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Milestones In Psychology

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1857 Joseph François FĂ©lix Babinski was born. Babinski was a French neurologist who discovered several reflexive signs for diagnosing impairment of the central nervous system. The Babinski reflex of the toes in infants is often used in introductory psychology texts as an example of an innate reflex that disappears with growth of the nervous system. A reflex used to determine adequacy of the higher (central) nervous system. Babinski reflex is one of the reflexes that occurs in infants. Reflexes are responses that occur when the body receives a certain stimulus. 1859 Charles Darwin published the On the Origin of Species, detailing his view of evolution and expanding on the theory of ‘Survival of the fittest.’

Used to describe natural selection. The most “fit” will better adapt to environment. The “unfit” will have less probability of surviving. 1878 G. Stanley Hall received the first American Ph.D. in psychology. He later founded the American Psychological Association. advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people’s lives. 1879 Wilhelm Wundt founded the first formal laboratory of Psychology at the University of Leipzig. Marking the formal beginning of the study of human emotions, behaviors, and cognitions. 1900 Sigmund Freud published ‘Interpretation of Dreams’. marking the beginning of Psychoanalytic Thought. The beginning of Psychoanalytic Thought. Analyzes thoughts when dreaming to explore internal conflicts or repression.

1900 — The College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) was founded. The tests of the CEEB have been intended to provide objective measurements of academic aptitude. It is used to standardize the admissions process administratively. To have a set a curriculum 1905 Alfred Binet’s Intelligence Test was published in France. accurate estimates of intelligence can be acquired by systematic tests across multiple aspects of intelligence. By compiling the data from these tests, the abstract concept of human intelligence can be scientifically analyzed. To measure a student’s general ability 1905 Mary Whiton Calkins is elected the first woman president of the American Psychological Association. It was important to psychology because Calkins paved the way for other women psychologist. Calkins worked hard to strive for equality. 1911 Edward Thorndike published first article on animal intelligence leading to the theory of Operant Conditioning. Is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. For example training a dog to do tricks.

1921 The Pennsylvania state legislature changed the name of the Pennsylvania State Lunatic Hospital to Harrisburg State Hospital, its present name. The name change was typical of reforms in terminology of the time. Pennsylvania’s first public facility to house the mentally ill and disabled. It was a facility to study human behavior. 1927 Percy Tannenbaum was born. Tannenbaum’s work with Charles Osgood and George Suci resulted in the development of the semantic differential technique for measuring the connotative meaning of words and of the congruity model of attitude consistency and change. Measures people’s reactions to stimulus words and concepts in terms of ratings on bipolar scales defined with contrasting adjectives at each end. Ratings are combined in various ways to describe and analyze the person’s feelings.

This is method is used in all hospitals presently 1932 As a 28-year-old graduate student, B. F. Skinner wrote his plan of career goals for ages 30-60: (a) Publish experimental descriptions of behavior, (b) promote behaviorism and operational definitions of psychological constructs, (c) develop a scientific theory of knowledge, and (d) comment on nonscientific theories of knowledge. Skinner analyzed human behavior. He created the operant conditioning, the principle of reinforcement, and verbal behavior. 1937 In a picture story titled “Rat Works Slot Machine for a Living,” Life magazine described the performance of a rat named Pliny the Elder. Using the method of shaping, B. F. Skinner had trained Pliny to pull a chain to release a marble, pick up the marble, and drop it in a box for a food reinforcement.

Method of shaping proved that a behavior can be predicted and controlled. 1943 The American Association for Applied Psychology merged with the APA. The event occurred in New York at a meeting of psychologists planning the role of psychology in World War II. Edwin G. Boring chaired the meeting. Ernest R. Hilgard was chairman of the committee that later wrote the bylaws for the new, reconstituted APA. This merge resulted in a new divisional structure. This increased flexibility in projects. Psychologist can look further deeper into projects and break it down more. 1945 The Journal of Clinical Psychology was founded.

This enabled other psychologist to review other psychologist work on public health. 1975 The New Directions for Research on Women conference began in Madison, Wisconsin. The conference was organized by Julia Sherman and Florence Denmark of the APA’s Committee on Women and chaired by Martha Mednick. The National Institute of Mental Health and the Ford Foundation sponsored the conference. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research has been at the forefront of research on issues and policies that affect Women’s continued participation and leadership in society and politics. It was to achieve more equality for women. 1977 The Parent Interview Kit for the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) was published. Jane R. Mercer was the author of the SOMPA. A system of evaluating the functioning level of children 5 through 11. It measures a child learning potential. 1979 The first meeting of the APA Division 39 (Psychoanalysis) Steering Committee was held at the New York Center for Psychoanalytic Training, the first central office of the division. Reuben Fine was president of the division at this first meeting.

This meeting created the PISP division. Psychologist interested psychoanalysis, 1981 Howard Gardner became the first psychologist to win a MacArthur Prize Fellows award. The awards are made to secretly nominated individuals of exceptional talent and carry no reporting or productivity requirements. Gardner was a Boston University developmental psychologist and neurologist whose Project Zero studied the nature of creativity and its development. Psychologist write many books and articles. Howard Gardner was the first psychologist to win an award for his work. 1982 Howard Gardner’s book Art, Mind, and Brain was published. Discusses the process of human creativity. From a young child learning a song to creating symphony. 1983 The Society for Behavioral Pediatrics was incorporated in Maryland. Sanford B. Freidman was the first president of the society.

At the time, the organization was named the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. This society was created to because to increase widespread of psychosocial problems in children. It was a study to find out where it was coming from and who is responsible for it. 1985 Daniel Stern publishes The Interpersonal World of the Infant and ends the dominance of Margaret Mahler’s psychoanalytic theory of child development This book was important to psychology because it described the development of four interrelated senses of self in a life span. It asks who am i? How did I become the person I am today ? 1988 American Psychological Society established.

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