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Afghanistan
Afghanistan, often called the crossroads of Central Asia, has a long history of turbulence. Based on archaeological evidence, urban civilization began in the region between 3000 and 2000 BC. By the middle of the sixth century BC, the Achaemenids took over control of the land, which was previously held by the Medes, and made it part of the Persian Empire. Alexander the great defeated and conquered the Persian Empire in 330 BC. He founded some cities in the area and Greek culture and language continued to influence the people for a long period, right up to the Islamic conquest in the 7th century A.D. After Alexander, Greco-Bactrians, Scythians, Kushans, Parthians and Sassanians ruled the area. Kushans spread Buddhism from India in the 1st century B.C., and Buddhism remained an important religion in the area until the 7th century. The Buddhas of Bamiyan were the remainder of Buddhism in Afghanistan. Those giant statues were destroyed by the very religious Taliban in 2001, despite international protests in defence of the priceless art. The Taliban believed that those ancient statues were un-Islamic and a curse on Afghanistan.

Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama Bin Laden. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution.In December 2004, Hamid Karzai became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan. The National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. After winning a second term in 2009, Karzai’s presidency came to an end in 2014. The Afghanistan presidential election of 2014 was controversial, and despite UN supervision there were many allegations of fraud. After a second round of voting, the two frontrunners, Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai and Abdullah Abdullah, came to a power-sharing agreement. Ghani will serve as the president. Despite gains toward building a stable central government, a resurgent Taliban and continuing provincial instability particularly in the south and the east — remain serious challenges for the government of Afghanistan Higher Education Background

The base of higher education is the education. If the base is well qualitative then it will continue with better quality at higher education level. The establishment of the first secondary school named “Habibia” in Kabul in 1903, is a base and the beginning for a modern education in Afghanistan. The detailed history and the situation of education and higher education is pointed in a paper written by [Samady, November 2001] and if you are interested you can refer to that. However the establishment of higher education started in 1930 sand it was continued in the 1950s-1970s. The most phenomena period was after the independence of Afghanistan from the United Kingdom in 1919. The Government was led by King Amanullah Khan who really considered education as a key factor of social and economic development and modernization. On that time the diplomatic and cultural relation of Afghanistan was good with many countries such as Turkey, France and Germany and many students including male and female were sent to these countries for studying for the first time.

After Amanullah Khan, Kabul city was captured by Habibullah Kalakani who had the opposite mind and the education started to backward instead of progress. Generally many regimes came and left Afghanistan and the condition of education was also in changes. InApril1992, Kabul was captured by Mujahedin and established the Islamic State Of Afghanistan. As a result of their fighting most of the buildings, especially most school were damaged and there was lack of human and equipment resources. Due to divisions between different ethics leaders and the bad situation in the country, the government could not have any development in the phase of education. However the international community and the United Nations had plans for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Afghanistan, they could not deploy their plans. In September 1996, Taliban captured Kabul. All girl schools were closed and no female was allowed to go to school or university or work and again the development of education systems and the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Afghanistan have been affected and Afghanistan was completely isolated from the rest of the world [Samady, November 2001]. The ones who handled the education systems were far away from the world and that is why the enhancement of education, knowledge and development of new technology was decreased day by day.

As the result of the war suffering, the libraries and laboratories and other needed equipment were destroyed and some of them were looted and most of textbooks and other reading materials were burned. On the other hand lack of resources such as qualified and experienced teachers and updated curricula, causes the students not to be able to face challenges and develop their education in proper and qualified way in Afghanistan. After a dark period of time the Taliban was beat and the new government was established in 2002. The government started to rebuild and improve all systems specially the education sector which is the base for all other sectors. Many progresses have been made in education sector in these last recent years for instance; the number of students are increased, many new institutions are established, many tries and most of schools and universities are reconstructed and some limited required materials are provided for lecturers and students [Baha, May 2000]. Although there were a lot of improve in the physical infrastructure of the education sectors, the quality of education is still not improved and most institutions run their systems with limited human and equipment resources. Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE)

