted my sporting decisions; it is hard to participate in another sport that my own friends are not involved in, especially if it is a team sport. The thought of joining a new team without any friends and no knowledge of the sport is often too much for most teenagers. Though these factors influence me at an interpersonal level, they can also be applied to other levels and applied to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs as shown in figure 1.3.

1.4 The Structural Level
The structural level relates to the distribution of resources within sport and within society. (Michael Kiss, Step Forward-Senior physical education for Queensland, 2010) There are also many factors that influence the selection of physical activities from a structural level for any subject involved with physical activity. My own personal sporting achievements are limited because of a lack of financial resources. Playing a sport or doing any type of physical activity outside of school requires a substantial amount of money. Travelling to carnivals and events in other cities, states or even countries requires money also. The training needed for a sport may not be available, and distance coaches may be required, this will also require money. Though the structural level cannot be applied to a majority of people, it impacts me and definitely influences my decisions in sport.

1.5 Influences on physical activity at a structural level
As suggested earlier, the more financial resources an individual has, the more likely it is they are going to succeed. Underprivileged individuals are often disadvantaged in higher competitive sports because of a lack of financial resources. I know that I, myself, have been unable to participate in an event because of a shortage of money. If playing a club sport, the team may not be performing at full capacity because a qualified coach cannot be hired because of financial reasons. Activities with a higher level of government funding can also influence an individual’s sporting decisions.

The media can also impact anyone at a structural level. Favouritism of an athlete involving the media can cause them have a bigger advantage than other people. Things such as looks, marketability, personality or the degree of controversy or scandal can influence the athlete’s success. (Michael Kiss, Step Forward-Senior physical education for Queensland, 2010)

1.6 Conclusion
Using Figueroa’s Framework is an adequate way to determine what things influence an individual’s access and equity to physical activity in Australian society. The interpersonal and structural levels are only two of the five levels of Figueroa’s Framework that have influenced my decisions when choosing a sport or physical activity. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs links in with the topics demonstrated in Figueroa’s Framework as both theories include physical activity and sport. The things we choose in sport are all influenced by at least one topic demonstrated by Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs or Figueroa’s Framework.


Kirk, D. (2002). A-Level Physical Education: The reflective performer. Retrieved October 31, 2012, from Google Books:
http://books.google.com.au/books?id=a3PnlYMMkz4C&pg=PT36&lpg=PT36&dq=figueroa’s+ framework+of+equity&source=bl&ots=eadSpx2KZl&sig=0I1HDY0CN892XB2gq_thh1lleQM&h l=en&sa=X&ei=rf-QUIC-COmhiAeNhoCgCQ&ved=0CEYQ6AEwCA

macmillanmarketing. (2010, September 2). Queensland Senior Physical Education 3rd Edition (part C). Retrieved October 31, 2012, from issuu:
http://issuu.com/macmillanmarketing/docs/qld_seniorpe_partc_ (2010, September 28). Interpersonal and Individual influences on equity and sports participation. In T. K. Michael Kiss, Step Forward-Senior physical education for Queensland (pp. 375-383). Port Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Michael Kiss, T. K. (2010). Step Forward-Senior physical education for Queensland. Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

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