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Music is a ubiquitous companion to people’s everyday lives

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There are a lot of studies about the effect of music on memory. Music was defined as a form of entertainment that lessens boredom and it may increase the productivity of a person. There’s music in almost everywhere, for example in parties, events, shows, and more. Music listening is one of the most enigmatic of human behaviors. Most common behaviors have a recognizable utility that can be plausibly traced to the practical motives of survival and procreation. Moreover, in the array of seemingly odd behaviors, few behaviors match music for commandeering so much time, energy, and money. Music listening is one of the most popular leisure activities. Music is a ubiquitous companion to people’s everyday lives. (Schäfer, T., et al., 2013). Listening to music is a common pastime amongst many people more so of students and younger people who listen to music while studying.

Music is very popular these days, especially among college students. Roy (2009, p. 505) stated that it’s unusual for students not to be around music; she explains that this is true because of the increased availability of portable music devices and free music on the internet. Mobile phones, MP3 players, Smartphones and any gadget that plays music instantly is readily available in this generation. People have easy access to music; they can listen to it anytime and anywhere, especially students. Music has now become a part of people’s everyday lives, that’s why some students tend to listen to music even while studying. Anderson and Fuller (2010), found that about 70% of students listen to music while studying. The types of sound or beat they prefer even vary. Some have a taste for Acoustic, Jazz, Pop, Rap, Blues or even Folk songs. It really depends on a lot of factors like culture and environment.
Many different genres of music have been studied as to their effects on different variables.

Electronic Music

An article by Lizzie Renck on how EDM enhances our brain. Music always had somewhat an impact on how we do feel, behave and more. But now Carol. A Smith and Larry W. Morris of Middle Tennessee State University had researched that EDM music or any kind of non-lyrical electronic music has a positive influence on our cognitive functions of the brain. According to Mandala (2016), electronic music (EDM) is very popular around the world and it is the best you can listen to when you´re working because it keeps you active and your brain operates at high speed and with clarity. EDM produces happiness so it helps you to socialize easily.

Rock Music

Rock music is a form of music which is a combination of rock and roll and a pop music. It is a genre of music which was originated as “rock and roll”. Rock music is based on elaborate instruments, especially electric guitars and electric bass, and features a strong bass line and driving rhythm is. This is usually done by rock groups, and while fast dance music is the main form, slow skyscraper songs are also a popular part of the show. It is a song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form but the genre has become extremely diverse. Rock is a common music that teenagers really like to listen than other kinds of genres. Rock music can either hinder or enhance a student’s mental performance, especially in the area of academic study. A variety of research shows it depends on the context. In the concentration and Studying for school, According to a study by Imperial College London, male participants who listened to rock music while performing various tasks had more difficulty staying concentrated. A University of Toronto study confirmed this for teenagers of any gender: listening to fast, loud music hinders the teenager’s ability to study, especially in reading comprehension. While in Creativity, rock music might not help some students while they’re studying, other research from the University of Toronto shows when a young person listens to their favorite rock music before studying followed by studying in silence, it not only increases the brain’s performance, but it also enhances creativity. (McCammon, 2017)

The study showed that when a student listens to their favorite genre of music before studying, no matter which genre it is as long as it’s something they like strongly and are already familiar with, their creativity and performance is boosted. Rock music is effective because its high energy can easily hold a teenager’s attention, and it is memorable ” hooks”–i.e. well-crafted patterns of motifs and riffs that stick in the head–help students memorize concepts when the lessons are tied to rock songs.

A lot of people have been listening to rock music since it was originated way back. People listen to music to ease their anxiety and improve their moods. Rock music helps some people cope with their problems and identify their peers hence rock music has a big following.
According to McCammon (2015), rock music helps teens to gain motivation. They find motivation just by listening to the lyrics of a rock music talking about problems they are going through. Listening to rock music also can help teens to become more tolerant and open-minded. On the other hand, rock music also helps the mood regulation by dancing to the rhythm of the rock music. Teens who suffer from depression forget their problems by means of engaging in healthy activities such as dancing. Mood regulation is one of the most important reasons why people listen to their favorite music. The listeners feel livelier and energized by listening to strong and fast beats. Rock music is also used in physical activities like workouts and intense exercises. Identifying their peers can also be affected. Punk rock music provided young people with a convenient way of expressing their true selves in ways acceptable in the 20th century.

According to a report in the journal Neuroscience of Behavior and Physiology (Pavlygina RA et al., 1999), a person’s ability to recognize visual images, including letters and numbers, is faster when either rock or classical music is playing in the background.

Grade 6 students

Based on Ester Wach (2017), between the age of 6-8 years old, kids are developing a range of strategies to help them recall information. Children often memorize words before they write it some whisper the words under their breath or repeat the letters out loud to help themselves. With the 11-year olds, they use active listening in both formal and informal settings. Kids at this age also apply their existing skills to make sense of longer, more challenging reading material and continue to analyze and evaluate ideas presented in a reading material (Brain Development: Ages 11-13, n.d.)

As stated by Anthony, M. (n.d.), recent research demonstrates that there is a surge in the production of gray matter just before puberty (peaking at age 11 for girls, 12 for boys), largely affecting the frontal cortex of our brain, where executive functions are located. Executive functions include the ability to think, plan, maintain short-term memory, organize thoughts, control impulses, problem solve, and execute tasks. This same research finds myelination of the gray matter develops slowly, with this region not fully maturing until young adulthood. Young teens start to use their amygdala to process emotions and such.

