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Multiple Choice

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Choose the correct option for each question.

1. Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of:
a. deoxyribonucleic acid.
b. ribonucleic acid.
c. autosomal genes.
d. recombination genes.

2. Which of the following is NOT one of the many ways that genes can affect behavior?
a. Genes may affect neurotransmitter levels or receptors.
b. Genes can act indirectly by making it more likely you will be raised in a particular environment.
c. Genes themselves cause behavior without any influence of the environment.
d. Genes produce proteins that may make it more likely for a person to become addicted.

3. Nerves from the central nervous system convey information to the muscles and glands by way of the:
a. autonomic nervous system.
b. somatic nervous system.
c. sympathetic nervous system.
d. parasympathetic nervous system.

4. When researchers try to estimate the heritability of a human behavior, what are the main kinds of individuals they consider?
a. Twins and adopted children
b. People from non-western cultures
c. Newborns and infants
d. Uneducated people living in educated societies

5. The sweat glands, adrenal glands, and muscles that constrict blood vessels
have input from only the ____ nervous system.
a. sympathetic
b. parasympathetic
c. central
d. dorsal root

6. The temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex is the primary target for which kind of sensory information?
a. somatosensory, including touch
b. the simplest aspects of vision
c. gustatory
d. auditory

7. Suppose a virus damaged only the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, but not the ventral roots. What would happen to the sensory and motor abilities of the affected area?

a. Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control
b. Loss of both sensation and motor control
c. Loss of motor control, but preserved sensation
d. Unaffected sensation and motor control

8. Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another are:
a. enzymes.
b. mutations.
c. nucleic acids.
d. genes.

9. Color vision deficiency is more common in males than in females because it is controlled by a:
a. sex-limited gene.
b. Y-linked gene.
c. dominant X-linked gene.
d. recessive X-linked gene.

10. The central nervous system is composed of:
a. the brain and spinal cord.
b. all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
c. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
d. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

11. Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?
a. RNA
b. Chromosomes
c. Genes
d. Corduroys

12. In one family, all three children are homozygous for a recessive gene. What can be concluded about the parents?
a. Each parent is also homozygous for the recessive gene.
b. Each parent is heterozygous.
c. One parent is homozygous for the dominant gene; the other is homozygous for the recessive gene.
d. Each parent is either homozygous for the recessive gene or heterozygous.

13. If the spinal cord is cut at a given segment, the brain loses sensation at:
a. that segment only.
b. that segment and all segments above it.
c. that segment and all segments below it.
d. all other segments.

14. Changes in single genes are called:
a. alterations.
b. mutations.
c. mendelians.
d. enzymes.

15. Cortical blindness may result from the destruction of:
a. any part of the cortex.
b. the occipital cortex.
c. the parietal cortex.
d. the central sulcus.

16. Damage to the ____ often causes people to lose their social inhibitions and to ignore the rules of polite conduct.
a. corpus callosum
b. cerebellum
c. prefrontal cortex
d. striate cortex

17. If a trait has high heritability:
a. hereditary differences account for none of the observed variations in that characteristic within that population.
b. the environment cannot influence that trait.
c. it is still possible for the environment to influence that trait. d. the trait is not influenced by heredity.

18. If a person has difficulty determining which of two rhythms is faster, it is likely that she suffered damage to the:
a. cerebellum.
b. forebrain.
c. tectum.
d. medulla.

19. Recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is ____ for them.
a. sex limited
b. homo sapien
c. homozygous
d. heterozygous

20. An impairment of eating, drinking, temperature regulation, or sexual behavior suggests possible damage to which brain structure?
a. Midbrain
b. Hippocampus
c. Hypothalamus
d. Cerebellum

True or False

Choose whether each statement is True or False.

1. Researchers have found specific genes linked to certain specific behaviors. a. Trueb. False

2. The parasympathetic nervous system activates the “fight or flight” response. a. Trueb. False

3. A strand of DNA serves as a template (model) for the synthesis of RNA molecules. a. Trueb. False

4. A tract in the spinal cord would most likely be found in the white matter. a. Trueb. False

5. The limbic system is important for motivation and emotional behaviors. a. Trueb. False

Short Answer

Answer the following questions in 50 to 100 words each.

1. What are the four lobes of the brain? What is each lobe responsible for?

The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and is associated with reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language. The parietal lobe is located in the middle section of the brain and is associated with processing tactile sensory information such as pressure, touch, and pain. The temporal lobe is located on the bottom section of the brain. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is important for interpreting sounds and the language we hear. The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain and is associated with interpreting visual stimuli and information.

2. What makes a behavior hereditary? What factors influence the heritability of behaviors? Genes influence all behavior, but genes are not responsible for any behavior. Having a gene that is linked to a certain behavior does not mean that behavior will be exhibited, because not all genes are expressed.Behavioral genetics is the study of how both genetics and the environment influence individual variations in human behavior. Behavior is a bidirectional process, meaning that genes and the environment both influence each other to affect our behavior. Our behavior is also not caused by a single gene, as this is a reductionist approach. As both one’s genes and one’s environment affect their behavior, genetic inheritance only influences behavior to an extent.

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