Establishment of the Faculty of Medicine in 1932, was the start point of modern higher education in Afghanistan. Kabul University was established in 1947 base on some other faculties such as; Faculty of Law in1938, Faculty of Science in1942 and Faculty of Literature in 1944. After the establishment of Kabul University, the Women’s Faculty was established for teacher training which had two sections; science and social studies. The Faculty of Theology and Islam Studies was established in 1951. Afterwards, some other institutions were established in Kabul and other provinces [Samady, November 2001]. Ministry of Education had the responsibility to control the university and handling of the university. The administration was the responsibility of the president of the university, deans of faculties and the University Academic Senate. The MoHE was established in 1977 for the purpose of the development of higher education Institutions in Afghanistan [MoHE]. Then the universities became independent of the ministry of education and all higher education institutions came under the framework of the ministry of higher education.

Therefore the organization and management of the institutions increased by absolute consideration of the ministry of higher education. There were phenomenal development in the sector of higher education in 1960s and 1070s. In 1960 the total number of enrolled students in higher education was 1,700 including 157 female students. In 1975 the total number of academic staff were 1,100 including 64 female lecturers and the number of students increased to 12,260 including 1,680 female students and out of that number, 8,680 of the students were enrolled at Kabul University [Samady, November 2001]. The role for MoHE as a supervisor is to control and direct institutions and programs to have well found systems. The tasks such as teacher training, in service training, establishment of a national higher education curriculum and improving the education system and all related academics for institutions belong to MoHE [MoHE]. In addition, its major plan was to have good partnership with international universities to open a way for information exchange and as well to have scholarships for students to improve their knowledge.

As the information technology is rapidly in progress day by day and Afghanistan is a developing country, MoHE has been trying to improve at least the computer literacy which is really low. Hopefully, it is getting increased in some areas, especially in Kabul. It provides expertise and training in accounting and management procedures and computer literacy. The MoHE also has the role of ensuring that residential accommodation is available for students and teachers of universities and institutes of higher education. Higher education and training systems have considerable changed these recent years [MoHE]. One of the phenomenal activities of MoHE is that Kabul Polytechnic became Kabul Polytechnic University in 2004 and MoHE is involved in the establishment of community colleges too. The Kabul Education University decided to increase the number of students and educate qualified teachers to improve the quality of education in schools and as well institutions. MoHE endeavors to bring higher education level in the levels of international for instance, the application of credit system in universities.

To get more about the world’s higher education MoHE has contact with some international universities around the world through internet [MoHE]. However Afghanistan suffers a lot from more than two decades war, through cooperation and coordination with international community, there are many phenomenal progress in the area of higher education such as; establishment of computer systems in ministry and some universities. Lecturers and students are getting the chance to get scholarships and travel to abroad and be able to continue their higher education and besides those students use their skills and experiences to improve the systems in our country. Publishing magazines and daily and weekly newspapers and the reconstruction of damaged buildings are also activities of MoHE. Translation of books by experts and scientific papers are cast effective in the level of research and make the students interested too. The number of students who can join the universities and institutions annually, has increased from 10,000 to 40,000 [MoHE]. According to [MoHE, 2012] the total number of public and private universities has reached to 69 with 285 faculties, 6361 teachers and 145968 students in 2011-12. Herat University

Herat University established in 1988 with only one Literature facult. Currently it has 11 faculties they are: Medical, Agriculture, Language and Literature, Engineering, Law, Shariya, Education, Economy, Science, Computer Science and Art faculties. Totally it has 5285 students that 3562 of them are male and 1723 of them are female. There are 247 professors that 210 of them are male and 37 of them are female students. Computer Science Faculty of Herat

Examination
An examination, commonly known as exam, is a test to see how good somebody is at something In its widest sense, to examine somebody or something is to look at it very carefully, perhaps to find out why something is not working properly. Someone who is ill may need to go to a doctor to have a medical examination. A machine that is not working properly may need an examination to find out the cause of the problem. In education an examination is a test to show the knowledge and ability of a student. A student who takes an examination is a candidate. The person who decides how well the student has performed is the examiner. An examination may be a written test, an on-screen test or a practical test. Examples of a practical test may be: driving a car, speaking a language, playing a musical instrument and doing a scientific experiment. An on-screen test is a test which uses the computer. A test or examination is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker’s knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics A test may be administered orally, on paper, on a computer, or in a confined area that requires a test taker to physically perform a set of skills. Tests vary in style, rigor and requirements.