According to Thorne (2009), the memory demands for school-age children are much greater than they are for adults. As adults, we have already acquired much of the knowledge and skills we need to function day to day. Although the knowledge base for some fields such as technology changes rapidly, the new information is generally highly specific and builds on existing knowledge. On the other hand, school children are constantly bombarded with new knowledge in multiple topic areas in which they may or may not be interested. Additionally, they are expected to both learn and demonstrate the mastery of this knowledge on a weekly basis. Thus, an effective and efficient memory is critical for school success. An example added by Thone (2009) said that they may understand the three-step direction they were just given, but forget the second and third steps while carrying out the first step. If they are trying to solve a math problem that has several steps, they might forget the steps while trying to solve the problem. When they are reading a paragraph, they may forget what was at the beginning of the paragraph by the time they get to the end of the paragraph. These students will look like they have difficulty with reading comprehension. In facts, they do; but the comprehension problem is due to a failure of the memory system rather than the language system.

According to Lieury and Lorant (2013), memory has always been considered important for academic achievement. But, knowing the variety of mnemonic Mechanisms, it is not easy to ascertain which of them are concerned in school performance. Indeed, while some indicators of memory are very sensitive to aging or to pharmacological protocols (Lieury, Trebon, Boujon, Bernoussi, & Allain, 1991; Allain, Lieury, & Gandon, 1993), they appear to be correlated only slightly or not at all with school results of pupils or students.

Lieury (2013) stated, that there is an important difference between short-term memory learning and long-term development. It`s possible for students to temporarily store knowledge in long-term memory for hours, or days, or even weeks without permanently filling it away. All new learning must be connected to prior knowledge, but the fewer connections there are, the less the new learning will stick. Isolated bits of information are more difficult to locate and use productively because there are fewer neutral pathways leading to them. That is another reason why it is important to teach new concepts through multiple pathways. If something has been taught verbally, they also deepen the connections with a visual example. If students have been writing about a topic, also have them try to verbalize the information in a class discussion, debate, or a role play.

In the formation that has little meaning for students, such as empty formulas, word forms with no meaning attached, or jumbled concepts, is not deeply integrated into the neural system and will often be quickly forgotten. Meaning is in these neural networks, and to understand classroom content is to activate the relevant neutral connections. A knowledge that is connected to rich webs of schema sticks better and enables students to think more and more like experts (Lieury, 2013).
In summary, the minds of the young adults are starting to change: some develop and some adjust. The researchers selected in this range of age to test their newly developed minds if some really did change their mind or not.
According to United Kingdom legislation, you are obliged to wear hearing protection if you work in an environment with 80 decibels of sound or higher on a daily basis. Pupils talk loudly among each other, one-to-one or in group settings. Yelling and screaming can expose pupils and teachers to dangerous noise levels as high as 130 dB, sometimes resulting in permanent hearing damage. In a quiet classroom setting, it has 40 dB, 60 dB is the average human voice and 70 dB and above the irritating range of sound which also can lead to the health problem more likely hearing loss.

General Memory

Memory is a process that retains, retrieves and uses information that is no longer present (Goldstein, 2011). There have been many researchers (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley, 1986; Cowan, 1988; Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995) that have proposed models and theories in an attempt to explain what memory is and what it does. Memory is an integral part of everyday life. It is required for simple tasks, such as keeping a phone number in mind before dialing it, or for more complex tasks such as learning a mathematical formula to apply to a sum.
Memory is the process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage, it must change the information so that it may put the memory into the encoding storage is the second memory stage or process. Encoding is the receiving of sensory information and transforming it into some form which can be stored. Storing is the process of putting the information into memory. Retrieval is the process of gaining access to the stored information (Morgan et al., 2008).

Memory is a process that keeps, recover and uses information that is no longer present (Goldstein, 2011). There have been many researchers that suggest models and theories that try to explain what memory is and what it does. It is proposed that memory has combines structures including sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory and working memory. Each of these structures gives distinct stages in the memory process and has different time-spans for different information (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley, 1986; Cowan, 1988; Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995).

The interaction of these three processes is required for the proper functioning of memory. Memory failure, that is forgetting, can occur when information has not been properly encoded and stored and therefore, there can be no retrieval (Baddeley, Eysenck and Anderson, 2009).
According to Amir and Malik (2013), the human memory system is a complex system and is difficult to separate its components into different parts. However, in terms of time, capacity, and operations, it is typically divided into 3 types: 1 Sensory memory: The capability of holding sensory information from stimuli received through the 5 senses. Its time duration is very short and occurs in seconds. It works as a buffer in getting the stimuli via the senses. This information is then handed over from sensory to STM through selective attention. 2. Short-term memory: A temporary storage of small amounts of material for a short period, typically up to 15 seconds for approximately 7 items – information generated in STM due to paying attention to sensory memory. 3. Long-term memory: The collection of material over long durations of time; includes unlimited amounts of information.

More of the researchers focused on short-term memory (STM) because it is responsible for immediate recall as it holds information for a short period of time (Baddeley, Eysenck & Anderson, 2009). Most information that is stored in STM is eventually forgotten with a less chance to access long-term memory (LTM). There is a 15 to 20 seconds duration of STM provided there is no rehearsal of information presented (Goldstein, 2011). One measure of STM is digit span which attempts to explain how many digits a person is able to recall. Typically, a person can recall between 5 and 9 digits (Miller, 1956). Krueger and Salthouse (2011) examined the serial position effect and they proposed that the recency effect, where last items on a list are better recalled, due to the most recent items being still readily available in the STM at the time of recall. Krueger and Salthouse (2011) also discovered that recency recall is less dependent on episodic memory than primacy recall or recall of the middle items on a list because of its presence in STM.

Although the modal model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) included sensory memory, STM, and LTM, Baddeley noticed that this model did not account for the ability to perform two simultaneous tasks, for example reading whilst remembering certain numbers (Goldstein, 2011). Consequently, Baddeley (2000) proposed a WM which is an STM storage system as well as having the ability to manipulate the information that is presented.

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