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Occupational health and safety

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Occupational health is the protection and promotion of the health of the worker, the identification, and control of health risks in the workplace, including not only physical, chemical and biological, but also psychological and social factors that may have adverse effects on health and labor productivity
( Torp, S. & Moen, 2013).

Zain Abbas, et al (2014) stated that occupational health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being for workers in all professions.

Occupational health and safety is a multidisciplinary approach that is mainly focused on the health, safety, and welfare of people who work at work (Schuster, 2011). The safe working environment gives many benefits directly and indirectly. The immediate beneficiaries are the workers themselves as well as the company. Generally, consumers, contractors, insurance companies, families and society are the indirect beneficiaries of occupational safety (Mossink, 2012).

Occupational health and safety can help to improve the employability of workers with the best design in the workplace, provide a healthy and safe working environment, train and evaluate work requirements, medical examination, health examination (Qamar et al., 2014).

The health factor is essential for sustainable social and economic development at the global, global and local levels. The traditional approach to health and safety in the workplace has focused mainly on enforcement of legislation and assessment of premises to ensure compliance with health and safety standards ( Torp, S. & Moen, 2013).

In developing countries, occupational health and safety are more serious due to many factors, such as inadequate medical facilities and the illiterate workforce. There is a lack of reliable data on accidents, deaths and occupational injuries (Hogstedt & Pieris, 2012).

However, most accidents are not reported to the Ministry of Labor until there are no OSH data available. Diseases and accidents are a terrible tragedy in the workplace. Since thousands of workers are routinely exposed to hazardous chemicals, the incidence of occupational diseases and injuries is very high (Leamon, 2013).

The situation of health workers in each country has a direct and direct impact on the national economy. Health workers are the most productive and useful. The textile industry is one of the most dynamic industries in Egypt. Workers are exposed to various environmental factors, especially in the spinning and weaving sectors, which play a role in the high rate of industrial health risks (Burkean, 2012).

High accident rates, occupational diseases, and unhealthy work environments are the product of introducing risk techniques into the industry. The majority of the labor force is illiterate and unfamiliar with preventive measures to be adopted during its work. Most manpower is unwilling to deal with the risks posed by manufacturing and industrial processes (Ahsan & Partanen, 2013).

Most countries do not have the basic and qualified infrastructure to provide occupational health and safety services to the workforce. Therefore, a large number of workers will be at risk if no future attempts are made to improve Oh & S.(Ahsan & Partanen, 2013). The rate of rapid change in working life will also require increased flexibility, taking into account occupational health, hygiene and safety requirements in different workplaces (Leamon, 2013).

The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that nearly 2.2 million people die from work-related causes each year. Every 15 seconds, a worker dies in an accident or a work-related illness. Every 15 seconds, 153 workers have a work-related accident. Every day, 6,300 people die as a result of occupational accidents or work-related illnesses – more than 2.3 million deaths a year. 317 million accidents occur during work each year. Many of these resulted in a long absence of work ( ILO, 2016).
The rate of fabric accidents is high in various fabric processes and takes the form of direct trauma, deformity, bruising, fractures and accidents involving fingers and hands. Accidents are a major cause of absenteeism among workers (El Sewfy et al,. 2012).

Workers’ morale was severely damaged by unsatisfactory industrial conditions. These conditions force workers to leave their jobs (Smallman and John, 2013).

Workers often need to wear protective equipment to protect against injury, illness, and death from workplace hazards (AAOHN, 2012).

The use of proper lighting system is very necessary. This would better prevent the labor force against many eye diseases. The workplace environment is very unhealthy and as a result, workers suffer from allergies, skin diseases, and rashes. The ventilation system of textile plants creates many respiratory problems and diseases among workers (Rana, 2012).

The World Health Organization (WHO) contributes to the idea that the workplace can be a place where accidents, diseases, and health are protected. Moreover, the workplace is able to provide an environment to improve or shape good health. Health workers are industrious and raise healthy families. The health worker plays a vital role in overcoming poverty. Safe environments for workplaces contribute to the development of sustainable development in the country (Qamar et al., 2014).

Health promotion is an essential part of the mandate of a health professional. Doctors, nurses, health workers and health educators will play different roles in promoting health in the workplace and should be trained accordingly. The role of the occupational health nurse is to educate, examine and advise workers, as well as to assess the control of health risks while keeping pace with the development and advancement of health promotion programs ( CDC, 2013).

In Egypt, workers’ safety and health have been a worrying legal issue since the beginning of the last century. The first legislation on occupational health in Egypt dates back to July 1909. It concerns the employment of children in cotton mills. This was followed by a number of laws including sections dealing with the health and well-being of factory workers. Law No. 91 covers the employment of workers, working conditions and occupational safety and health agencies, as well as penal provisions.

The regulations have been developed and gradually expanded to cover all risks and economic sectors. It should be noted that Egyptian legislation on occupational safety and health was widely promoted in July 2003. It now covers a large part of the requirements and provisions of the ILO’s major occupational safety and health Conventions ( WHO,2013 ).

This study went to explore the problems and needs and the factors responsible for maintaining the occupational health and safety of workers in the textile industry. It may be useful in the formulation of educational sessions for textile workers in order to increase awareness of workers’ related to health and safety.

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