For example, in a closed book test, a test taker is often required to rely upon memory to respond to specific items whereas in an open book test, a test taker may use one or more supplementary tools such as a reference book or calculator when responding to an item. A test may be administered formally or informally. An example of an informal test would be a reading test administered by a parent to a child. An example of a formal test would be a final examination administered by a teacher in a classroom. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic. Formal testing often results in a grade or a test score. A test score may be interpreted with regards to a norm or criterion, or occasionally both. The norm may be established independently, or by statistical analysis of a large number of participants. A student who passes an examination may get a certificate or diploma. Some certificates are professional qualifications, allowing the person to do a particular job, e.g. plumber, teacher, doctor, lawyer.

A standardized test is any test that is administered and scored in a consistent manner to ensure legal defensibility. Standardized tests are often used in education, professional certification, psychology, the military, and many other fields. A non-standardized test may be used to determine the proficiency level of students, to motivate students to study, and to provide feedback to students. In contrasts to non-standardized tests, standardized tests are widely used, fixed in terms of scope, difficulty and format, and are usually significant in consequences. Standardized tests are usually held on fixed dates. Ancient China was the first country in the world that implemented a nationwide standardized test, which was called the imperial examination. The main purpose of this examination was to select for able candidates for specific governmental positions. The imperial examination was established by the Sui Dynasty in 605 AD and was later abolished by the Qing Dynasty 1300 years later in 1905. England had adopted this examination system in 1806 to select specific candidates for positions in Service, modeled on the Chinese imperial examination. Types of tests

Written test
Written tests are tests that are administered on paper or on a computer. A test taker who takes a written test could respond to specific items by writing or typing within a given space of the test or on a separate form or document. Multiple Choice

In a test that has items formatted as multiple choice questions, a candidate would be given a number of set answers for each question, and the candidate must choose which answer or group of answers is correct. There are two families of multiple choice questions.[23] The first family is known as the True/False question and it requires a test taker to choose all answers that are appropriate. The second family is known as One-Best-Answer question and it requires a test taker to answer only one from a list of answers. Alternative Response

True/False questions present candidates with a binary choice – a statement is either true or false. This method presents problems, as depending on the number of questions, a significant number of candidates could get 100% just by guesswork, and should on average get 50%. Matching type

A matching item is an item that provides a defined term and requires a test taker to match identifying characteristics to the correct term.

Completion type
A fill-in-the-blank item provides a test taker with identifying characteristics and requires the test taker to recall the correct term. There are two types of fill-in-the-blank tests. The easier version provides a word bank of possible words that will fill in the blanks. For some exams all words in the word bank are exactly once. If a teacher wanted to create a test of medium difficulty, they would provide a test with a word bank, but some words may be used more than once and others not at all. Essay

Items such as short answer or essay typically require a test taker to write a response to fulfill the requirements of the item. In administrative terms, essay items take less time to construct. As an assessment tool, essay items can test complex learning objectives as well as processes used to answer the question. The items can also provide a more realistic and generalizable task for test. Finally, these items make it difficult for test takers to guess the correct answers and require test takers to demonstrate their writing skills as well as correct spelling and grammar. Mathematical questions

Most mathematics questions state a mathematical problem or exercise that requires a student to write a freehand response. Marks are given more for the steps taken than for the correct answer. If the question has multiple parts, later parts may use answers from previous sections, and marks may be granted if an earlier incorrect answer was used but the correct method was followed, and an answer which is correct is returned. CS Exams

Exams of Computer Science Faculty of Herat like other governmental educational organs is according to MoHE laws means each semester has two terms of exam first one is 20% or midterm exam and second one is final exam. Midterm exam is taken in middle of semester and final is taken at the end of semester. Types of question which is used in exams are most: Multiple Choice, written test, alternative choice, completion type and matching type. These exams are paper based, Instructor will review the papers and after a while announce the result. The papers should be keep in a place and the results should register to official department.

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