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Paediatric emergency first aid

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  • Pages: 6
  • Word count: 1441
  • Category: Medicine

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1.1-Identify the responsibilities of a paediatric first aider The responsibilities of a paediatric first aider are to preserve life, limit the effects of the condition- especially in blood loss and to aid prompt recovery. Role of the first aider

* Adequate first aid equipment- first aid box is up to date * Administer first aid when necessary
* Report the incident- either to the manager or 999 depending on seriousness * Review situation to make sure treatment is correct
* Review to make sure your treatment is working
* First aid needs to be prompt, effective and safe to both the casualty and first aider 1.2-Describe how to minimise the risk of infection to self and others You can minimise the risk of infection by using personal protective equipment. PPE includes: * Gloves

* Face shield
* Apron
* Mask
* Effective washing of hands
1.3-Describe suitable first aid equipment, including personal protection and how it is used appropriately. There is no definite guide to the content of a first aid kit but as a guide you will expect to see: * 2 sterile eye pads

* 20 individually wrapped sterile dressings
* 4 individually wrapped triangular bandages
* 6 safety pins
* 6 medium sized and individually wrapped sterile and non-medicated wound dressings * 2 large sized and individually wrapped sterile and non-medicated wound dressings * At least 1 pair of disposable gloves

* No tablets or medicines
1.5-Define an “infant” and a “child” for the purposes of first aid treatment An infant is classed as baby under the age of 12 months and a child is aged 1-5 years. 2.1-Demonstrate how to conduct a scene survey

* Look for any danger
* Assess the casualty
* Shout for help
* Use passers-by effectively
* Begin first aid
4.3-Describe how to deal with an infant and a child who is experiencing a seizure (unit 2, 4.2 B) Recognising a febrile convulsion
* Violent muscle thrusting
* Clenched fists
* Arched back
* Signs of a fever e.g. hot flushed skin and sweating
* Twitching of the face
* Squinting
* Upturned eyes
* Fixed glaze
* Holding breath
* Red puffy face
* Drooling at the mouth
* Loss of senses/consciousness
Treating a febrile convulsion
* Place soft cushions or padding around child to prevent injuries from movements * Remove any covering or clothes to allow cold fresh air to circulate * Sponge the child’s skin with tepid water starting at forehead * Once seizures have stopped open the child’s airway by putting them in the recovery position * If necessary dial 999

* Reassure the child and monitor vital signs until help arrives *Treat a child and infant the same*
Seizures in general
* Place cushions around them wherever possible
* Loosen clothing around neck area especially
* Once seizures stopped open airway by putting them in the recovery position * Dial 999 if necessary
5.1-Differentiate between a mild and severe airway obstruction With a mild
airway obstruction the patient will be able to cough but will have difficulty in breathing and making any noise. With a severe airway obstruction the patient will be unable to cough or to make any noise or breath and this will lead to unconsciousness. 5.3-Describe the procedure to be followed after administering the treatment for choking After you have administered the choking procedure 3 times you should call for an ambulance and then continue the treatment for choking.

6.1-Describe common types of wounds

Abrasion (graze)
An abrasion is a superficial wound in which the top layers of skin has been scrapped off leaving a roar tender area. These are often caused by a sliding fall or a friction burn and can contain embedded foreign particles that may result in infection. Incised wound This is caused by a clean cut from a sharp edged object such as a razor; blood vessels are cut straight across so bleeding may be profuse. Structures such as tendons, nerves or arteries might be damaged. Gunshot wound A bullet may drive through the body causing serious internal injury and sucking in clothing and contaminants from the air. The entry wound maybe small and neat any exit wound maybe large and raged. Stab wound

This type of wound is caused by a long or bladed instrument penetrating the body i.e. a knife. Stab wounds to the torso must always be treated seriously because of the dangers of injury to vital organs a life-threatening internal bleeding. Puncture wound

An injury such a standing on a nail or being pricked by a needle will result in a puncture wound. It has a small entry site but a deep track of internal damage. The risk of infection is high because germs and dirt can be carried far into the body. Laceration Crushing or ripping results in tears or lacerations. These wounds may bleed less profusely than incised wounds but there is likely to be more tissue damage. Lacerations are often contaminated with germs so risk of infection is high. Contusion (bruise)

A blunt blow or punch can rupture capillaries beneath the skin causing blood to leak into the tissues which results in bruising. The skin can occasionally split. Severe contusion may indicate deeper damage such as a fracture or internal injury. 6.2-Describe the types and severity of bleeding and the affect that it has on an infant and a child. Arterial bleeding

Arteries carry bright red oxygen rich blood under pressure from the heart. If an artery is damaged bleeding may be profuse. Blood will spurt out in time of the heartbeat. If a main artery is severed it may jet blood several feet high, in which case the volume of circulating blood will fall rapidly. Venus blood loss

Blood from veins having given up is oxygen into the body’s tissues is dark red. It is under less pressure than arterial blood but the vein walls can widen greatly and the blood can pool inside them. If a major vein was damaged blood may gush from it profusely. Capillary bleeding Bleeding from the capillaries occurs with any wound. At first, the bleeding might be brisk but blood loss is usually slight. A blow may rupture the capillaries under the skin causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue (bruising.) Severe bleeding

If the bleeding is severe it can be quite dramatic and distressing. The casualty is likely to develop shock and may lose consciousness. If bleeding is not controlled the heart can stop. 6.4-Describe how to administer first aid for minor injuries

For minor injuries such as a cut on the knee if a child has fallen is normally something a member of staff can deal with. They normally do this by firstly washing their hands and then by using a pair of disposable gloves, get a clean wipe and wipe the affected area to remove any dirt. Then you should dispose of the gloves and used wipe which will contain bodily fluid substances, and then wash your hands effectively after. You should always reassure a child or infant after they have sustained an injury to help calm them down. You should fill out an accident form with any type of injury a child may get and check on the child throughout the day to make sure there is no deterioration in their injury. 7.1-Describe how to recognise and manage an infant and a child who is suffering from shock Recognising shock

* Change in colour- blue around lips/ear lobes
* Eyes will darken
* Appear tired/not alert- responses are slower or lower
* Rapid pulse
* Cold, clammy skin
* Sweating
* Thirsty
* Rapid and shallow breathing
* Shivering
* Find out the cause of shock- most likely bleeding or choking * Don’t give them a drink- moisten lips
* Lie them down
* Elevate their legs e.g. above heart level
* Reassure/comfort them
* Cover occasionally to keep them warm e.g. blanket
* Do not try to warm them up e.g. hot water bottle
* Monitor vital signs e.g. breathing, airway, circulation * Call for ambulance
*No difference between an infant and child*
7.2-Describe how to recognise and manage an infant and a child who is suffering from anaphylactic shock Recognising anaphylactic shock
* Anxiety
* Red blotchy skin
* Swelling of tongue and throat
* Puffiness around eyes
* Impaired breathing possibly with wheezing and gasping for air * Signs of shock (previously mentioned in 7.1)
* Call for an ambulance and pass on as much information about the patient as possible e.g. name, address, age, where you are * Help to relieve symptoms
* Does the casualty carry their own epi-pen
* Monitor their vital signs
*No difference in treating anaphylactic shock in an infant and child* What is an epi-pen?
An epi-pen is an auto injector that administers epinephrine. The casualty only carries an epi-pen if they are aware of what they are allergic too.

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